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Full text of "The Survey October 1922-March 1923"

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INDEX 

Volume XLIX 
October, 1922 — March, 1923 




3. 3.2.^ 



New York 

SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc. 

112 East 19 Street 



HV 

I 

S? 

v.V9 



Index 
Volume XLIX 

October, 1922 — March, 1923 

The material in this index is arranged under authors and subjects and in a few cases 
under titles. Anonymous articles and paragraphs are entered under their subjects. 
The precise wording of titles has not been retained where abbreviation or paraphrase 

has seemed more desirable. 



Aagaard, Thomas, 93 
Abbott, Grace, 521 
Abelman, Max, 812 
Abrams, Albert, 509, 809 
Accidents, child labor and, 802 
Actors, 251 
Adams, C. E., 805 
Adams, John, 365 
Adams, Thomas, 769 
Addams, Jane, 135 



Armenians, 52 

Army Mental Tests, 379, 506 

Arnold, Matthew, 460 

Art 
Amer. Indians (ills.), 1, 12, 13, 14 
In Mexican education, 448 
Negro portraits and painters, 326, 
327 

Art industries, 592 

Art museums, 581, 595 

Ashod, cage of, 171 

Asia Minor, 492 



Additon, H. S., Case work, English Asphalters (ill.), 161 

style, 391 Astor, Lady and Viscount, campaign, 

&dvertising 225 

Smoke casting and billboards, 354 Athens, 579, 596 



For everybody, 194 

Freedom of, 189 

Latest, 259 

List of autumn books, 212 

Short reviews and lists, 397, 405, 
818 

Social, 203 

Speaking of, 194 

Worth mention, 119 
Borah, W. E., Russian recognition 

and, 737 
Boston 

Social workers, number, 812 

South End Almanac, 779 

Working children, report, 239 
Bourg, G. J. L 30 



Swiss chocolate manufacturer, 74, Athletics, college, 302, 529 (letters) Bourne, E. G., 582 



75 

Afghan university for women, 353 
Africa, 591 

Education, 356 
Agencies, national, 497, 499 

See also Nat'l social agencies 



Atlanta, 236 
Atwood, S. M., 3 

Case for the Indian, 7 
Auerbach, M. A., 402 
Auerbach-Levy, William, 
452 



Agricultural Bloc, The (Capper), 395 Austria, land settlements, 317 
Agriculture, Dept. of, use of meat, Automobiles, curbing noise 



and 



325 

Air baths, 109 

Airplane ambulances, 511 

Akron, Ohio, 91 

Alabama, lynching, 626 

Alcohol in Europe, 780 

All-Russian Central Executive Com- 
mittee. 686 

Allen, E. F., 507 

Allen, Justice Florence E. (with por- 
trait), 330 

Allentown, Pa., 547 

Almy, Frederic 

On nat'l social agencies, 654 
Speaking of babies (letter), 404 

Alschuler, Samuel, portrait, 152 

Altmann-Gottheimer, Elizabeth, 283 Bambini (ills.), 320, 321 



speed, 460 
Awnings (letter), 404 

B 
Babies 

Massachusetts injrnction, 52 

Massachusetts injunction (letters), 
260, 261 

Nursery school, 115 

See also Infant mortalitv 
Babouska. See Breshkovsky 
Baby welfare peddlers, 502 
Baku oil fields. 743 
Balsler, Harold, 93 
Baltrusaitis, Joseph, 75 
Bamberger, Louis, 615 



Foundling hospitals, 320 
Amalgamated Clothing 
Russian venture, 733 
Ambulances, airplane, 511 
America 

Feebleminded, 79 

Public fears, 223 



Bancroft, E. A., 46 
Workers, Banks, labor unions', 633 
Banting, F. G., 652 
Barmore, Jennie, 356 
Barn for school, 253 
Barnes, J. H., 619 
Bartholomew, Harland, 769 
Who belongs to? (current issues), Bav "lm, \ 73 . 

5 Baylor University, 382 

America for Coming Citizens (Gold- 5 av !y' H - Wansey, 225 

berger), 528 Bedinger, G. R., 666 

Amer. Assn. for Organizing Family Behavior, 123 

Social Work, 639 Belgium, alcohol, 780 

Amer. Assn. of Social Workers, 267 B e lv . Andrey, 711, 713 
Reorganization, 485 Benjamin, P. L., 129 

Amer. Bar Assn., 325 Bennett, E. L., 75 

Amer. Child Health Assn., 247 Bennett, Edward, 769 

Organization, 652 Bergson 

Amer. Child Hygiene Assn., 224, 247 „ 256 
Amer. Country Life Assn., confer- Berwmd, E. J., 222, 294 

ence, 380 Berwind-White Coal Co.. 485 

Amer. Education Week, 255 Better Times (periodical), 812 

Amer. Engineering Standards Com- Bibliography of civic education, 791 

mittee, 596 Bicknell, E. P., 812 

Amer. Geographical Society, 644 Billboards, 354 

Amer. Indian. See Indians Bing, A. M., 483, 486 

Amer. Labor Year Book, 1921-22, 662 
Amer. Legion, 267 



Boy Scouts 

Movement's policy, 654 

Samples of scouting, 648 
Boyd, D. K., 94 
etching, Brailsford, fl. N., 736 
Brangwyn, Frank 

Book-plate, 133 

Etching, 188 
Branion, R. C, 531 
Bratter, C. A., Cure for seasonal em- 
ployment, 800 
Breckinridge, S. P., 631 
Bregman, Adolph, 547 

Monotony and industrial unrest, 
552 
Breshkovsky, Catherine, 328 

Portrait, 328 

Schools (letter), 816 
Bricks without straw, 317 
Bridgeman, C. T., Exporting Ital- 
ians, 251 
Briggs poster in aid of crippled chil- 
dren, 507 
Brinley, D. P., 417 

Market day (ill.), 418 
Brinton, Christian, 683, 714 
British labor, idealism and respon- 
sibility, 426 
Bronze tablet caster (ill.), 565 
Brooks, W. E., 475, 547, 283 

Letter on railroad strike, 663 

On a statue of Lincoln (verse), 580 

Refuge (verse), 457 

Song in the night (verse), 322 
Brown, Adelaide, Dental hygienists 

(letter), 121 
Brown, Elmer E., 114 
Brown, Mrs. J. Wylie, on orphans in 

Constantinople, 43 
Bruere, M. B., 547, 615 

Nothing to lose but the home, 629 

Patterns, 550 



Bergson and Education (Wheeler), Bruere, R. W. 

" A bit of mellifluous phraseology 



371 



Amer. Prison Assn., 121 
Amer. Public Health Assn. 
Cleveland meeting, 242 
Statement on health protection 
243 
Amer. Relief Administration, 726 
730, 734 



Coal miners dig for the facts, 772 
Bruno, F. J., on nat'l social agencies, 

658 
Brusov, Valery, 748 
Budapest, 44 

Budgets, Wilkes-Barre, 779 
Buehler, J. B., Defense of Albert 
Abrams (letter), 809, 815 
531 Buffalo, medical care, 794 

Birth control bill, 619, 632 Buffalo dancer — Indian portrait, 27 

Black, F. H., on Constantinople Buffalo hide shields, 1 (ills.), 12 

schools, 41 Building boom, 620 

Blackwell, A. S., Breshkovsky Building cleaners, 517 



Chicago's housing struggle, 493 
Bing, Mr 



S. ,H. (L. B. Johnson), 



schools (letter), 816 
Blaine, Governor, 488 
American Vitruvius, The (Hegemann Blankenhorn, M. D., 283 

and Peets), 118 United brotherhood of strap-hang 

Amer. young women (drawings), ers and coal-diggers, 293 

300-301 Blast-furnace shifts, 44 

Americanization Days, 781 Blindness, Wisconsin control, 385 

Analysis of the Interchurch World Blok, Alexander, 711, 713, 748 
Movement Report on the Steel Blount, S. E., 326 

Blumenschein, E. L., 23 
"Boarding mother" speaks, 241 
Bogdanoff, Mr., 721 
Bograchov, Mr. 684 
Bond, Elsie, 684 
Bogue, M. F., 615 

Mothers' pensions, 634 
Bondy, R. E., 666 

On nat'l social agencies, 657 
Apprenticeship and craft revival, 573 Book reviews, 116, 256, 393, 525, By-a-lil-le case. 10 
Arab sheik, 171 659, 806 Byington, M. F., 666 

Arabs, 171 Books 

Arbitration in Norway, 250 Autumn supplement, 185-21* C 

Argentina, Russian r«lief, 737 Children's, 194 ^I^^^^J^*^^J 

Armament reduction, 74 ChiMw'* * *— 

Armenian refugees, 33^ 



Strike (Olds), 659 
Anderson, Mary, 629 
Andrews, Esther, 615 

Drawings, 629-632, 775-776 
Andrews, J. B., 99 
Andreyev, Leonid, 7 1 J 
Anthracite miners, 772 
Anti-Saloon League, 5 n 7 
Apoplexy mortality, 651 



Building funds, raising, 646 
Building industry 

Chicago and Judge Landis, 486, 493 

Metropolitan insurance loans (let- 
ter), 537 

Philadelphia, 94 

Race conflicts in employment, 376 
Buildings and posterity, 768 
Bureau of Vocational Information, 

235 
Bnrk, Frederic, 107 
Burns, A. T., 264, 483, 490, 684 

Famine facts, Russia, 726 

Homeless in Greece, 492 
Bursum Indian bill, 52, 364 

Defeat. 617 
Butler, A. W., 666 
Button making, 551 



Cadbury, George, 328 
Calder, John, 73, 135, 219 
Consider the foreman, 248 
Employers and jobs, 95 
Faith of an industrial engineer, 154 
Unemployment insurance — reply 
(letter), 260 
Calendar reform, 458 
California 

Dental hygienists (letter), 121 
Disabled veterans. 111 
Prohibition (letter), 121 
Vote, correction, 460 
Wine congregations, 366 
Callcott, F. T., 445 
Cameo carver (ill.), 561 
Camp Fire Girls. 781 
Canada, rural education, 791 
Cancer, 247 

Posters, 111 
Capital, duty to labor, 156 
Carlton, F. T., Unemployment in- 
surance (letter), 261 
Carnegie Corporation, 666 
Carnegie Foundation for the Ad- 
vancement of Teaching, 767 
Carney, Jack, 75 
Carolinas and child labor, 620 
Carpenters, 376 
Case work, 522 
English style, 391 
Inter-city cooperation, chart, 639 
Caseworkshop, 522 
Caster of bronze tablets (ill.), 565 
Casuals, Seattle longshoremen, 96 
Catholics and Girl Scouts, 618 
Cattaraugus County, N. Y., 652 
Causes, flyer in, 50 
Causes and Cures for t' : Social Un- 
rest (Finney), 394 
Cecil, Lord Robert, 74 
Cemetery in Russia, 728 
Central American states, 738 
Central Financing of Social Agencies 

(Persons), 396 
Central Park as pasture, 766 
Centrosoyus, 735 
Chamber of Commerce and foreign 

labor, 619 
Champion, Merrill, Have faith in 

Massachusetts (letter), 260 
Chaney, L. W., 99 
Chaplin, Ralph, 30, 53 
Charity Organization Movement, 
The, in the United States (Wat- 
son), 523 
Charity Organization Society, 523 
Chastity, preaching, 226 
Chernov, V. A., 683 
Cheyney, A. S., Orpheus a la mode, 

790 
Chicago 

Anti-noise campaign, 460 
Housing struggle, 486, 493 
Negro concentration (charts), 47 
Race riots, 46 

Transportation contacts and race 
hatred, 90 
Child, Stephen, 267 
Child health 

Deflation (i. e., merger of organ- 
izations), 224, 247 
" Healthland " exhibit, 246 
Publicity, posters and drawings, 
244, 245 
Child Health Org., 224, 247 
Cartoons from a program, 387 
Drawings, 244, 245 
Child labor 

Are child workers safe? 802 
Comparative maps of laborers and 

illiterates, 357 
Congress and, 363 
Constantinople, 42 
Constitutional amendments, 620 
Waste, 239 
Child placement, 241 

Cleveland, 638 
Child welfare, bookkeeping, 106 
Childhood, creative, 567 
Childhood Training (Patri), 257 
Children 
Air bath and sun treatment, 109 
Books for, 194 
Books f ?r. w " " J 






IV 



Ind 



Early-to-bed story from Prague, 
792-793 

Health, 102 

Health education, 107 

Homicide, 237 

Institutions, 392 

Milk and, 387 

Of unmarried parents, Ontario, 524 

Russian training and education, 
696 

South Africa, 392 
Children's Bureau, Report and prog- 
ress, 521 

Report on working children of 
Boston and vicinity, 239 
Children's code commissions, 799 
Children's Welfare Federation, 239 
China, quack medicine poster, 510 
Christmas 

Serbian, 306 

Spirit and the churches, 323 
Christmas seals, 383 
Church, Community, 94 
Church in America, The (Brown), 

393 
Cincinnati 

Community chest, 766 

Financial federation, 232 

Mental health, 384 
Cities 

Charters and health, 110 

Constantinople, administration, 39 

Conurbations, 94 
Citizenship, 594 

Women in the United States, 231 
City planning, 370 

Homely arguments for (ills.), 236 

New York, 769 

Overgrown city, 85 

Step by step plan, 501 
City toilers (5 etchings), 157-161 
Civil Service, 364 
Claghorn, K. H., 461 
Clarke, T. E., 592 
Clarksburg, W. Va., 221 
Cleaning women, 517 
Cleveland 

Community Fund — Donahey car- 
toons, 368 

Engineers' Bank, 633 

Federated finance, 89 

Financial federation, 232 

Health and Hospital Survey, 387 

Orphans, 638 
Cleveland, Elizabeth, 417 

'Twixt infancy and alphabet, an 
educational experiment, 445 

v Climatic Cnanges (Huntington and 

Visher), 259 
Clinics 

Cornell, 794 

Manhattanville, 110 

Mental, 765 
Clock-tower for Liege, 51 
Clothing in Russia, 726 
Clothmakers' parade in Nuremberg 

(ill.), 575 
Coal, New York subway, 222 
Coal Commission 

First report, 596 

Portraits of members, 152, 153 

What lies before, 149, 169 

What the public wants of, 518 
Coal industry 

Anthracite miners dig for the facts, 
772 

Coal commission and, 149 

Gamble of (letter), 663 

Hylan's committee report, 485 

Miners still on strike, 53 

New York Subway and, 293 

Russia, 720 

Strike results, 459 

Why the railroad strike failed and 
the coal miners won, 436 
Coffee, R. I., 351 

Stamping out the wine congrega- 
tions, 366 
Cohen, M. R., 684 

Liberalism and the Russian Mind, 
731 
Colcord, J. C, 483 

The C. O. S. looks forward, 523 
Cole, L. C, 638 

College student speaking tour, 382 
College women, 353 
Colleges 

Athletics (letters), 520 

Football, 302 

New liberal-Reed College. 503 

Problem of attendance, 114 
Collier, John. 3 

The red Atlantis, 15 
Colonia, 441 

Colonial kitchen (ill.), 582 
Common sense (social studies), 262 
Common welfare, 73, 221, 353, 485, 

617, 7§5 
Communications, 120, 260, 400, 529, 

663, 809 
Communities, 89, 231, 366, 497, 643, 

777 
** "''- a- ■*■ '■'•— of men, 576 



Community organization, 219 

Financing, 219, 232 
Company unions, 265 
Compensation. See Workmen's com- 
pensation. 
Compton, G. B., 267 
Conception, preventing, 619 
Congress 

Immigration law, 771 

Progressives in the Sixty-eighth, 
358 

Social legislation prospect in Sixty- 
seventh, 363 
Connellaiij Robert, 30 
Conrad, Sherman, 531 

Letting the public in, 779 
Constantinople, 171 

American social survey, 36 

Nationality map, 36 
Consumers' Cooperative Societies 

(Gide). 659 
Consumers League, feature of an- 
nual meeting, 375 
Contraceptive information, 619 
Conurbations, 94 
Cook, H. N., 417 

France's new victory (sketches), 
413, 429-435 
Cooley, C. H., 475 

Heredity and instinct in human 
life, 454 
Cooper, C. C, on nat'l social agen- 
cies, 655 
Cooperation 

Farmers, marketing, 487 

International, plea for, 450 

Russian movement, 735 

Study of, 767 
Cooperative milk, 374 
Copeland, R. S., 331 
Copp, Tracy, 631 
Corbett, H. W., 766 
Cordova, N. M., 15 
Corn Products Refining Co., 91 
Cornell Clinic, 794 
Corporation management, 497 
Concha, John, 13 
Country life 

American Country Life Assn. pro- 
gram for annual conf., 73 

Pastors at University of Wiscon- 
sin conf., 112 
Country Life Ass'n., conf., 380 
County and Township Government 
in the United States (Porter), 
806 
County fair, poster, 225 
Courts, 289, 325 
Covington, Va., 106 
Craftsmanship 

Apprenticeship and, 573 

Golden age (ill.), 572 

Mechanics and, 592 

Organization and market, 594 
Crawford, Ruth, 475 

Piloting the bomb squad, 461 

Standing pat on the quota law, 771 
Creative childhood, 567 
Credit unions, 632 
Crichton-Browne, Sir J., 226 
Crimes 

Detroit and, 388 

Law of, 291 

Records, 370 
Criminal Court Building, New York, 

mural paintings, 289, 290, 291 
Crippled children, 507 
Cripples, jobs for, 799 
Croxton, F. C, 76 
Cure-alls, 509 
Culture, Proletarians in Russia, 690, 

736 
Current issues, questions on, 5, 123, 
181, 263, 343, 399, 477, 533, 605, 
665, 753, 811 
Czecho-Slovakia 

Children-story in pictures, 792-793 

Educational ideal, 641 

Insurance, 511 

Libraries, 781 



Dairylea, 766 

Dallas, Civic Federation, 402 

Dana, J. C, 547, 595 

A museum of service, 581 
Danger, 566 
Darwinism, 382 
Daugherty, Att'y Gen., 31 
Davey, Randall, 27 
Davis, A. O., 684 

Tolstoy's magic rod, 698 
Davis, Governor (of Kansas), 359 
Davis, O. W., 666 

Deaver, G. G., on recreation in Con- 
stantinople, 40 
Defeated (ill), 437 
Defective Delinquent and Insane, The 

(Cotton), 257 
DeForest, R. W., 666 
Delaware, social workers' conf., 812 
Delinquency 

Dealing with defective delinquents 
> -' v. 81 

— -tu-V IQfc , , 



Democracy, 154 
D.enmark 

Community singing, 93 

Education movement, 377 
Dental hygienists (letter), 121 
Denver 

Financial federation, 232 

Tuberculosis sanitarium, 111 
Dependent children 

Cleveland, 638 

Ontario, 391 
Desertion of children, 392 
Des Moines, 233 
Detroit 

Breakwater for crime wave, 388 

Markets, 234 

Tuberculosis Society posters, 244, 
245 
Detroit Community Fund, 89 
Devine, E. T., 135 

Institute, 264 

Portrait, 152 
Diabetes, 510 

Can it be checked? 650 
Dickinson, R. L., 644 
Dieck, Mrs. Robt. G-, 390 
Directors, Boards of, 300 
Disarmament, 74 
Discovery, logic of (social studies), 

752 
Disease, 596 
District of Columbia 

Legislation under way, 363 

Minimum wage decision, 324 
Dock, Lavinia L., 670 

Letter on National Woman's Par- 
ty, with reply, 530 
Doctor, who's to pay? 794 

See also Physicians 
Dolomite coal mine, 355 
Donahey cartoons for Cleveland Com- 
munity Fund, 368 
Donetz Basin, 721 
Dovid, Reb Sholom, 453 
Downing, Mortimer, 30 
Drama 

American actors, 251 

Russia, 707 
Dramatized economics, 640 
Drawings by children, 567 
Dump, The (ill.), 157 
Dunn, R. W., 684, 727 
Dunton, W. H, 6 
Dust explosions, 355 
Dutch woodcut (craftsmanship), 572 
Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill, 363 

E 
Early-to-bed storv, 792-793 
Eaton, G. D., 382 
Economics 

Dramatized, 640 

Russian policy and the trade 
unions, 703 
Economics of Unemployment, The 

(Hobson), 662 
Eden colony, Austria, 317 
Edinger, Anna, 109 
Education, 112, 252, 377, 503, 640, 
788 

Africa, 356 

Canada, rural, 791 

Civic, bibliography, 791 

Constantinople, 41 

Credit versus knowledge, 114 

Experiment, nursery school, 445 

Farmers, 73 

Federal Department, 618 

Federal scheme, 791 

Fundamental defects, 252 

Mexico, 54 

National, 115 

Pritchett's views, 767 

Runaway horse. 506 

Schools and, 33 

What is a liberal education? 377 
Education on the Dalton Plan (Park- 
hurst), 256 
Education Week, 255 
Educational Experiments, Bureau of, 

115 
Educational Sociology (Snedden), 394 
Eighteenth Amendment, 366 
Flection results, 324 
Elk Basin 

Conditions in oil production, 137. 
168 

Pumper (ill.). 136 
Ellis Island, conditions, 75 
Ellwood, C. A., Letter on Hart's re- 
view of his book, 670 
F.l Paso, immigration conditions, 222 
Electronic reactions, 809, 815 
Elyria, 507 
Emerson, Haven, 794, 809 

Doctor to teacher to child, 107 

Health worker's creed, 242 
Omnipotent oscilloclast, 500 

Reply to letters on Albert Abrams, 
815 
Emigration 

Italian, Swiss and Dutch. 222 

Italian regulation, 222, 251 
Employer;: safeguarding jobs. 9S 
Employes' association (letters), 261 
Employment 

PubliJ, systematic, 618 



Engineer's letter, 497 

Comments on, 653 
England 

Case work, 391 

Conservatism and lethargy, 221 

Conurbations (map), 94 

New parliament and labor, 353 

Standardized schools, 381 
English, H. B., 71, 73 

Is America feebleminded? 79 
English Prison System, The (Rug- 

gles-Brise), 116 
English Prisons Today (Hobhouse 

and Brockway, edits.), 116 
English Prisons Under Local Gov- 
ernment (Webb), 116 
Envy, spirit of, 17S 
Epidemics, Rockefeller Foundation, 

and, 247 
Epstein, Abraham, 71 

Mutual Relief in Russia, 86 
Espionage cases, 75 
Estelle and Sam, 775 
Eugenical Sterilization in the United 

States (Laughlin), 798 
Eugenics, 485 

Europe, alcohol restriction, 780 
Evans, M. L., 639 
Eve (verse), 300-301 
Eversole, H. O., 684, 726 
Evolution, 382 



Factories, Swiss, 98 
Factory labor and farm labor, inter- 
change, 800 
Facts, struggle for, 486 
Facts for workers (review), 98 
Fair. See county fair 
Family agencies, 523 
Family organization (letter), 815 
Family work, 639 
Famine, Russia, 726 
Fargo, N. Dak., 652 
Fanes, J. C, Sterilization and so- 
cial inadequacy, 798 
Farm labor and factory labor, inter- 
change, 800 
Farm produce, marketing, 233 
Farmer, S. J., 590 
Farmer, The, and His Community 

(Sanderson), 525 
Farmers 

Books on, 525 
Cooperative marketing, 487 
Discontent (letter), 120 
Education, 73 
Farming, feebleminded labor, 439 
Farrill, Otto, 326, 327 
Fascisti, 267 
Fates (ill.), 290 
Fausek, U. I.. 694 
Fawcett, C. B., 94 
Fears (social studies), 664 
Federal Coal Commission. See Coal 

Commission 
Federal Department of Education, 

Health and Welfare. 618 
Federation Trust Co., 633 
Federations. See Financial federa- 
tions 
Feeblemindedness, 649 
High cost, 796 

Is America feebleminded? 79 
Some adventures among the fee- 
bleminded, 310 
Some more adventures among the 
feebleminded, 439 
Feis. Herbert, 351 

The Kansas court and the national 
strikes, 372 
Ferdinandov, Mr., 710 
Fiction, tendency in, 192 
Fields, G. H., Negro student in 

mixed school (letter), 403 
Fieser, J. L., on nat'l social agen- 
cies, 658 
Finance and labor, 632 
Financial federations, 353 
Fundamentals, 89 
Organization, 232 
Shall they raise capital funds? 646 
What agencies shall be admitted? 
367 
Firemen (ill.), 160 
Kisher, C. J., on nat'l social agen- 
cies, 654 
Fleisher, Florence, 135 

Prophets in their own country, \^2 
Florence foundling hospital, 320 
Florida, lynching, 626 
Folk music, 221 
Folks, Homer, 386 
Folsom, J. K., College athletics 

(letter), 529 
Food 

Politics and, 365 
Vitamins in, 782 
Kootball in colleges. 302 
Ford. Henry, his book, 527 
Foreign affairs, public ignorance of, 

617 
Foreign Language Information Serv- 
ice. 483. 512513, 531 
Foremen in industry, 248 
* It in the road — story, 81 

A 310. 439 - 



Index 



Forty Years of Landscape Architec- 
ture, Vol. I (Olmsted), 818 
Fosdick, H. E., 141 
Fosdick, R. B., 636 
Foster, N. B., 615, 618 

Can diabetes be checked? 650 
Foster, W. T., 503 
Foulke, W. D., 597 
Foundling hospitals, 320 
Fox, H. F., Prohibition in Califor- 
nia (letter), 121 
France 

Labor conditions, 329 

New victory (sketches), 413, 429- 

435 
Ruhr (cartoon), 624 
Frankfort on the Main, 109 
Franklin Cooperative Creamery, 374 
Freedom of opinion, speech and 

teaching, 619 
Freeville, N. Y., 82 
Freund, Ernst, Uniform illegitimacy 

law, 104 
Friedenstadt, 318 
Friedrich, Joachim (with portrait), 

463 
Furness, C. E., 171 
Furuseth, Andrew, 632 



Galbreath, J. C, 424 

Galoshes, 506 

Galpin, C. J., 370 • • 

Galton, Francis, 485 

Gamio, Manuel, 54 

Gates, C. T., 36 

Gates, R. P., 264 

Gem engraver and apprentice (ill.), 

561 
Geneva, International Labor Organi- 
zation, 450 
Genoult, Mr., 583 

George, W\ R, The jail inside your- 
self, 82 
George Junior Republic, 71, 82 
Georgia, lynching, 626 
Germany 

Interchange of farm and factory 

work, 800 
National standards in industry, 518 
Pensions and the mark, 390 
Prohibition, 590 
Ruhr (cartoons), 625 
Students fight for existence, 642 
Sun treatment in children's camps, 
109 
Gill, Eric, 322 
Gilman, C. P., If you are queer — 

and know it, 773 
Gilson, M. B., 629 
Girl Scouts and Catholics, 618 
Girls' industrial school — hell-cat, 626 
Give Me the Young (Holmes), 256 
Giving, scheme for Lansing, Mich., 

370 
Glasgow University and H. G. 

Wells, 255 
Glueck, Bernard, 71 

The psychiatric attitude, 105 
Godfrey, E. C, 75 
Good impulses (social studies), 476 
Gooseflesh, 223 

Gordon, Ruth, The forgotten indus- 
try, 514 
Gorky, Maxim, 713 
Goubkin, I. M., 743 
Gould, K. M., 531 
Government, goals of (A. E. Smith), 

419 
Governors, what the newly elected 
will do with industrial and labor 
situations, 488 
Governors' inaugurals, 459 
Grachovka, 726, 727, 728, 729 
Graham, Sylvester, 784, 785 
Greece, 596 

Relief needed, 485 
Greeks 

Constantinople, 36 
Refugees, 336 * 
Grigorieff, Boris, 683, 710, 712, 714- 

719, 735 
Grigorjen, B., 328 
Grossman, J. S., The gulf between 

(verse), 35 
Group life (social org. course), 5 
Groups, 181 

How they grow (social org. 

course), 343 
What makes? (social org. course), 
263 
Gruenberg, B. C, 115 
Grundtvig, N. F. S., 377 
Guilds 

Apprentices and, 574 
Art and trade relationship (ill.), 
572 

H 

Habit, 4, 122, 556 

Hackett, J. D., Unemployment insur- 
ance (letter), 260 

Hagopian, A. D., 37 

Hafbert, L. A., on nat'l social 
agencies, 668 

Half Century of Public Health, A 
(Smith), 117 



Hallinan, C. T, Prophylaxis and 

politics, 225 
Hamilton, Alice, Sun baths for rick- 
ets (letter), 261 
Hamilton, Norah, 547 

Creative childhood, 567 
Hammond, J. H., portrait, 153 
Hand, Mildred, Making men and 

women over, 240 
Harding, W. G., and Leavenworth 

men, 31 
Harlow, S. R„ 77 
Harris, A. E., Rural leaders who 

study their jobs, 112 
Harrisburg, Pa., Mothers' Assistance 

Fund, 634, 635 
Hart, H. ,H., 
On efficiency, 106 
Skyscraper jail, 100-101 
Hart, J. K. 

Faculty loses the ball, 302 
Letters on his article on college 

athletics, 529 
Rebirth of science, 191 
Reply to C. A. Ell wood, 671 
Salvation by luncheon, 365 
Unprintable text book, 33 
Why men work, 555 
See also Current issues ; Social 
organization, study course; So- 
cial studies 
Hartford, recreation, 502 
Hartman, E. T., College athletics 

(letter), 529 
Harvard University 

Industrial hygiene courses, 99 
Problems, 114 
Stadium and football, 302 
Haskell, W. N., 531 
Hathaway, Winifred, 351 

Saving sight, 385 
Hawaii, immigrants, 487 
Hawley, Edith, 387 
Haynes, Rowland, on nat'l social 

agencies. 653 
Headrick, W. C, 531 
Health, 107, 242, 383, 507, 649, 782 
Children, 102 
City charters, 110 
Community and individual, 618 
North Dakota, 110 
Occupation and, 596 
Problem of (social org. study 

course), 533 
Relief and, 386 
State control, 356 
See also child health 
Health worker's creed, 242 
Healthland, 246 
Hedrick, A. W., 531 
Hell-cat, 628 
Henri, Robert, 26 
Heredity, instinct and, in human 

life, 454 
Heredity and Child Culture (Cha- 

pin), 661 
Herron, J. W., 803 
Hewins, Katherine, 639 
Hibben, Paxton, 483 
Hibbs, R. A., 812 
Higgins, Vinton, 18 
Highways, 370 
Hinckley, T. L, What about the 

small town? 91 
Hine, L. W., 547 
Hands — work portraits, 545, 559- 
565 
History of Medicine, The, in Its 

Salient Features (Libby), 662 
History of Social Thought, A (Bo- 

gardus), 394 
Hoffmann, Anton, 684 
Hoffmann, Arthur, 437 
Hope, R. W., 29 
•Hoick, Jorgen (with portrait), 464, 

465 
Holland, emigration, 222 
Home 

Organizing (letter), 815 
Women's industry and, 629 
Homicide, juvenile, 237 
Honor*, Paul, 244 
Hoover, H. C, 224, 247 
Hope for the future (cartoon), 616 
Hopi Indians, 16 

Portrait of a girl, 23 
Hopkins, E. M., 114 
Hopkins, H. L. 264 
Hopper, Edward, 284 
Horse, runaway, intelligence, 506 
Horton, Loton, Milk (letter), 400 
Hospitals 

Crippled children, 508 
Foundling, 320 
Hotel workers, 514 

Letter on, 536 
Housing 

Chicago struggle, 486, 493 
Internat'l conf. on, 486 
Italian, 486, 498 
Lower rents? 620 
Wellington, Kan., 368 
Howat, Alexander, 359 
Howe, F. C, 113 
Howell, Clark, portrait, 153, 331 
Hughes, C. E., on terms of trade 

with Russia, 737 
Hull House, children's drawings, 567 



Human life, heredity and instinct in, 

454 
Hungarians, 44 
" •Hunkies," 44 
Hunt, Governor, 489 
Hunzicker, Mrs. B. B., 615 

The hell-cat, 628 
Hylan, J. F., 293 

Coal committee report, 485 



Ideals of France, The (Cestre), 661 

Idleness in jails, 595 

Ignorance in judges (current issues), 

533 
Ihlder, John, 236 
Illegitimacy, uniform law, 104 
Illinois, new constitution, 355 
Immigrant madonna (ill-), 281 
Immigrant's Day in Court, The 

(Claghorn), 461 
Immigrants and law, 461 
Immigration 

Congress and, 771 

Ellis Island conditions, 75 

New bills on, 487 

Pamphlet on, 502 

Ports of entry and problems, 222 

Quota law, 336, 354 
Impulses, good (social studies), 476 
Incapacity, 523, 524 
Incentives in the New Industrial 

Order (Hobson), 526 
India, opium eating, 766 
Indian Affairs, Bureau of, 19, 57 
Indiana 

Tuberculosis Ass'n, 402 

Vocational education, 642 
Indiana School for the Feeblemind- 
ed, 310, 439 
Indianapolis, Family Welfare So- 
. ciety, 129 
Indians 

Case for the Indian, 7 

Portraits, 21-28 
Individual, The, and the Commu- 
nity (Roper), 259 
Individual adjustment (social org. 

course), 181 
Industrial art, 592 
Industrial engineer, faith of, 154 
Industrial engineering, 249 
Industrial Engineers, conf., 249 
Industrial hygiene, Harvard courses, 

99 
Industrial organization (social org. 

study course), 753, 811 
Industrial relations 

Governors, newly elected, and, 488 

Kansas Court, 372 
Industrial Unionism in America 

(Savage), 256 
Industrial unrest and monotony, 552 
I. W. W., 29 

Department of Justice and, 462 
Industry, 95, 248, 371, 514, 629, 800 

Constantinople, 38 

Organization (study course), 665 

Posse comitatus in (Chicago), 493 

Russian, 703, 744 

Russian miners and metal work- 
ers, 720 

Standardization of products, 596 

What men desire, 155 
Infancv and alphabet, nursery school, 

445 
Infant mortality 

Massachusetts, 260, 261 

Michigan, 111 
Inferiority, 79 
Inman, S. G., 3, 54 
Insanity, 243, 649 
Insect hunt (ills.). 584 
Instinct and heredity in human life, 

454 
Institutions, 33 

Rise (social org, study course), 
399 

State care of children in, 392 
Insulin, 510, 650 
Insurance in Czechoslovakia, 511 
Intellect, limitations (social stud- 
ies), 398 
Intellectual life, 252 
Intelligence tests, 79, 378, 506 
Interborough Rapid Transit Co., 

222, 294 
Internat'l Labor Office, American 

participation, 619 
Internat'l Labor Organization, 450 
Intolerance in Oregon, 76 
Introduction, An, to Rural Sociol- 
ogy (Vogt), 525 
Introduction, An, to the Psychology 

of Education (Drever), 256 
Invention and employes (letters), 261 
Irish granny (ill.), 299 
Iron and steel industry accidents, 99 
Iron man (current issues), 605 
Isolation (current issues), 753 
Italian immigrants, 354 
Italy 

Emigration regulation, 222, 251 

Fascisti, 267 

Housing movement, 486, 498 
Ivan, an allegory, 686 



Ivanov, Vsevolod, 749 
Ivanov, Vyacheslav, 711 



Jacobstein, Meyer, 331 

Jadelot, J. J., 557 

Jail inside yourself, 82 

Jails 

Idleness in, 595 

Skyscraper jail, proposed, 100-101 

James, Harlean, 615 

About this season, plan parks, 643 

Japanese social work, 171 

Jaspar, Paul, 501 

Jean, S. L., on nat'l social agencies, 
656 

Jellinek, Camilla, Earning an educa- 
tion, 642 

Jellyfish (cartoon), 616 

Jesse and Jerry, 81 

Jewelry designer (ill.), 560 

Jewish Center, The (periodical), 812 

Jewish charities, 267 

Jews 

California wine congregations, 366 
Harvard University and, 114 

Joffee, Olga, 684 

Johnson, Alexander, 283, 417 

Children who never grow up, 310 
Message to Red Cross, 264 
Mixed crops — some more adven- 
tures among the feebleminded. 
439 

Johnson, C. R., 3, 171 
Constantinople, 36 

Johnson, C. S., 46, 236 

Johnson, ,H. M., 115 

Johnson, L. B. Bee Bing, Mr*. 

Johnstone,' E. R., 311 

Tones, Mark M., 636 

Jones, Thos. Jesse, 356 

Jordan, Virgil, Ventilating ventila- 
tion, 383 

Journal of the American Medical 
Ass'n, 510 

Judges, ignorance among (current 
issues), 533 

Justice 

Immigrants and, 461 
Machinery and laxity, 325 

Justice (ill.). 289 

Justice, Dep't of, 462 

Jutland, 93 

Juvenile homicide, 237 



K 



Kaetelhocn, Hermann, 801 
Kagawa, Mr., 171, 172 
Kalinin, M., message from, 162 
Kamerny Theater, 708, 709, 710 
Kansas 

Court and national strikes, 372 

Housing in Wellington, 368 

Ma and Mr. Davis, 359 

Matter with, 353 
Kansas City, 233 
Kauffman, R. W., 173 
Keezer, D. M., Dramatized econom- 
ics, 640 
Keene, Charles, 326, 327 
Kelley. Florence, 267, 630, 670 

Reply to Lavinia L. Dock, 530 

Right to differ, 375 
Kellogg, P. U., on Helen Sherman 

Pratt, 549 
Kelly, Bessie, The cop will get you, 

505 
Kelso, J. J., 524i 
Kennedy, A. J., 779 
Kentucky, 402 

Baptists and evolution, 382 
Kepford, A. E., 392 
Keppel, F. P., 666 
Kew Gardens, Long Island, 502 
Kildal, Arne, Compulsory arbitration 

in Norway, 250 
King, Anna, 763 

Who's to pay the doctor? 794 
King, C. L., 622, 623 
King, E. S.. 485 
Kingsley, S. C, on nat'l social 

agencies, 669 
Kirby, Rollin, 524 
Kirchwey, G. W., 768 
Kitchen, colonial (ill.), 582 
Knight, F. B., 382 
Kobe, 171 

Kroschlova, Nadia, 792 
Kroupskaya, N. K. See Lenin, 

Madame 
Ku KIux Klan in Oregon, 76 



Labaree, M. S., Rosina, 230 
Labor 

British — idealism and responsibil- 
ity, 426 

Capital and, 154 

Capitalistic venture, 733 

Facts for workers, 98 



VI 



I nde 



Farm and factory, interchange, 800 

Foreign standards and the United 
States, 619 

French, 329 

Internation'l Labor Organization, 
4S0 

Russia — miners and metal work- 
ers, 720 

Selling labor (letter), 401 
Labor banks, 632 
Labor Bureau, Inc., 98 
Labor Movement, The, and the 

Farmer (Robbins), 39S 
Labor Party in Winnipeg, 590 
LaFollette, R. M., 324 
Laid off (drawing), 72 
Laidlaw, Walter, 361 

Who lives in New York? 361 
Lamont, T. W., 74 
Land settlements of Austria, 317 
Landazuri, Elena, 55 
Landis, K. M., 486< 493 
Lane, R. P., Salvation by luncheon 

(letter), 663 
Lane, W. D., 135 

Comments on his article on milk 
(letters), 400 

Milk industry — present organiza- 
tion in New York City, 227 
Langerhans, islands of, 651 
Langworthy, C. F., 325 
Lanier, Sidney, 31 
Lansing, Mich., scheme for giving, 

370 
Larkin, James, 619 
Lasker, Bruno 

Never-never land, 193 

Taking a flyer in good causes, 50 
Lasker Memorial Fund, 111 
Laughlin, H. H., 798 
Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memo- 
rial, 666 
Lavrentievna, Natalie, 729 
Law 

Immigrants and, 461 

Respect for, 325 

Respect for and obedience to 
(current issues), 343 

Seeking the law in vain, 289 
Law, The, of City Planning and 

Zoning (Williams), 807 
Lay, C. D., 502 
League of Nations 

Disarmament discussion, 74 

Opium and, 765 
League of Red Cross Societies, 167 
Leavenworth, 29 
Ledbetter, E. E., 283 

My Serbian Christmas, 306 
Lee, Joseph, 547 

Community as maker of men, 576 

On nat'l social agencies, 653 
Legends of Smokeover, The (Jacks), 

808 
Legislation in the Sixty-seventh 

Congress, 363 
Lenin, Madame, 684 

A nation at school, 694 
Lenroot, Katherine, 531 
Leupp, F. A., 19 
Lewis, Read, 531 
Libby, F. J., 323 
Liber, Benzion, 510 
Liberalism and the Russian mind, 

731 
Libraries, 194 

Czecho-Slovakia, 781 

Standardization in, 115 
Liege, clock tower, 501 
Life 

An achievement, 576 

Expectancy, 323 
Liggett, D. t, 531 
Lincoln, Abraham (silhouette), 190 
Lindeman, E. C, Realism and rural 

progress, 380 
Literature in Russia, 711, 736 
Little Book, A, on Water Supply 

(Garnett), 808 
Liverpool system, 232 
Livestock industry, 325 
Living Wage, 221 

Railroad Labor Board and, 371 
Lloyd George, David, 221 
Lofting, Hilary, 547 

Danger, 566 
Logan, J. C, 264 

On nat'l social agencies, *54 
London Charity Organization So- 
ciety, 191 
Long, Cedric 

Cooperative milk, 374 

Labor banks and cooperative 
credit unions, 632 
Longevity in New Zealand (letter), 

404 
Longshoremen in Seattle, 96 
Longuet, Jean (with portrait), 329 
Loomis, Mrs. A. F., 792 
Looms 

iHand loom for silk curtains (ill.), 
564 

Tapestry (ill.), 583 
Loree, L. F., 506 
Louderback, J. L., Visiting teacher's 

work (letter), 816 
Louisiana, lynching, 626 
Lowden, F. O., 46 



Lozovsky, Abraham, 684 

Russian economic policy and the 
trade unions, 703 
Lunacharskaya, Anna, 684 

Children of the Revolution, 696 
Lunacharsky, A. V., 684, 708, 736 

Proletarian culture, 691 
Luncheon and politics, 365 

France (letter), 663 
Lusk, Graham, 763 

The commercial cult of vitamins, 
784 
Lusk Laws, 619 
Lvovna, Alexandra, 694, 698 ' 
Lynching, where it is a habit, 626 
Lynd, R. S., 135, 167 

Done in oil, 137 
Lynde, E. D., 402 

On nat'l social agencies, 657 



M 



MacAloney, T. S., 812 

McCaleb, W. F., 633 

McCartney, R. I., obituary, 812 

McCoy, Bill, 422 

McCullough, Ernest, Can intelligence 

be measured? 378 
MacDonald, Ramsay, - 427 

Portrait with family, 428 
Machar, J. S. , on education, 641 
Machinery, men and (current is- 
sues), 605 
McKenna, Reginald, 74 
McNeil, Helen, 812 
McRae, Governor, 488 
Magazines with benevolence appeal, 

502 
Malaria, 596 
Man, value, 154 

Manhattanville Health Society, 110 
Mariemont: a satellite town in the 
making, 777 • 

Market day (ill.), 418 
Market, 577 

Farm produce, 2r3 
Marks, M. A., 89 
Marot, M. S., 115 
Marsh, B. C, Discontent on the 

farm (letter), 120. 
Marsh, L. P., 523 
Marsh, P. W., 388 
Marshall, T. R. (portrait), 153 
Massachusetts. 

Have faith in (letters), 260, 261 

Injunction against babies, 52 

Sheppard-Towner Act, 356 
Mathiasen, S. A., 351 

Community singing in Denmark, 
93 

What is a liberal education? 377 
Mayakovsky, Vladimir, 713, 746 
Maynard case, 169 
Meat, use of, 325 
Mechanics and craftsmanship, 592 
Medicine, oscilloclast in, 509 
Melpolder, John, Small-town worker 

(letter), 120 
Melting pot (current issues), 811 
Melvin, Bruce, 381 
Mencken, H. L, 79 
Mendel, G. J., 485 
Mental age, 79 
Mental differences, 115 
Mental disease, 243, 649 
Mental hygiene, 649, 765 

Cincinnati, 384 
Mental tests, 79, 379 
Merriam, H. G., College athletics 

(letter), 530 
Meserole, D. J., 618 
Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., 537. 
Mexico 

Art in education, 448 

New types of leaders, 54 
Meyerhold, Mr., 707, 708, 710 
Michigan, infant mortality, 111 
Michigan, Univ. of., 382 
Midwest Refining Co., 138 
Milk 

Central Park as pasture, 766 

Children and, 387 

Pasteurization, 266 
Milk (current issues), 263 
Milk industry 

Comments on Mr. Lane's article 
(letters), 400 

Co-operative— Minneapolis, 374 

Experiment in organization other 
than union, 223 

Present organization in New York 
City, 227 
Millbank Memorial Fund, 652 
Miller, H. A., 768 
Miller, Spencer, Jr., Labor and 

learning, 250 
Miller, W. McN., on nat'l social 

agencies. 655 
Mind, making up one's (social 

studies). 4, 122 
Miner, C. H., 812 
Miners 

Burial of the victims in Penn- 
sylvania and Alabama, 355 

Russia, 720 

See also Coal industry 



Miniiu istrict of Columbia 

decision, o24 
Minneapolis, 233 

Cooperative milk, 37 
Minnesota, feebleminded, 797 
Minnigerode, Lucy, Speaking for 

nurses (letter), 670 
Mission Indians, 1 1 
Mississippi, lynching, 626 
Mississippi Valley, 402 
Missouri, 402 
Mobs, 486 
Modell, David, 684 
Modern Farm Cooperative Move- 
ment, The (Sherlock), 807 
Monotony in work, 594 

Industrial unrest and, 552 

Patterns, 550 
Montenegro (Mexican painter), 448 
Montana bunk house song, 167 
Montreal, Mental Hygiene Commit- 
tee, 666 
Moonlight Schools (Stewart), 662 
Moore, L. S. 

Child labor in Constantinople, 42 

Trade and industry in Constan- 
tinople, 36 
Moorehead, W. K., 49 
Morongos, 7, 11 
Morons, 80 
Moscow 

Buildings (ills), 686, 688, 689, 691, 
693, 696, 742 

Kamerny Theater, 708, 709, 710 

Metal works near (ill), 724 
Moscow Art Theatre, 709, 736 
Mothers 

Educating by the nursery school, 
445 

Unmarried, 524 
Mothers' pensions, ten years of, 

634 
Mountain School Teacher, The 

(Post), 662 
Mstislavsky, Sergej, 684, 736 

Voices of the tempest, 711 

Where drama is life, 707 
Mumford, Lewis, 193 
Murders, 486 
Murphy, J. P., 71 

Squandering child health, 102 
Museum of service, 581 
Musgrave, W. E., Ill 
Music 

Community singing in Denmark, 93 

Negro and Ukrainian folk music, 
221 
My Life and Work (Ford and 

Crowther), 527 
Mystic Shriners' work for crippled 
children, 508 



Nantucket 

School of Opinion, 73. 113 

Sentinels of the Republic, 73 
Narkompros, 758 
Nat'l. agencies, 497, 499 
Nat'l. Child Health Council, 224. 247 
Nat'l. Child Welfare Assn., posters, 

224. 225 
Nat'l. Council of Fanners Coopera- 
tive Marketing Assns., 487 
Nat'l. Dairy Show, 246 
Nat'l Education, 115 
Nat'l. Guild Council, 594 
Nat'l. Health Council, elections, 666 
Nat'l. Information Bureau, 666 
Nat'l. parks, 364 

Nat'l. Parks Service, The (Cam- 
eron), 528 
Nat'l. Safety Council, 235 
Nat'l Security League, 223 
Nat'l. social agencies 

Comments on engineer's letter, 653 

Engineer's letter of criticism, 497 
Nat'l. soul, 578 
Nat'l. Student Forum, 382 
Nat'l. Unemployment League, 618 
Nat'l. Urban League, survey of 

Negro social conditions, 236 
Nat'l. Woman's Party, letter from 
Lavinia Dock and reply by Flor- 
ence Kelley. 530 
Naturalization, Oakland plan, 502 
"Nature room" in schools, 255 
Navajo country (ill.), 6 
Navajo Indians, 10 
Near East. 77 

American responsibility, 52 

Orphan relief (letter), 403 

Red Cross and, 166 
Negroes 

Africa, education, 356 

Chicago riots, 46 

Chicago transportation contacts. °0 

Education — Rosenwald schools, 788 

Folk music, 221 

In mixed schools (letter), 403 

Population center, 370 

Portraits and painters, 326, 327 

Sculptures, 3, 48, 49 

Survey of social conditions, 236 
Neighbors, S4, 171, 328, 463, 590, 812 



Neill, C. P., portrait. 152 

Nervousness, 649 

Never-never land, 193 

Neville, Linda, 402 

New Bedford, 233 

New Jersey, legislature and the 

schools, 768 
New Mexico, 15 
New Year spirit, 458 
New York (city) 

Aldermen and proportional repre- 
sentation, 236 
British authority's message on 

planning, 85 
Children's Welfare Federation, 239 
Cleaning women in offices, 517 
Committee on city plan, progress, 

769 
Crippled children, 507 
Health service experiment, 110 
Mayor's committee on subway coal, 

222 
Milk distribution, 227 
Nature study in schools, 255 
Population analysis 354, 361 
Prohibition, 617 
Recreation, compared with other 

cities, 502 
Safety week, 235 
Subway coal, 293 
Traffic control and city plan, 370 
Traffic relief — Enright s plan (ill.), 
770 
New York (state), 459 
Government (A. E. Smith), 419 
Industrial Conference, 354 
Parks, 646 

State Charities Aid Assn., 386 
Ventilation studies, 383 
New York School of Social Work, 

812 
New York Tribune, 354 
New Zealand, longevity (letter), 404 
Newark museum, 581 
Ninety and nine (cartoon), 764 
Noise, 460 

Nolen, John, 769, 777 
North Carolina, high cost of low 

mentality, 796 
North Dakota, public health work, 

110 
Norton, C. D., appreciation, 770 
Norton, W. J.. 71, 219, 483, 615 
Financial federations, I — Funda- 
mentals, 89 
Financial federations, II — organi- 
zation, 232 
Financial federations, III — 

agencies to be admitted, 367 
Financial federations, IV. What 

about national agencies? 499 
Financial federations, V — Shall they 
raise capita! funds? 646 
Norway, compulsory arbitration, 250 
Novomirsky, Daniel, 684 

Peasants, Russian, and the Revolu- 
tion, 699 
Nuremberg clothmakers' parade (ill.). 

575 
Nursery school, 115, 445 
Nursing 

Speaking for nurses (letter), 670 
Visiting nurse agencies, director*, 
390 



Oakland, Cal., naturalization plan, 

502 
Oberlin, Ohio, crime problem, 768 
Office cleaners, 517 
O'Hara, E. V., 77 
Ohio 

Crippled children, 507 

Prison conditions, 768 
Ohio Oil Co., 138, 168 
Ohio State University, 302 

Oil fields of Baku, 743 
Oil town, 137 

People (ills), 139 
Olmsted, F. L., 769 
Ontario 

Children of unmarried parents, 524 

Dependents, 391 
Opium, 765 

Opportunist (social studies), 810 
Opportunity (periodical), 812 
Oregon, intolerance, 76 
Organization, 523 

Industrial (social org. study course 

753, 811 

Industry (study course), 665 
Organizations un-American, 223 
Organizing the Community (Mc- 

Clenahan), 117 
Orlic, P.. 306-309 
Oropesa, Professor, 55, 56 
Orphans 

Constantinople, 43 

Sifting, 638 
Orpheus a la mode, 790 
Oscilloclast. 509 

Correspondence on, 809 
Osgood, R. B., 509 
Ostojenka, 696 



Index 



vn 



Osuna, Andres, 55 
Outspoken Essays — Second 
(Inge), 259 



Principles of Social Psychology Restaurant workers, 514 



Series (Williams), 660 

Printer with hand-press (ill.), 563 
Prisoners, work for, 595 
Prisons 
p Architecture, 100-101 

Ohio, 768 
Problems, what to do with (social Ribbon mill worker, 551 
Pageants studies), 180 Rice, W. R., 75 

Bulletin for rural communities, 236 Problems in American Democracy Richards, C. R., 592 



Restrictions, residential, 221 
Reynolds, J. B., 370 
Reynolds, Mrs. P. R., 812 
Rheims (ills.), 432, 433 
Rhymes of Early Jungle 
(Marcy), 528 



Rural recreation — poster, 224 (Williamson), 808 

Pala Indians, 11 Progres Civique, Le, 618, 624 

Palazzi, 498 Progress and Science (Sbafer), 394 

Palecek, Antonin (with portrait), 464, Progressives, 358 

465, 641 Prohibition 



Palisades Interstate Park, 643 

Palmer, George, 511 

Pan-American Conference, Fifth, 738 

Pancreas extract, 652 

Paper mill worker, 550 

Parks 

National, 364, 528 

State, 643 
Party politics, 324 
Pasteur, Louis, centennial, 387 
Pasteurization of milk, 266 
Patent medicines, 509, 510 



Richards, E. A., 634, 635 
Richberg, D. R., 283 

Seeking the law in vain, 289 
Rickets, sun baths for, 261 
Rifkin, Lillian, 253 
Rights of man (ill.), 291 
California wine congregations, 366 Ripley. W. Z., 417, 460, 663 
Elections and, 324 Why the railroad strike failed and 



California (letter), 121 



the coal miners won, 436 



Rivera, Diego, 448 
Riverside, Cal., 7 



Europe and, 780 
Germany, 590 

Non-enforcement of law, 597 

Struggle for, 285, 421, 586 Robbia Madonna and Bambini (ills..), 

Working in New York, 617 320, 321 

Proletarian culture in Russia, 691, Robins, Mrs. Raymond, 631 

736 Robinson, Elizabeth, 172 

Proletkult, 693, 736, 748 Robson, William, 465 

Prolitprosiets, 694 Roche, Josephine, 531 

Paternalism, service without (current Prophylaxis and politics, 225 Rochester, N - *•« 234 . 

issues), 477 Proportional representation and New Building programs, 647 
Paterson, N. J. York Board of Aldermen, 236 Rockefeller, J. D., Jr., 135, 138, 142, 

Schools, 768 Psychiatric troubles, 649 _ 167, 168 . 

Teachers, 380 Psychiatry and delinquency, 105 Letter on Elk Basin situation, 147 

Patterns, 550 Psychology, 79 Portrait, 147 



Saker, Emily, 591 

Salomon, Alice, Pensions and the 
mark, 390 

Salvation by luncheon, 365 

Samara, 727 
Folk San Francisco 

Illegitimacy law, 104 

State Teachers' College, 107 

Santa Fe, 15 

Santa Sophia (ill.), 37 

Sanville, F. L, 615 

Pay-as-you-go Pinchot, 621 

Sapiro, Aaron, 381 

Satellite town — Mariemont, 777 

Sawyer, C. E., 618 

Scarlett, Sam, 30 

Scholarships, White-Williams Foun- 
dation, 519 



Schools 

Constantinople, 41 

Education and, 33 

England, 381 

Going to school (ill.), 445 

New Jersey, 768 

Non-school factors in city chil- 
dren's education, 505 

Philadelphia, 382 

Records, 115 

Russian, 694 

What is a school? 767 

Wilkes-Barre, barn, 253 

See also Education 
Science, rebirth of, 191 



Paul, Eden and Cedar, 736 Delinquency and, 105 Rockefeller Foundation and epi- Scientific method (social studies), 

Peace sentiment, 323 Psychology of Society, The (Gins- „ d?""??' ?, 47 „ . 53 .2 

Pearson, R. M., 20, 135 berg), 660 Roe, J. W., 249 Scientific mind (social studies), 342 

Toilers of the city (5 etchings), Psychoneuroses, 649 Roench, N., 683, 726-729 Scott, Elmer, on nat'l social agen- 

157-161 Public opinion, 223. 486 Roest, Piet (with portrait), 463, 464 cies, 655 



Peasants, Russian, 699, 734, 735 Coal industry and, 597 Rogers, Sherman 354 
Peet, W. W., on Constantinople's ad- Public Relief of Sickness (Morgan), Roman donna (ill.), 298 

ministration, 39 396 Rome, housing, 498 

Penitentes, 15 Publicity, 219 R onm y- , 6 , 90 , , 

Pennell. Joseph, 595 Health posters and sketches, 244, Root, Elihu, 617 

Pennsylvania, 459 245 Rosenwald Schools, 788 

Child welfare, 102 Publicity and progress (current Rosina, 230 

Pinchot's measures, 621 issues), 181 Ross, F. B., 351 

Pensions Pueblo Indians 

Germany, 390 Art (ills.), 12, 13 

Mothers', 634 Bursum Bill, 52 

People's Legislative Service, 358 Lands, status, 617-618 
Perkins, A. E., Tax land, not labor Punching holes, 550 
(letter), 404 



Scott, Melinda, 630 

Scrubbing floors, 551 

Scrubwomen, 517 

Seasonal employment, cure for, 800 

Seattle, 95 

School Board, 382 
Unemployment success, 96 

Selection of Cases, A, and Other 
Authorities on Labor Law 
(Say re), 806 

Selivanova, Nina, 684 



Perry, James. 37 

Persons, F. W., 264 

Peter, 241 

Petrograd documents (cartoon), 737 

Petroleum. See Oil 

Petrovsky, Mr., 684 

Phelps-Stokes Fund, 356 

Philadelphia, 236 If you are queer— and know it, 773 Rural Mind, The, and Social Welfare Sharp, J. H., 17 

Building Congress, permanent, 94 Quigley, Edward, 30 (Groves), 525 Sheffield, A. E., 522 

Child welfare, 102 Quotidien, Le, 618 



)uacks, 509, 510 
}ueerness, 765 
Curing, in children, 785 



New houses for old, 368 
Ross, Mary, Where lynching is 

habit, 626 

Rotarians' work for crippled children, Sentinels of the Republic, 73 

507 Serbian Christmas, 306 

Routine, 550 , Serbian Festival Scenes by P. Orlio, 

See also Monotony in work 306-309 

Roybal, Alfonso, 13 Serbian peasant woman (ill.), 296 

Ruhr, French and German cartoons. Service, spirit of, 175 

624, 625 Settlement Idea, The (Holden), 258 

Rural Life. See Country life Settlement workers, study of race re 
Rural Life and Education (Cub- lations, 53 

berley), 525 Sex education, 115, 786 



Schools, 382 

Welfare Federation, 353 

White-Williams Foundation, 519 j. 

Philippines, The, Past and Present 

(Worcester), 118 
Physicians Race relations 

Contraceptive information, 619 Chicago riots 46 

Health conf. of Governor Smith, chica | transportation contracts, 90 

^rU^'7% 4 Ra S drcS n mTn r d k uVt S ry? n i d 55 S3 

pffit', &rd, 74 4 9 59, 488 ™?« fc^,*™* ^ "^ 

Administration as governor of Railroads' ' 
Pennsylvania (with portrait), 621 Shopmen . s strike resu , ts 459 

p!«.h»7;», i& Strik « 'P" 1 " »P (Ie»er), 663 

r^^'i.t !»,..» 7*« am Why the strike failed and the coal 

Pay. See Recreation Rainsford, W. S\. 528 

Plymouth, Eng politics, 225 Rakovsky! Christian, 684 

Pneumonia, 511 Ranzen, R. H., 382 

Poetry. Bee Verse Ratcliffe S K 417 

Poland congress of working women, IdeaUs ' m and'responsibility, 426 
i> i ene. Ravenel, M. P.. 531 

Po iceman 505 Razovsky, Cecilia, 502 

Political offenders, 75 Reading in Economics for China 

te'.K &< * (Remer), 257 

English, 225 Realities, 458 

Luncheon and, 365 . Reb Sho i om Dovid, 453 

Pope, G. D., on nat'l, social agencies, Reconstruction ol ' Region, The 

■d u- -7 v a t. i u i od (Ellwood), 527 

Popkm Z. ¥., A barn for school 253 Correspondence on, 670 

Portland, Ore.. Reed College, 503 Record s P y StemS/ S 22 
Posters . . -„- Recreation 

&%2 f 2 a 4 'I' 225 Constantinople, 40 

§.. '. 4 New York and other cities, 502 

rageant, 224 Pnat»r« 09A 99 S 

Ru ^ s , ian ,',, 683 ' 689 ' 699 ' 700 ' 701 ' Toledo,' Ohio, 765 
c 7 ' . ■ « ,■« ^ ,„, What next in? 223 

Suggestions for (ills), 203 Red Cross 

Pottery, Indian 14, (ills.). 57 Annual convention, 166 

Pottery-making (ill.) 582 Johnson, Alexander W., 264 

Prague, early-to-bed story in pic- # ar service , 666 

tures, 792-793 «. Reds » 354 ' 

Pranspill, Andrew, What one car- Reed 'senator f rom Pa ., 4 87 

t> . r rTc 376 Reed College, 503 

Pratt, G. K-, 615 Refugees 

Ellis Island and, 336 
Greek, 492 



Rural social science, 380 

Rural Sociology (Gillette), 525 

Russell, W., 326, 327 

Russell Sage Foundation, 769, 770 

Russia 

Agriculture, 728 

American recognition question, 737 

American trade with, 737 

Cemetery scene, 728 

Children's training, 696 

Clothes, 726 

Cooperative movement, 735 

Democracy in action (ills.), 690 

Drama, 707 

Dreams and realities, 685 



Sheffield Farms Co., 400 

Sheikh ul Islam, 36, 37 

Sheppard-Towner Act, 52, 261, 356 

Sherman, C. B., Bringing the farm 
to market, 233 

Sherman, H. C, 387, 763 

Vitamins in the food supply, 782 

Shillady, J. R. 

On nat'l social agencies, 656 
To serve the traveler, 636 

Shipley, E. T.. 483 

Some-kind-01-educated, 519 

Shuster, Will, 28 

Siasconset. See Nantucket 

Sicilian woman (ill.), 297 



Economic policy and the trade Silver fork handles, 550 



unions, 703 
Faces by Grigorieff, 714-719 
Famine conditions, 170 
Famine facts, 726 
Industry, 703, 744 
Liberalism, 731 
Literary quickening, 711 
Miners and metal workers, 720 
Mutual relief, 86 
Peasants, 699, 734, 735 



(ills.), 
i sail- 



Silversmith and apprentice 

560 
Simkhovitch, M. K., Get 

maker (letter), 404 
Simmons, Edward, 289 
Sinclair, Upton, 510 
Defense of Albert Abrams (letter), 

809 
Singing in Denmark, 93 
Siren, 460 



People's commissariat of social Skyscraper jail, proposed, 100- 101 

welfare, 86 Skyscrapers, new phase, 766 

Poster to stimulate railway work- Small towns 



ers, 512-513 
Relief needed, 485, 490 
Schools, 694 
Soviets, 686 

Today and tomorrow, 684 
Typhus, 247 
Western pioneers in, 162 



Social workers in (letter), 120 
What about? 91 
Smith, Alfred E., 417, 459, 488 
Goals of government, 419 
Health conf., 767 
Lusk Laws, 619 
State institution buildings, 768 



Mental disease, 649 
Pratt, Helen Sherman, 549 

Portrait, 548 Rehabilitation, vocational, 240 
Preaching the Social Gospel (Davis), Re ii e f 

■a 3 Z 3 tia Greece, 485, 492 

Pressbaum 319 Health ' ba ' 386 

Prest, C. S., 531 London methods, 391 

Preston Keith, 115 Russia, 485, 490 

Preus, Governor, 488 Rents, 620 

Princeton University, 506 Residential areas, 501 



Russian American Industrial Cor- Smith, Barry C, on nat'l social 

poration, 733 agencies, 656 

Russian Dissenters (Conybeare), 117 Smith, Carrie W., Undesirable amal- 
Russian Immigrant, The (Davis), 258 gamation (letter), 121 

Russian number, 677-760 Smith, Geo. Otis, portrait, 153 

Illustrations explained, 683 Smith, Marshall D. 

Russian translators, 684, 736 Employes' association (letter), 261 

Selling labor (letter), 401 
Smith, Stephen, 242, 243 
S Smokeless City, The (Simon and Fitz- 

gerald), 526 
Smyrna, 52, 166, 492 
Safety week, 235 _ Social survey, 77 . . 

Sage (Russell) Foundation, 769, 770 S 110 *;.^:., W.^^ Organizing the home 

See nat'l social 



St Louis 

Community Council, 648 

New executives, 666 
St, Paul, Minn. 

" Healthland " exhibit, 246 

Salaries of service employes, 648 
St Thomas, W. I., 173 



(letter), 815 
Social agencies. 

agencies 
Social case work, 522 

Ideal, 524 
Social idea and culture, 460 
Social inadequacy, 798 



Vlll 



Index 



Social organization, study course, 5, 
123, 181, 263, 343, 399, 477, 533, 
60S, 665, 753, 811 
Social practice 71, 102, 237, 388, 519, 

634, 794 
Social problems, sources (social org- 

study course), 477 
Social reforms, taking a flyer in, 50 
Social science, rural, 380 
Social studies, 4, 122, 180, 262, 342, 
398, 476, 532, 604, 664, 752, 810 
Social work 

Conference attendance, 402 

Engineer's letter, 497 

National agencies, 497, 499 

Opinions on, 531 

Terminology, 522 

Two methods (current issues), 399 
Social work in the Churches (Holt), 

393 
Social work shoptalk, 264, 402, 483, 

531, 666, 812 
Social workers, small town (letter), 

120 
Socialisation in Theory and Practice 

(Stroebel), 526 
Soldiers, California, 111 
Somerset County (Fa.) miners, 222 
Song in the night (verse), 322 
South African Union, 392 
Southard, E. E., 649 
Southwest, 402 
Soviets and Russia, 686 
Spaeth, R. A., 630 
Spangler, Pa., 355 
Speakroan, M. T., 666 
Speech kindergarten, 511 
Spinning (ill.), 583 
Spirit of youth (ill.), 548 
Stabler, Walter, Metropolitan Life 

building loans (letter), S37 
Stadiums, college, 302 
Stained glass worker (ill.), 562 
Standard Oil companies, 138, 167, 168 
Standardization 

Industrial products, 596 

Why standardize? 801 
Stanislavsky, Mr., 709, 736 
State, as artist, 579 
State Department, 617 
State governors. See Governors 
State governors' inaugurals, 459 
State parks, 643 
Stealing, law of, 292 
Steel, the Diary of a Furnace Worker 

(Walker), 44, 395 
Steel rail straightening, 550 
Steel setter, 566 
Steel strike report. Olds' book on, 

659 
Stella, Joseph, 283 

Drawings, 296-301 

Drawings for " Refuge," 457 

Immigrant madonna (ill.), 281 

Laid off (drawing), 72 
"Step by step" plan, 501 
Sterilization and social inadequacy, 

798 
Stern, Boris, 684 
Sterne, Mabel, 3 

Indian photographs, 8, 9, 11 
Sterne, Maurice, 21, 22 
Stewart, R. W., 138, 142 
Stock dividends, 168 
Stoddard, Lothrop, 771 
Stoer, Lorenz, 573 
Stone, W. S., 633 
Stone mason's patterns (ill-), 573 
Story of a Varied Life, The (Rains- 
ford), 528 
Story of Utopias, The (Mumford), 

193 
Strap-hangers and coal-diggers, 293 
Strecker, Reinhard, 590 
Street, Elwood, on nat'l social 

agencies, 668 
Street-car antagonisms, 90 
Streets, crossing (cartoon), 235 
Strikes 

National, and Kansas Court, 372 

Railroad shopmen and coal min- 
ers, results. 436, 459 

Railroad striker speaks up (letter), 
663 
Strong, A. L., 736 
Structural iron (ill.), 159 
Subway coal, 222 
Suicide, 486 
Sun baths for rickets, 261 

Sun worship, 109 

SCRVEY, THI 

Announcement of twice-a-month 

plan of publication, 51 
Staff roster, 220 
Survey Associates 

Cooperating subscriptions and con- 
tributors, 276-279 
Tenth anniversary, 273-280 
SU«VEY GBAPHIC, 51 

Founders' fund, 275 
Sverdlov University, 692, 693 
Swartz, Maud, 630 
Swartz, Nelle, 763 

Are child worker* safe? 802 
Sweet, Governor, 489 
Swift St Co., 95 

Swiss chocolate advertisements, 74, 
75 



Switzerland 

Emigration, 222 

Industrial welfare work, 98 
Sworts, A. L., on nat'l social agen- 
cies, 656 
Syphilis, 509 



Tabib, Caesar, 30 
Tablada, J. L, 417 

Art in Mexican education (with 
ills, of school decorations), 448- 
449 
Tairov, A., 710, 757 
Taos pueblo, 15, 20 
Tapestry weaving (ill.), 583 
Taxation of land not labor (letter), 

404 
Taylor, C. C, 381 

Taylor, G. R., 3, 46, 135, 483, 490, 
531, 726 

The hungry in Russia, 490 
Taylor, Ruth, 812 
Teachers 

As educators. 380 

Courses in health promotion, 107 

Paterson, N. J., 380 

Seattle, 382 

Visiting, work (letter), 816 
Teaching 

Freedom in, 619 

Non-school factors in city chil- 
dren's education, 505 
Teaching of English in England, The, 

256 
Teotihuacan, 54 
Terminology, social, 522 
Texas, 402 
Textbooks 

Selection, 382 

Unprintable book, 33 
Theft, law of, 292 
Thorn, D. A., 763 

Curing queerness in children, 785 
Thomas, Albert, 417, 619 

Plea for international cooperation, 
450 
Thomas, W. I., 332 
Thompson, Hilda, 812 
Thompson, J. P., 29 
Thomson, G. W., 547 

Apprenticeship and the craft re- 
vival, 573 
Tiesler, Hans (with portrait), 463, 

464 
Tikhonov, Nikolai, 749 
Tipping system, 516 
Tobin, D. J., Milk (letter), 400 
Tobler chocolate, 74, 75 
Tod, Commissioner, 75 
Todd, H. H„ 121 
Toilers of the city (5 etchings), 157- 

161 
Toledo, Ohio 

Children in institutions, 392 

Christmas Clearing House, 370 

Recreation, 765 
Tolstoy, Alexandra. See Lvovna 
Tolstoy, Leo, magic rod, 698 
Torres, Elena, 55 
Tourists (cartoon), 484 
Towers, 766 

Town planning, Mariemont, 777 
Towne, A. W., 219 

When a child kills, 237 
Towner-Sterling bill, 115 
Towns. See Small Towns 
Track gang (ill.), 158 
Trade 

Constantinople, 38 

Russia, 737 
Trade unions, 53 

Functions, 594 

Russia, 703 
Translation, Russian, 684, 736 
Travelers' Aid Movement, 636 
Treidler, Adolf, 494 
Truancy, 392 

Truant, Backward, Dependent and 
Delinquent Children, Nat'l Conf. 
on the Educ. of, 121 
Tuberculosis, 108, 109 

Control, 652 

Denver, 111 
Turks and Constantinople, 36 
Tuttle, Emeth, 796 
Twelve-hour day, blast-furnace shifts, 

44 
Twitchell, R. E., 19 
Typhoid carrier, 356 
Typhoid mortality, 651 
Typhus in Russia, 247 



Progi — ^ ig with, 73 

Unionism, democracy in, 154 
United Mine Workers, 149, 169, 459, 

470 
U. S. Assistant Attorney office, 284 

(ill.), 285 
U. S. Steel Corporation, 53 
Unmaking of a myth, 46 
Union, Raymond, The overgrown 

city, 85 
Ural mines, 720 
Urban League Bulletin, 812 
Urquhart, J. H., 327 
Utopia, 193 



Vacaresco, Helene, 590 
Vaccination, 356, 509, 510 
Vakhtangov, Mr., 709 
Van Hove, V., 3 

Negro sculptures, 48, 49 
Van Kleeck, Mary, 629 
Van Loon, H. W., 351 

Christmas giving (cartoon), 352 

Documents found in Petrograd 
(cartoon), 737 

Hope for the future (cartoon), 616 

Monotony and industrial unrest 
(drawings), 552 

Ninety and nine — a footnote on 
queerness (cartoon), 764 

Russian relief (cartoon), 491 

Tourists (cartoon), 484 
Van Orsdell, Justice, 324 
Vandervelde, M., 780 
Vasconcelos, Jose, 54 

Portrait, 54 
Vaughan, Henry F., 511, 531, 666 
Venereal diseases, Plymouth, Eng., 

political campaign and, 225 
Ventilation, 383 
Verse 

Americans (Kauffman), 173 

Brotherhood (Wood), 419 

Dust (Whiteside), 580 

East Side talented child (Zagat), 
571 

Eve (Whiteside), 300-301 

Gulf between, the (Grossman), 35 

Montana bunk house, 167 

Prayer in time of blindness 
(Wood), 580 

Refuge (Brooks), 457 

Song in the night (Brooks), 322 

Statue of Lincoln (Brooks). 580 

Time (Wood), 32 
Vickery, C. V, Near East (letter). 

403 
Vienna land settlement movement, 

317 
Violence 

Rising tide, 486 

Values (current issues), 665 
Virgin Islanders, 172, 173 
Visages Russes, 714, 715, 735 
Visiting teachers' work (letter), 816 
Vitamins 

Commercial cult, 784 

In food supply, 782 
Vocational education 

Federal Board, 240 

Indiana, 642 
Vocational Information, Bureau of. 

235 
Vocational rehabilitation, 240 
Voices of the tempest, 711 
/olkdienst, 98 
Volunteers, social, 59, 60 
Vornazos, Mrs., 583 
Vorse, M. H., 351 

Ma and Mr. Davis, 359 
Voters' intelligence, 81 



Ufer, Walter, 14, 16, 19, 24, 25 
Ukrainian National Chorus, 221 
Unemployment 

Insurance — correspondence, 260 

Minimizing by employers, 95 

Natl League, 618 

Parliament and, 353 



W 

Wachs, William. 531 
Walker, C. R., Jr., 3 

Blast fumace shifts, 44 
Wallin, J. E. W., 115 
Walnut, T. H., 812 
War Department, policy, 617 
War hysteria, 354 
War workers, 60 
Ward's Island, 768 
Wardwell, Allen, 726 
Ware, C. S., 135, 170 

In Russia with western pioneers, 

162 
Washington, D. C, Monday Evening 

Club topics, 236 
Waste, 354 
Watson, F. D., 523 
Wealth from unknown lands (social 

studies), 604 
Weaver with hand-loom (ill.), 564 
Webster, B. C, 735 



Webster, L. J., 639 
Welch, W. A., 643 
Wellington, Kan., 368 
Wells, H. G., and Glasgow Univer- 
sity, 255 
Wembridge, E. R., 763 

Estelle and Sam, 775 
Westchester County, 812 
Wetter, P. C, 3 

The man I left at Leavenworth, 29 
Weyh, William, 30 
What Every Emigrant Should 

Know, 502 
Wheeler, E. P., 401 

Would Washington save babies? 

(letter), 261 
Wheeling, W. Va., 234 
Whipple, Leon, 135 

Freedom of books, 189 
White-Williams Foundation, 519 
Whiteside, M. B., 283, 547 

Dust (verse), 580 

Eve (verse). 300-301 
Whitney, A W., 596, 763 

Why Standardize? 801 
Why men work, 555 
Wikander, O. R., 518 
Wilkes-Barre 

Barn for school, 253 

Budget hearing, 779 
Williams, C. D., obituary. 812 
Williams, C. M., Profit sharing (let- 
ter), 261 
Williams, Linsly R , on nat'l social 

agencies, 667 
Williams, Pierce, 666 
Williams, Whiting, 89 
Wine congregations, 366 
Winnipeg, 590 
Wisconsin 

Hotel workers, 514 

Hotel workers (letter), 536 

Saving sight, 385 
Wisconsin, Univ. of, summer school, 

112 
Woman, The, in the Little House 

(Eyles), 661 
Women 

Citizenship status in the United 
States, 231 

Hotel and restaurant work, 514 

In industry, 325 

Industry and the home, 629 

Right to differ (letter and reply), 
530 

Vocational Information, Bureau 
of, 235 

Wage-earning, 375 
Women in the Factory (Anderson), 

806 
Women's Indust. Conf., 629 
Wood, Clement, 3, 417, 547 

Brotherhood (verse), 419 

Prayer in time of blindness 
(verse), 580 

Time (verse), 32 
Wood, E. E., 483, 486 
Woodcarver (ill.), 559 
Woodcock, Gertrude, A clinic that 

is not free, 110 
Woods, Arthur, 666 
Woods, C. A., 333 
Work 

Love of, 555, 596 

Prisoners and, 595 

Why men work, 555 
Workers' education, Brussels conf., 

250 
Workmen's compensation laws (with 

map), 99 
Wright, Mrs. Hamilton. 766 
Wyoming oil town, 137 



Vale Bowl. 303 
Yarmolinsky, Avrahm, 684 
Yasnaya Polyana, 698, 740 
Yesenrn, Sergey, 746 
Yeyadokeva, story of, 730 
Yoffie, Leah Rachel, 475 

Reb Sholom Dovid, 453 
Young, Kimball, 115 
Y. M. C. A. convention, progress of 

liberal feeling, 357 
Youth, spirit of (ill.), 548 
Youth movement comes to America, 

463 



Zagat, Helen, To a talented child of 
the East Side (verse), 571 

Zamyatin, Mr., 686 

Zimand, S., 685 

Labor's capitalistic venture, 733 
Labor's task where labor rules, 720 
Portrait with miner in Donetz Ba- 
sin, 722 
Russia today and tomorrow, 684 

Zoning 

Homely arguments for (ills.), 236 
Standard state enabling act, 94 

Zucht, Rosalyn, 356 



me sanm 



GRAPHIC NUMBER 



V 
R, 19; 




1 he Casertor 
the Indian 



&*** 






** 



Constantinople 

Trouble Center of the Near East 




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ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

BRUNO LASKER JOSEPH K. HART 

GEDDES SMITH HAVEN EMERSON, M. D. 

HANNAH WHITE CATLIN 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 
Edward T. Devine Graham Taylor 

Jane Addams Florence Kelley 

Graham R. Taylor John A. Fitch 

William L. Chenery 



Winthrop D. Lane 
Arthur Gleason 



Michael M. Davis, Jr. 



5R€ semv€</ 



T'wice-a-Month 




A journal of social, civic and 
industrial welfare and the public 
health. Subscription, including 
the twelve Graphic numbers. 

$5 a year 



Vol. XLIX. No. 1 



The Survey : Graphic Number 



October, 1922 



STELLA M. ATWOOD lives at 
Riverside, California, at the 
edge of the great American desert 
which stretches to Oklahoma. For 
many years she has been a friend 
to Indians— one of the few white 
persons welcomed into Pueblo In- 
dian tribal councils. Through her 
leadership, the National Federation 
of Women's Clubs has taken in 
hand a work on behalf of, and in 
cooperation with, the Indians of 
the whole country which is civic 
and economic rather than chari- 
table. 

Most of the photographs illus- 
trating the first article are contri- 
buted by MABEL STERNE, a 
member of the artist colony at 
Taos, New Mexico. The repro- 
ductions from the paintings of 
other Taos artists in this issue are 
due largely to her friendly and en- 
ergetic cooperation in presenting a 
typical exhibit from what many 
critics consider the foremost art 
center in America today. 

JOHN COLLIER is known to 
many readers. After a year as 
director of community organization 
for the California State Americani- 
zation Committee, he went with 
his family to the New Mexico des- 
ert because, as he writes, "we had 
a great curiosity about it though 
we had a corresponding skepticism 
about the realities of Indian life." 
There a new, urgent work disclosed 
itself to him. The Indian question 
naturally tied up with his earlier 
interests in New York in communi- 
ty organization and race heritages. 

CLEMENT WOOD's poem Time 
should be read at least twice: be- 
fore and after the principal ar- 
ticles in this issue. It reinforces 
their message to America. 

PIERCE C. WETTER, I. W. W., 

great-grandnephew of President 
Franklin Pierce, and with other 
family connections which, at any 
rate, preclude the possibility of 
unacquaintance with American tra- 
dition, was released from Leaven- 
worth in August after serving his 



CONTENTS 

THE CASE FOR THE INDIAN Stella M. Atwood 7 

THE ART OF THE PUEBLOS 12 

THE RED ATLANTIS . .v. . . . John Collier 15 

EIGHT INDIAN PORTRAITS 21 

THE MEN I LEFT AT LEAVENWORTH 

Pierce C. Wetter 29 

TIME — A Poem Clement Wood 32 

THE UNPRINTABLE TEXT BOOK Joseph K. Hart 33 

THE GULF BETWEEN—A Poem 

Jean Schick Qrossman 35 

CONSTANTINOPLE . . Clarence Richard Johnson 36 

BLAST-FURNACE SHIFTS Charles R. Walker, Jr. 44 

THE UNMAKING OF A MYTH— A Review ... 46 

TAKING A FLYER IN GOOD CAUSES . . B. L. 50 

THE SURVEY: TWICE- A-MONTH 51 

An Announcement 

EDITORIALS 52 

NEIGHBORS 54 



Arthur P. Kellogg, Business Manager 

John D. Kenderine, Assistant Business Manager 

Mary R. Anderson, Advertising 

Published semi-monthly and copyright 1922 by Survey 
Associates, Inc., 112 East 19th Street, New York. 

Price: This issue, 30 cents a copy; $5 a year; Canadian postage, 
50 cents; foreign postage, $1.00 extra. Changes of address should 
be mailed us ten days in advance. When payment is by check 
a receipt will be sent only upon request. 

Entered as second-class matter, March 25, 1909, at the post 
office, New York, N. Y., under the act of March 3, 1879. Accept- 
ance for mailing at a special rate of postage provided for in 
Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorised on June 26, 1918. 



war time sentence of five years in 
prison. He is twenty-eight years 
old and has worked as a locomotive 
engineer and since his release gives 
all his time to a campaign on be- 
half of complete amnesty for all 
the remaining political prisoners. 

CLARENCE RICHARD JOHN- 
SON has taught for many years at 
Robert College, Constantinople. He 
was director of the Pathfinder Sur- 
vey of Constantinople which will 
be published this week by the Mac- 
millan Company and from which 
the findings presented in this issue 
are extracted. 

CHARLES R. WALKER, JR., 
now' on the staff of the Atlantic 
Monthly, talks from personal ex- 
perience of the twelve-hour shift 
against which the engineers ot the 
country as a whole have just de- 
clared. After graduating from 
Yale, he engaged in labor manage- 
ment and, for a year, worked at all 
sorts of jobs in the steel industry. 
The sketches published in this is- 
sue, with many other equally en- 
tertaining accounts of his experi- 
ences, form the substance of a book 
to be published this month by the 
Atlantic Monthly Press. 

GRAHAM ROMEYN TAYLOR 
who directed the studies of the 
Chicago Race Commission was for- 
merly on the staff of the Survey 
and is now one of its contributing 
editors. He is at present, with 
others, engaged in an investigation 
of American relief operations in 
Russia for the National Informa- 
tion Bureau. 

The two sculptures by V. VAN 
HOVE (1826 to 1892) are in the 
Luxembourg and obviously have 
only an indirect bearing on the 
race conflict in America. 

SAMUEL GUY INMAN is 
general secretary of the Committee 
on Cooperation in Latin America 
which represents some thirty Amer- 
ican mission boards working there. 
He has lived for many years in 
Mexico and has founded a Peo- 
ple's Institute in Piedras Negras. 



Social Studies 




Conducted by 

Joseph 



K. Hart 



Have You Made Up Your Mind? 



TWO groups of men, opponents in an industrial dis- 
pute, were seated about a table. Each group was 
perfectly clear (its own members thought) about 
all its facts. Neither side could convince the other. 
Why should men who are clear in their own minds about 
facts find others so obtuse ? Many of us have either known, 
or been, examples of this serene clarity face to face with 
this no less serene obtuseness. What does it mean ? Col- 
lege students who learn "behavior" out of books come sadly 
upon such experiences as these shortly after entering "the 
real world." What shall they do? Studies of this sort 
are not out of place in a journal of social exploration. 

Each side in a dispute sees its own "facts" so clearly, it 
is compelled to assume that the failure of the other side 
to see them at all is due not to lack of intelligence but to 
lack of desire or will. This lack of will is, of course, a 
moral defect. Each side is sure that it has all the best of 
the argument, both as to facts and opinions, and that the 
other side, being animated by "greed" or "disloyalty," or 
some other moral obliquity, is blocking the way to a right- 
eous settlement of the dispute. Each side holds itself in 
high esteem both for its moral and 'intellectual qualities; 
each side holds the other in almost equally high esteem for 
its intellectual abilities: "Those fellows are not fools," each 
says of the other ; "they know what's what, all right ; they 
simply don't want to acknowledge the facts; they don't 
want to see justice done!" 

That is to say, each side seems to admit that its oppo- 
nent's intellect is functioning normally, not to say admir- 
ably, but holds that its moral intentions are bad. The in- 
ference from such a position is, of course, not that we need 
more light on our social problems, more intelligence, more 
understanding, but more "goodness" — more "loyalty" to 
something or other — less "greed" for something or other. 
We may admit that the world needs more "goodness," 
perhaps. But not by any such admission can we escape from 
the fundamental fact that the world needs more intelli- 
gence, more understanding. This present method of deal- 
ing with our social problems is calculated to destroy what 
little "mind" the world may have: to praise a non-function- 
ing nvnd as if it were functioning is to make us exalt non- 
functioning of mind as of the highest value to the com- 
munity, an outcome not wholly undesired by some. To 
blame the moral depravity of an opponent for what may 
turn out to be intellectual blindness does not seem likely 
to conduce either to intellectual or moral clearness. We 
need to understand in much more fundamental fashion the 
nature of the mental processes commonly employed in all 
our partisan disputes. We need to examine the Mind of 
a party to a dispute quite as mnich as we need to examine 
his Morals. It is quite as likely that his mind is idle as 
that his morals are bad ! 

On this pa^e, through the coming months, we shall under- 
take to make some such examinations. In any social situ- 
ation, mental attitudes of the most varied sorts are to be 
found. Not infrequently, a "problem" is but a clash of 
attitudes. Not always, of course. But if we are to make 
our ways through the confusions of our times, we must 



learn to face these confusions hot as if they were simple, or 
final or the result of someone's moral depravity. We must 
see them as too complex to be dealt with as they come to 
us. We must tear them to pieces to see how they are made. 
We must look at them historically, to see how they have 
come to be at all. We must try to see how much of any 
particular confusion is inherent in physical and social con- 
ditions, how much of it is merely a confused, warped, ob- 
fustioated state of mind. Such examinations may be pain- 
ful, even perilous; probably they will always be disillusion- 
ing. But unless we are going to keep right on fighting 
each other with such question-begging epithets as "traitor" 
and "plutocrat" we must come to terms with our own 
minds. We must see how they are made and what they are 
made of. We shall then be able better to understand the 
world about us. 

CONSIDER that part of the mind which is of the 
nature of habit. Habit stabilizes us, individually 
and socially. Habits give us assurance. Habits 
organize us. Habits may easily master us, control us, 
tyrannize over us and determine what our lives shall be. 

Habits help us do our work. Habits organize us effect- 
ively into our work and organize our work effectively into 
us. Habits establish the limits of our work. Habits may 
easily determine what our work shall be. 

Habits give order to our minds. Habits organize our 
minds, gathering in the ragged borders of opinion. Habits 
set the limits of our mental activities. Habits may easily 
determine what our minds shall be. 

Habits form the substantial basis of our moral lives. 
Habits organize and assure our moral attitudes. Habits 
set the limits to our moral aspirations and experiences. 
Habits may easily determine what our moral lives shall be. 

In short, habit — a most useful tool in all our common ex- 
periences — may become at length, irrevocably for many of 
us, the builder of a jail for our intellectual and moral in- 
terests; the keeper of the gate of that jail; and the sacred 
code which authorizes and justifies the jailer and the jail. 

Habit becomes sacred to us: our intellectual and moral 
habits are of the nature of the world, we assume. We at 
inside the barred windows and doors and peer out upon the 
world. We see life and the world through our bars of 
habit. We do not suspect how much of our "understand- 
ing of the world" is determined by the bars through which 
we look. We insist that what we see is reality, and the 
way we see it is the only true way of looking at it. We as- 
sert that if others fail to see the world as we see it, it is 
because there is something wrong with their will so to see 
it — that is, with their moral natures. 

How much of our lives is habit no one would yet be rash 
enough to calculate. That all that is habitual is bad no 
wise man woidd be disposed to assert. But that all the 
habitual aspects of our experience must be thoroughly, criti- 
cally examined so that, if possible, we may es<«r>e from our 
isolation in unrealities, all competent psychologiSland moral- 
ists are now a unit in advocating. 



SOCIAL STUDIES 



Study Course on 
Social Organization 



Questions on 
Current Issues 



This column loill run through the school year a series of 
continuous studies in the fundamentals of social organiza- 
tion for the use of classes, clubs, study groups, etc., in school 
and out. — The Editor. 

II. How People Are Alike 

The recognition of differences may be the beginning of 
knowledge ; but the end of it is the organization of all such 
knowledge into an understanding of the whole of life and 
the world. Individuals differ, as we have seen. But all 
people are more or less alike. Some people are very much 
alike — so much so that group life seems to be the most com- 
mon expression of human living. Few people care for or 
are capable of solitary existences. Normal people seem to 
need the fellowship and support of a group, or of groups. 
This fact raises some interesting questions. 

Group Life in the Community 
-*- • What groups exist in your community: political, industrial, 
racial, religious, educational? How do the memberships in these 
groups compare: are they all of about the same size, or do they 
vary greatly? What do these groups stand for? What do they 
do in the way of advancing their interests or their programs? Do 
they think about the programs or interests of the other groups? 
Is there any competition among these groups? What is the nature 
of this competition? 

Can any one person belong to more than one group at a time? 
What is the nature of this membership in groups: is it consciously 
held? Or are we sometimes members of groups without being 
fully aware of the fact? 

O Natural Groups 

^** Is membership in a group ever possible without choice? 
Consider the family into which a child is born. Is that family a 
group? Did the child choose to become a member of that 
group? Is a race a group? Is a primitive tribe, e. g., of Ameri- 
can Indians, a group? How is membership in such groups 
achieved? What groups of this natural sort do you find in your 
community? Are there any in your school? Is this sort of 
group strong or weak in its hold on its members? Can an indi- 
vidual escape from his family group? From his racial group? 

3 Organized Groups 
• Do you know of any groups that have been definitely or- 
ganized by two or more individuals? How many such do you 
know? Can you classify all groups as either natural or organized? 
Which is the more permanent form of group? What methods are 
employed in organizing a group? Are all members of the same 
group congenial to one another? What holds a group together? 

4 The Individual versus the Group 
♦ Which seems to have been first in human history — the indi- 
vidual or the group? Did men first live as solitary individuals, 
later combining into groups of various sorts? Or, did they begin 
in groups? Are any groups natural, or are they all organized? 
Are some to be called natural and others organized? If men began 
as members of natural groups, what is an individual? 

What is the present tendency in American life: toward greater 
individualism or toward the subordination of the individual to 
some group? Do individuals need group membership and group 
experience? What does such experience do for them? Is group 
membership always desirable? Are groups ever socially undesir- 
able? How would you state the proper relationships between the 
individual and his various groups? 
References: 

Robert H. Lowie, Primitive Society. Boni and Liveright. 

Alexander Goldenweiser, Early Civilization. Alfred A. Knopf. 

James H. Tufts, The Real Business of Living. Henry Holt 
and Co. 

Survey Graphic, this issue: pages 15, 44, 46 and 50. 



This column will continue the Social Studies of the last 
1<wo yeais. It <vsill be devoted to the study of important 
current events as they are reflected in the pages of the Survey 
and Survey Graphic from issue to issue. — The Editor. 

Who Belongs? 

Some people hold that Americanization is an effort to 
extend to aliens the finest things of which our civilization 
is capable. Others hold that it is an effort to subjugate un- 
suspecting minds to an existent political and economic order. 
Meanwhile, the question as to what America really means 
has never been answered. Hence, no one can be quite 
sure just who really belongs to America without being 
"ized." The larger questions may well be broken up into 
a number of smaller ones. 

ICan Aliens Ever Become Americans? 
♦ All normal people seem to have some lingering affection for 
the "old home place," and for the things that went with youth. 
Can an alien who still remembers his "native land" become a good 
American? If he forgets all about his youthful experiences, can 
he become a good American? If he clings to old ways, old 
stories, old folk-songs and the like, can he become a good Amer- 
ican? If he forgets all these can he belong? Have Indians ever 
become "Americans"? Can the Austrian (see the story by 
Charles R. Walker, page 44} who says "America is a good place 
to make money, no place to live," ever become a good American? 

2 Can Negroes Ever Become Americans ? 
♦ Of course, most people will be scandalized by this question- 
Are Negroes now recognized and accepted as Americans? They 
are sometimes referred to as "Afro-Americans"? Do they accept 
that designation? If so, where does that term place them? If 
not, what does it mean? 

3 Can Workers Ever Become Americans? 

♦ How many "native-born" workers have we in America? 
What does America really think of workers? To what extent 
is the work of America performed by aliens? Has an alien 
worker any right to criticise the conditions under which he works? 
Has any other worker that right? Should a worker be content 
with his lot? Can a worker ever be a good American? What 
sort of mental and moral qualities will he possess? How will he 
think? How will he vote? Will he join a union? Of what sort? 
Will he ever strike? Can a worker be a good American, and 
still remain a worker? 

4 Can Social Reformers be Good Americans? 
♦ Does America need any reformers? Can one who wants 
to be a reformer find any room for his work in America? Does 
not reform imply criticism? Can a critic of America be a good 
citizen? Can any critic be a good American? How much criticis- 
ing will a good American indulge in? Can a good American 
advocate changes in our institutions? Did good Americans ever, 
before i860, advocate the abolition of slavery? When did the 
advocate of abolition cease to be a bad American and become a 
good American? 

Who really belongs to America, today? Who are the real 
Americans? 

References: 

Jacob Riis, The Making of an American. The Macmillan 
Company. 

Mary Antin, The Promised Land. Houghton, Mifflin and Co. 

John Palmer Gavit, Americans by Choice. The Century 
Company. 

Survey Graphic, this issue: pages 15, 44, 46 and 50. 

The hook? mentioned on this page may be obtained through the Survey 
Book Department. 



By courtesy of the Peoria Society of Applied Arts 






k 




THE NAVAJO COUNTRY 
By W. Herbert Dunton 



m& sumw 



GRAPHIC NUMBER 



OCTOBER, 
1922 




Volume XLIX 
No. 1 



The Case for the Indian 



By STELLA M. ATWOOD 




S we pass along the streets of our 
little town we often see, sitting 
on the curb or standing at the cor- 
ner, groups of Indians in whose 
brown eyes lies the calm that comes 
through the silences of our mysteri- 
ous desert and whose bronzed skin 
has the glaze of the wind and the sun. The 
Morongos are down, we say to ourselves — the 
Morongos who live where the cultivated lands melt 
into the sandy reaches toward the phantom Funeral 
Range lying like an opal against the eastern sky — 
the Morongos whose apricot orchards bend in the 
sun with their load of luscious fruit; or, perhaps, 
we know them to be of the Saboba tribe whose vil- 
lage lies against the gray foothills of the San 
Jacinto Range. If we see an Indian with stalwart 
frame and flashing eye, we know that a Cahuilla is 
here from his distant mountain home where his 
cattle graze on the hills. 

Impressions such as these were all I had of our 
American Indians until the summer when our young 
men were called by the selective draft to defend their 
country. I was appointed to look after the Indians 
who came before our exemption board. At that 
time the interesting facts came out that the Indians 
who lived in tribal relations and on reservations 
were not citizens but merely Indians, and conse- 
quently did not come under the draft; that as the 
Indians were wards of the government the exemp- 
tion board could treat with them only through the 
agent, and the agent would not appear with them. 
After a good deal of negotiation their status was 
established, and in the meantime the Indians ac- 
cepted me as their friend. 

Those who deal with Indians know that it takes 
time to gain their full confidence; but once you do 
this, they turn to you in every exigency. So it was 
not long before I had an invitation to have lunch 



with fifteen of them at one of our restaurants; they 
wished to talk of some matters that were troubling 
them. We sat down at the table, and with quiet 
dignity the Indians told me their wrongs: of the 
pumps that were not running, far out on the desert 
where water means life; of fruit trees that were 
bought and shipped to them and delayed in delivery 
until they were ruined. They protested against 
the sale of liquor to the Indians on the reserva- 
tion. One mother turned to me and, with a gesture 
toward her daughter, a beautiful girl, said: 

"We are just as anxious to keep our daughters 
pure and sweet as you are. A drunken Indian is 
terrible. I have not allowed my girls to be out 
alone after dark for months." 

"And what can I do to help you?" I asked. 

"Get us an inspector who will hear us," they 
said. "We have had many come to Malki and stay 
with the agent, who takes them about; but they will 
not listen to what we have to say." 

I wired immediately to Washington for the in- 
spector for whom they asked, and in the meantime 
I made up my mind that I would make an investiga- 
tion on my own account to find out why the pumps 
were not running. 

We took a trip to the Indian country in the early 
fall. We left behind us the beautiful almond or- 
chards of Banning and struck out across the desert 
where old San Jacinto rears his stately bulk ten 
thousand feet sheer from the plain. Seamed with 
countless canyons where the wild palms grow along 
the silver streams, clothed with virgin forest where 
the Indian can gather his store of acorns and pine 
nuts, the great mountain stands a hoary benefactor 
to his children. No wonder the Indian loves his 
land and clings to it with desperate determination. 

At noon we ate our lunch in front of the home 
of the man employed bv the government to teach 
the Indians to farm. When the government farmer 



8 



THE CASE FOR THE INDIAN 



came to the door to find out about his uninvited 
guests, I introduced myself and asked him about 
the pumps. He was very vague in his replies: he 
encouraged the Indians to work out for the whites 
— that was the best way. No, the pumps were not 




ALBIDIA 



Photograph by Mabel Sterne 



running — the money had given out. Looking very 
hard at me he said he had heard there were white 
people trying to make trouble, but they had better 
look out; the Indians were getting along all right. 
The message I had sent to Washington for a 
special inspector to investigate conditions, was an- 
swered by the appearance of a man who came, 
stayed a while, sent in his report, and went awn. 
Nothing was done. The agent stayed on, but with 
an attitude increasingly unpleasant toward the Indi- 
ans. In the course of time another inspector ap- 
peared, took up his lodgings with the agent, and 
proceeded to hold meetings that were anything but 
satisfactory to the Indians. In great distress one 
of the women called me up and begged me to come 
to a meeting which the inspector permitted to be 
called. With some other friends of the Indians 
we arrived earlv in the afternoon at her home on 



the reservation. We turned into an orchard of fig 
and apricot trees and drew up beside a comfortable 
looking house. Immaculate in its order and cleanli- 
ness, it presented an inviting appearance, for about 
the walls were Indian baskets and treasures of all 
sorts. Beautiful Indian blankets were on the floor 
and the couch. A large, well-filled bookcase met 
my eye. Our hostess, an educated and refined 
woman, came forward and welcomed us. Presently 
the inspector came in; he was manifestly displeased 
at our presence, and demanded to know who we 
were and why we were there; he had been given to 
understand that this was to be a meeting of a few 
friends. 

"These are my friends, my friends from River- 
side," our hostess announced, as in a dignified way 
she introduced us ; then standing before him she said : 

"I feel that it is in order, Mr. Inspector, to ask 
you why you are here. If you have come simply 
as a casual visitor, we will not trouble you with the 
recital of our wrongs; but if you are here to in- 
vestigate, then we shall be glad to tell you of things 
we feel should be remedied." 

"I am here to listen to what you have to say," 
replied the inspector. 

"In that case, I wish to discuss the matter of 
allotments and the way they are being made," she 
said. 

Then we heard a speech that was a classic as 
this Indian woman pleaded for an equitable distri- 
bution of the fertile acres of the Morongos. 

"We younger Indians," she said, "are satisfied 
with the plan of the government to give five acres 
to each man, woman and child. The older ones 
do not understand the division. After they have 
worked all through these years to bring their or- 
chards into bearing, they cannot see why their land 
should be divided. Those who have no children 
ask the reason whv, if they have cultivated twenty 
acres by hard labor, they should be asked to give 
half of it to some Indian who has never done a 
day's work for himself. We younger Indians, how- 
ever, realize that something must be done to get 
our individual titles to this land, and that the only 
possible division is to give five acres of good land 
to each man, woman and child of our tribe. If 
more were given there would not be enough land 
to go around, and some of our tribesmen would 
have to go down to the stony river bottom where 
no human being could make a living. Now. my 
little sons have been offered more than five acres 
each, but I shall not accept it for them, for if I 
did that would deprive my people of some of their 
fertile land. I cannot permit my sons to have more 
than their share." 

As I listened to this gracious woman pleading 
for justice, I thought of the Athenian of old who 
felt that to keep accumulated riches was a disgrace; 
and I appreciated to the full the fact that the Indi- 
ans' philosophy of life is entirely different from our 
own. When an Indian amasses a store, he has a 
feast and divides his goods among his less prosper- 
ous kinsmen. 



THE CASE FOR THE INDIAN" 



This inspector came and went with no apparent 
result except that the relations between the Indians 
and the agent became worse and worse; but, at last, 
after nearly two years of effort, the man whom the 
Indians trusted, the man of all in whom they had 
faith, arrived. He called a meeting of the Indians 
and invited me to attend. With a number of friends, 
one fragrant spring day, we drove out again to the 
reservation; but this time to the agency itself. I 
shall never forget the sight of the crowd there, 
with swarthy faces, bodies tense, eyes shining with 
suppressed excitement. 

There was some delay in selecting a competent 
interpreter; but finally a large, pompous Indian was 
chosen, and he swaggered forward and sat down 
in the center of the room, looking about him with 
a lordly air of self-sufficiency. The inspector told 
the Indians that he wanted them to tell him of 
everything they felt was wrong; that the agent had 
to be there, but that they were not to let that 
embarrass them; they must tell everything, and if 
the interpreter did not interpret correctly, they must 
raise their hands and let it be known. 

THE first Indian who spoke was a noble looking 
old fellow with a gaunt frame and a massive 
head. He spoke of how hard it was, when he had 
lived so long on the land which was his, to go out 
in the morning and see a white man putting down 
stakes on it and not to know why it was done. 

"1 go to the agent and ask him and I cannot find 
out. He will not tell me. I cannot sleep. I do 
not eat well. Am I to lose my home where I have 
lived all my life?" 

The Indian interpreter translated glibly as, with 
dejected mien, the old man spoke; but when the next 
Indian arose and began to speak, the interpreting 
grew halting and there was a noticable tenseness 
in the audience; the faces of the Indians who had 
not been able to get in and were looking through 
the windows, began to take on an expression of 
alarm. The interpreter shifted about in his chair 
and looked everywhere but at the inspector. Sudden- 
ly a young Indian sprang to his feet and cried out: 

"He isn't telling it right! He isn't telling it 
right!" 

"You tell it then," said the inspector. 

Turning to the interpreter and pointing his finger 
at him in a dramatic gesture, the young Indian said: 

"You know where that liquor was sold; it was 
sold at your house. You know who sold that liquor ; 
you sold it." 

The interpreter, evidently shaken, had no denial 
to make, and the Indians, with much stamping of 
feet and nodding of heads, signified their approval. 

"Can you name the Indians who were drunk at 
the fiesta?" asked the inspector. The looks of 
alarm deepened in the faces of the Indians at the 
window, and as the names were called, one by one, 
the faces dropped out of sight and were seen no 
more. 

As a result of this hearing the agent was trans- 
ferred to another part of the Indian country and 
a new man came out to assume control. The chief, 



being the intermediary between the tribe and the 
agent, speedily came into notice, apparently in an 
unfavorable light; for one morning some Indians 
in great agitation sent for me and said that their 
chief had been arrested. The day before the agent, 
with some other men, heavily armed, had come to 
the chief's home, overcome the chief after a strug- 
gle, searched his home and taken him to jail. 

"Did the agent have a warrant for the arrest of 
your chief and the search of his house?" I inquired. 

"No, there was no warrant shown," they said. 
"What shall we do?" 

"You will have to consult a lawyer," I said, "I 
do not know the rules that govern the reservation. 
The agent may have authority to do things that 




YOUTH Photograph by Mabel Sterne 

are not permitted among citizens. I do not know." 
Then it was that I learned that the agents have 
discretionary powers which permit them to appoint 
an Indian court, manned by Indian judges and Indi- 
an policemen; that although some agents require a 
warrant, yet on many reservations arrests are made 



10 



THE CASE FOR THE INDIAN 




with absolute 
disregard of the 
rights that we 
hold so dear and 
for which we 
fight so valiant- 

As I studied 
the situation and 
looked up past 
history, I found 
that in 1909 a 
Navajo Indian, 
By-a-lil-le, and 

other Navajo Indians in the Ship Rock Agency in 
Arizona, had been imprisoned for one year and eight 
months at hard labor, without a charge having been 
held against them in any court of law, without benefit 
of counsel or proceedings by due course of law. The 
Indian Rights Association took up the matter of a 
petition for a writ of habeas corpus, and I quote 
their report: 

This matter was taken up because it was believed to be 
one of fundamental importance in dealing with Indians. 
We contend that the Indian is a "person" within the mean- 
ing of the Constitution and cannot be deprived of his liberty 
without due course of law. 

The court of first instance in Arizona denied the 
application for a writ of habeas corpus. The As- 
sociation appealed the case to the territorial su- 
preme court where a unanimous opinion was ren- 
dered reversing the lower court. The Indians were 
finally discharged and sent back to their reservation 
at government expense. 

In the case that involved the arrest and release 
of Standing Bear, a Ponca Indian, United States 
District Judge Dundy, in the course of his decision, 
held: "That the Indians possess . . . the inalienable 
right to 'life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness' 
so long as they obey the laws and do not trespass 
on forbidden ground." 

Whether an Indian is arrested and held prisoner 
without process of law, at the will of the agent, or 
by the act of the military authorities if they are not 
in a state of war, or through the civil authorities, 
the principle is the same. 

No real friend of the Indian wishes him exempt 
from the law. When he commits a crime he should 
suffer the penalty; but as a human being he has a 



WHERE WATER MEANS LIFE 



many years 
a congressman 
from South 
Dakota, he was 
a member of the 
Committee on 
Indian Affairs, 
and no one is 
better qualified 
to administer 
this great estate, 
nor has tried to 
do it in a more 
just and equit- 
able manner. But that is not the point. The crux 
of the question lies in the fact that no race should 
be in a position of involuntary submission to the 
arbitrary opinion or whim of an individual. That 
way lies autocracy. "The law of the land is a better 
defense of our rights than the kindly temper of our 
officials." 

AS these experiences accumulated and I became ac- 
quainted with other reservations, I found that 
the cases with which I had come in contact were not 
isolated but typical of the administration of a gov- 
ernmental policy which, in intent, was constructive 
and beneficent. These discretionary powers, the 
exercise of which works so much woe, were dele- 
gated to the agents years ago when the Indians 
were considered savages and when there was little 
or no communication between the East and West. 
It was a necessary part of the administration to 
protect life and property; but for years we have 
educated our Indians; and they stand before us to- 
day a dependent people, pleading for the rights 
that we consider fundamental. 

That leads us to the question of citizenship, and 
a mooted one it is. Of course, if the Indians were 
citizens they would be amenable to the civil law 
of the state and nation; but the older and unedu- 
cated Indians are strenuously opposed to citizen- 
ship. They have watched their fellows exploited by 
the whites. They have seen the Indians who have 
accepted their allotments in severalty and who auto- 
matically became citizens, relieved of their holdings 
and facing the world as paupers. They are afraid 
— and small wonder. But would it not be possible 
to work out a plan by which the Indian could have 



right to the law: to its processes, its benefits and its his civil rights and yet have the benefit of the gov- 



penalties. How else is he ever to be fitted for ulti- 
mate citizenship? 

To quote again from the By-a-lil-le case, Senate 
Document No. 118: 

Of one thing we may be absolutely certain, and that is 
that the greatest tribunal in the world, as Bryce has taught 
us to call it, will give no countenance to the doctrine, so 
fruitful of tyranny and injustice, that the law can be safely 
ignored, if in the judgment of an official its restraints stand 
in the way of public welfare. 

In justice to the present administration, it is but 
right to say that probably we have never had a 
better commissioner than the present one. For 



eminent 1 s guardianship of his property? Citizen- 
ship and wardship are not incompatible. Jurisdic- 
tions could be consolidated into districts, and men 
could be placed over these districts in an advisory 
capacity only. That would reduce the number of 
employes, a measure which would make for economy 
of administration; for, strange to say, in recent 
years there is almost a geometric proportion be- 
tween the increase of employes and the decrease of 
the Indian population. 

Not the least interesting development, from the 
viewpoint of friends of the Indian, was the dis- 
covery of the existence of the Irrigation Act of 



THE CASE FOR THE INDIAN 



II 



1 9 14. It is probably misunderstanding of the Indi- 
an's condition and of the relation the United States 
sustains to him as that of a guardian to his ward, 
that permits the passage of such laws, as evidenced 
by the following case: 

tar up in the mountains, in a beautiful spot, well 
watered and salubrious, where rich pasture land 
stretches for miles, a band of Indians had made 
their home for many years. They had built their 
adobe houses, roofed with tules, around the hot 
springs where their people could come and take 
the famous sweat baths. On the mountain sides in 
great numbers grew the yucca, of which they used 
the succulent young shoots, wrapped in leaves and 
baked with hot stones, to make a favorite dish. 
Acorns were there in abundance, and in the fall the 
women gathered great stores of them for their 
acorn meal. It was a good hunting ground for the 
men; it was their home; they loved it. 

But the white man loves to hunt, and the hot 
springs in that beautiful location attracted him. 
Why not make the place a hunting lodge for use in 
the fall when the ducks are flying across the autumn 
sky? Truthfully it may be said, "He-o-weh-go-gek," 
"Once a home, now a memory." It is a brief but 
bitter tale. Proceedings were brought, and in spite 
of the efforts of their white friends, the Indians 
were moved to other lands in a little cup in the 
mountains where there was no chance to farm. 
Moreover, Pala is not their home, and the Indian 
with his intense love for home would rather live 
on a barren spot if he has been born there than in 
the most fruitful place you 
could offer him. 

Water was developed at 
Pala in lieu of their won- 
derful hot springs. The 
Indians settled down sullen- 
ly to accept their fate; but 
the end was not yet. In 
19 14, in the appropriation 
bill of that year, an act in 
connection with irrigation 
work on reservations was 
inserted and passed. This 
act states that all moneys 
expended heretofore or 
after under that provision 
should be reimbursable 
where the Indians have ade- 
quate funds to repay the 
government, such reim- 
bursements to be made 
under such rules and regu- 
lations as the secretary of 
the interior may prescribe. 
The war caused these 
matters to sink out of 
sight, and it was not until 
the winter of 1920 that 
friends of the Indians were 
aroused to the knowledge 
and significance of this 
act. In the spring of 




A SUN PRIEST 



1920 a congressional committee was appointed to 
make a trip through the Southwest for a thorough 
investigation of Indian affairs. In the course of 
their journey, they arrived at our town, and the 
friends of the Indian asked and were granted an 
audience. We called attention to the fact that our 
Mission Indians, which is the name by which all 
our Southern California Indians are known, have 
had gratuitous appropriations amounting to a third 
of a million of dollars for water development in 
the past; that they had to their credit some three 
thousand dollars in tribal funds; that the word 
"heretofore" in the act made it retroactive and 
therefore unconstitutional; that its enforcement 
would mean the practical confiscation of the lands 
on which the Pala Indians had the water developed 
for them in place of that which had been taken from 
them; that the Morongos would lose their beautiful 
orchards; that the act would cast a cloud over the 
titles of the lands to be allotted; that it kept estates 
from being settled; and we begged that it be abro- 
gated at the earliest possible moment. The chair- 
man of the committee expressed himself in the fol- 
lowing unqualified terms: 

I think there is just as much chance of getting that ap- 
propriation paid back to the government as there would be 
if I gave you a thousand dollars twenty-five years ago as a 
present and changed my mind now and brought an action 
against you to recover. Of course under the "strong arm" 
system that has frequently been used some Indians might 
be forced into paying the money; but if your organization 
works correctly in the matter, I think the statement I made 

a moment ago would apply. 
Resist the payment of it. This 
is a matter of advice to you ; 
where money has been appro- 
priated as a gratuity and then 
the department or Congress or 
someone attempts to transfer it 
into a liability — it is perfectly 
absurd. 

Even in the face of so 
strong a statement from so 
eminent an authority, a 
mandatory order was is- 
sued that collection under 
the act be started the fol- 
lowing November, and 
without any restrictions as 
to adequate tribal funds. 
If it had not been for the 
fact that the former com- 
missioner of Indian affairs 
as well as the present com- 
missioner realized the in- 
justice it would work to 
the Indian, this act would 
have been enforced. They 
have not urged collections, 
although in some places col- 
lection has been made. This 
act, however, may be en- 
forced at some future time 
unless it is repealed. 

(Continued on page 57) 



Photograph by Mabel Sterne 





THE ART OF THE PUEBLOS 

The American fashions in dress and interior decoration these last 
few years show a gradually growing appreciation for the wealth of 
native art that has hitherto been almost entirely neglected by those 
who apply design to industry: the art of our American Indians. The 
paintings reproduced on these two pages, the pottery illustrated on 
the following page and the buffalo hide shields used for decoration 
on the cover and in the text — here reproduced by the courtesy of the 
American Museum of Natural History— are typical of the work of 
the Pueblo Indians whose cultural aspirations are discussed in this 
issue by Mrs. Atwood and Mr. Collier. 



7 'he designs on the shields are magical in intent. 
Here we have great horned snakes, symbolical of 
lightning; mountain lions, symbols of strength; the 
eagle, representing the universe; the crescent of the 
moon, often associated with the sun and the milky 
way; the three stars of Orion and two bear 
claws; the rainbow and the morning star; and 
many other designs reducing spiritual abstractions 
to their simplest physical terms. 




-**3>«fc 




THE DEER 

By John Coucha 



INDIAN HORSE 
By Alfonso Roybal 






Bv courtesy of the Union League, Chicago 




HER DAUGHTER 



By Walter Ufer, A. U. A. 







The Red Atlantis 



By lOHN COLLIER 




WE came down the mesa at twilight. Where 
the river plunged to the iron-dark canyon, 
high-Hung cottonwood trees were chang- 
ing from gold to green. Cordova — the 
most perfect of the dozen old Mexican towns on 
the Taos plateau — seemed black against the sun- 
down. From the west, walls and ruined homes were 
soft and luminous, a great loose-petaled rose drift- 
ing in windless air. 

We had passed many dull-tinted boulders, carved 
with archaic picture-graphs, and after these Cor- 
dova seemed not very ancient: only perhaps three 
hundred years old. A single human being was visi- 
ble: a woman leaning in an oval corridor through 
which, from the corral at the far end, sunset was 
flooding. She wore faded blue, and her unloosed 
hair completed her body's arch. She was piercingly 
and wildly beautiful. Later we learned that she 
was the mother of five children. 

The town's circular fortress had not crumbled, 
though it had been long out of use. Two-thirds of 
the houses were roofless, but with decay an adobe 
house, on the desert, takes on not mould but the 
changeless youth of the soil, the earth, from which 
it seems to have grown. The inhabited houses were 
spotless, and their lintels and porches gay with 
blue and green; but on the desert a new or 
newly tidied adobe house seems ancient before it 
is lived in. 

We entered the priestless church. Here was the 
living Cordova — four generations, and all blood- 
kin or marriage-kin. Altar lamps and many candles 
glowed ruby and blue and soared in whiteness. The 
saints were gaily arrayed. The long prayer mut- 
tered, there was silence ; the kneeling group breathed 
it back, an old woman resumed the lead, and again 
the congregation spoke long and low. There is no 
hurry in Mexican New Mexico; and at Cordova 
not one of the four generations spoke English. 

When we came from the chapel, sunset had gone 
beyond the Magic Range, with its long stretches of 
dead cliff-cities, eighty miles away. The Anvil 
Mountain, ninety miles westward, was wrapped in 
flame. Eastward, beyond Taos, the Indians' Sacred 
Mountain still drank the sun rays. Great, jagged 
shadows fell along its cnnvon — shadows by which 
the Indians have regulated their calendar for thou- 
sands of years. No mountain has so subtle a form 
— so haunting, elusive, vet dominating over all the 
Taos plateau. It holds its flaming crags against 
morning and evening, yet it is less garish than are 
the Provincetown dunes. LIuge winds lift its fields 
of snow, darkening the skv with their rising and 
falling masses, yet the conscious quiet of this moun- 
tain seems never to grow less. To the Indians it 



is both an altar and a god, and in no fanciful but in 
an acutal way, as things of the impassioned imagina- 
tion are actual. This is the setting at once of a 
Mexican settlement, an artists' colony and the Indian 
pueblo. The American trader is there, too, and the 
sheep-rancher. The frontier still lingers by Kit Car- 
son's grave in the Taos cemetery. 

Let us "place" Taos, in the physical sense. A 
desert plateau, containing perhaps three hundred 
square miles, seven thousand feet above the sea. It 
is seventy miles north from Santa Fe and twenty- 
two miles east from the little railroad connecting 
New Mexico with Colorado. The Rocky Moun- 
tains bound it to north, east and southeast; the 
canyon of the Rio Grande bounds it to the west. 
Westward the desert goes on for a thousand miles, 
and southward indefinitely into Old Mexico. 

SANTA IE is the oldest European settlement in 
the United States; Taos is nearly as old. The 
Mexicans who came to this plateau brought with 
them the Penitente cult, part Christian and part 
Pagan in spirit and form, but sharply alien to the 
more ancient sentiments and practices of the Indians 
at Taos. This lay brotherhood of the Penitentes 
is a picturesque feature of Taos life, where with 
conscious separateness many and strange culture- 
streams flow side by side. At burials, and all 
through Lent, culminating in Holy Week, the pro- 
cessionals and the Penitente song, exultantly mourn- 
ful as is no other singing in the world, go on their 
way. Still, as centuries ago, there are self-torture 
and group-torture; we have watched the dragging 
of crosses made of whole hewn trees, and have 
listened to the swish and thud of lashes on bared 
backs while that eerie chant wailed across the mesas 
all night long. But we have seen the gay miracle- 
plays of the Penitentes, too, at Christmas time; have 
learned to know the childlikeness intermingled with 
their masochistic glooms. The Penitentes are of 
secondarv interest at Taos, and there is no space 
for describing them here. The writings of Charles 
Lummis tell of them, and the excerpts from Mary 
Austin's Social Survey of Taos Countv which are 
printed in Park's and Miller's Old World Traits 
Transplanted. Penitentism is only one of the ele- 
ments of Mexican religious life in the Taos region. 
Of the artists' colony, only a word; the reproduc- 
tions of their paintings in this number speak best 
for it. No, the colony is not a Utopia, nor does it 
hint of the cooperative commonwealth. A rather 
severe individualism prevails; its result is to leave 
each several artist at the center of a wistful and 
sociallv undernourished solitude. Herein lies a 
thought-provoking contrast. Sincere and laborious, 



15 



16 



THE RED ATLANTIS 



sometimes noteworthy, sometimes even great is the 
work of the white artists at Taos. They are 
broadening the horizon of America. But their 
separateness from each other and from the Indians 
as human and social beings is distressing. Excep- 
tions there are, but strikingly they are exceptions. 
Alongside them are the Indians. The Taos art 
which is steadfastly great is the Indian art. The 
Indian artists are intensely social; they are, indeed, 
the community itself consciously living in beauty. 
The white colony fails altogether to learn this 
Indian secret of the Bluebird. 

So we are brought to the real significance of Taos. 
It is the Indian pueblo; inhabited by a few more 
than six hundred persons; northernmost of the Rio 
Grande pueblos; one of that group of communities, 
of which the Hopis are a part, which constitute the 
finest flower of the pre-history of the United States. 
The pueblo is not dying; on the contrary, it is alive, 
pregnant and potentially plastic; potentially an in- 
heritor of the future and a giver to the future of 
gifts without price, which future white man will 
know how to use. The white man, tacitly and also 
officially, has condemned it to die : to die not by sud- 
den execution but through proscription and slow- 
killing. This is the drama and the huge social 
significance of Taos. 

This statement will not give to the reader any 




THE GATEWAY 



realization of the truth. The space here allowed 
may not be enough for communicating it. That 
even India, even China, has a future in its own 
right is an idea that our occidental white mind finds 
hard to understand. But their sheer immensity 
persuades us. These tiny communities of the red 
man, archaic, steeped in a non-rational world-view 
of magic and animism and occult romanticism — it 
seems a wild if a luring fantasy that they might live 
on, that they might use the devices of modern eco- 
nomic life, and pragmatically take over the concepts 
of modern science, and yet might keep that strange 
past of theirs, that psychic and social present as it 
truly is, so indolently industrious, so ecstatic while 
yet so laughing, so great with color, flooded with 
body-rhythm and song, so communal yet individually 
reckless, so human and so mystic. And if the 
Pueblos lived on, could white civilization acquire 
anything from them? 

Why, and in what way, has the white man sen- 
tenced the Pueblos to death? 

Let us try to see these Indians first. They live 
in two houses, rising beside an ancient cottonwood 
grove, tiny and fair against the enormous Sacred 
Mountain. The shape of these houses is that of 
low triangular pyramids; their color is that of red- 
wood bark; and their peaks are five stories high. 
Below ground are the kivas, ceremonial chambers 
and club-rooms of the secret 
societies. By the south wall 
of the pueblo stand the ruins 
of the Catholic church which 
United States troops cannon- 
aded in 1 848, thereafter shoot- 
ing down about one-half of 
the men of the tribe as they 
fled to the mountains. From 
this ruined church, three miles 
in all directions, reach the 
pueblo lands. These lands 
have been irrigated for cen- 
turies. They are fertilized 
through communal labor. 
Their trees are guarded with 
minute care by the Indians, 
and from May to October the 
orchards, hedgerows, wild- 
woods and fields bloom in- 
effablv. The fields are com- 
munally held but individually 
alloted, subject to periodical 
redistribution. The Indian 
thinks tribally about owner- 
ship of land; individual own- 
ership is strange to him, 
though some tribes provide 
exceptions to this statement. 
The pueblo, outside and in- 
side, is sweet and clean with 
the positive sweetness of a 
home lived in and loved. Even 
the corrals of the beasts are 
sweet-smelling, and lovely to 
By Walter Ufer, A. U. A. behold. The family lives in 



THE RED ATLANTIS 



17 



one or two rooms, cooks in 
the fireplace, eats on the floor, 
sleeps in blankets or on nar- 
row mattresses in the same 
room; the baking is done in 
open-air ovens outside. An- 
other room stores the surplus 
belongings. A parsimony of 
objects, exceeding that of the 
Japanese, is the household 
ideal; and this makes the 
scrupulous cleanliness not diffi- 
cult. These living rooms, with 
their tiny windows glassless 
but sometimes paper-glazed, 
colored creamy-white with 
frequent re-paintings by the 
women, are hypnotic to one 
who may sit all day, listening 
to the low, musical talk of 
the family and hearing from 
outside the tom-tom's beat, 
the singing of one or many, 
the crying of announcements 
or of precepts from the north 
pueblo's roof and back again 
from the south pueblo's roof. 
All day one may sit, or may 
go from home to home, or outside where the chil- passion that white onlookers, frostbitten or grown 
dren are playing, or where men and women and chil- weary, retreat for food or warmth; returning after 
dren are working in the fields. However intimately hours to find the ritual drama rolling on. 
he goes, he will never see a child whipped or struck The Spaniards learned that Pueblo men were 

or harshly scolded. He will find no harshness or hard in defensive war; there were pueblos where 
quarreling anywhere, among women or men. Of the last man died before surrender. The military 
all the community, he will find that the adolescent organization of the tribes persists to this day. No, 
boys and girls are the most earnest and most sweet; thousands of years of a complexly urban life have 




THE PUEBLO OF TAOS 



By J. H. Sharp 



these, with the old men and women, seem the hap- 
piest bloom of Pueblo life. He will find none so 
young, above the third year, and none so aged, up 
to a hundred years, that he has not a communal 



not "tamed" the Pueblo red man. Still he goes 
alone into the wild; alone for days or weeks into 
the ten-foot snow, carrying a single blanket and de- 
pending on his "kills" for food. We have travelled 



function, status, intensive productive group exper- with Indians whose horses were so wild that they 

ience, and an aristocracy of mental attitude which it had to be thrown with ropes whenever a pack was 

is impossible either to flatter or to demean. to be shifted. These same Indians with their wild 

Are they soft, these Pueblo Indians — effeminate? horses transported us — a white man and woman, 

At twilight when the men come riding through the three young boys, five dogs and nine new-born Aire- 

fields, they are singing. They are irrestible crea- dale puppies — across the whole Rocky Mountain 



tures, these men. Up in the hills, back along 
Glorietta Canyon, away from the white man's settle- 
ment, one may meet them garlanded with wild 
flowers, their white or red blankets thrown back on 
their shoulders. But see them in those wild, terrific, 
non-religious dances, danced all night long with war- 
cry, booming drum and gusty song; dances which 
are social, which apparently are homosexual in their 



wholly unconscious reference (there absolutely is fatigue. 



range, at altitudes of twelve and fourteen thousand 
feet, in a season of cloudbursts and mountain mist, 
traveling sometimes twenty-five miles a day. Their 
gaiety, their delight in the more tremendous aspects 
of nature, as in flowers and running waters, and 
their sometimes naive, sometimes satirical curiosity 
about the great white man's world, were as striking 
as their skill and caution and seeming immunity to 



no overt, i. e., socially pathological, homosexuality 
in this pueblo) ; see them in midwinter in those 
enormous ritual dramas of song and dance which 
engulf the whole tribe in their ecstasy, which are 
intense, mournful, passionate with a constrained 
passion unknown to the white man's theater since 
ancient Greece. These men, half-naked, in zero air 
amid wind-whirled snow — yes, and the women and 
tinv children too — can be so hard in their communal 



Descent is traced through the mother in the 
pueblo. The household property belongs to the 
woman. Monogamv. with divorce under free con- 
ditions, is the marital rule. In the domestic sphere 
woman rules. She is co-equal with man in those 
ritual activities which are the most solemn and 
creative part of the tribe's life. To the secret 
societies (vestiges of the ancient pubic arrange- 
ments of those clans which have united into the 



18 



THE RED ATLANTIS 



Pueblo tribe) she is not customarily admitted save 
in subordinate ways. The civil government is in the 
men's hands solely, and to them the communal work 
is assigned: the policing, tending of irrigation 
ditches, keeping the water-supply pure, clearing the 
roads, maintaining the bridges and fences, and in 
the kivas transmitting to the younger men 
that vast body of tribal lore through which 
the community draws upon the powers of its 
gods. Of the women this must be added: They are 
gay as the men and 
hold their heads no less 
high. In youth and young 
motherhood many of 
them are extraordinarily 
beautiful. Like the men, 
they exhibit an unbeliev- 
able variety of nervous 
and physical type. This 
variety is one of the puz- 
zling facts of Taos. A 
community of a few hun- 
dred (the Taos popula- 
tion is static, neither in- 
creasing nor diminish- 
ing), largely endog- 
amous for ages on ages, 
and of pure Indian 
blood, produces a diver- 
sity that one might look 
to find in Hawaii. 

Now let us state the 
pueblo's important val- 
ues; leaving much — so 
much — unsaid. These 
values lie chiefly in the domain of social education. 

The pueblo is not primitive in the sense of being 
primordial. Vast spaces of evolution and of the 
compounding of cultures lie behind it. But it is 
primitive in that it has conserved the earliest states- 
manship, the earliest pedagogy of the human race, 
carrying them forward under geographical condi- 
tions which have helped to a result possibly unique, 
for its complex yet childlike beauty, in the whole 
world's history. From this statesmanship and 
pedagogy our present world needs to learn, and 
tomorrow's world will learn if given the chance. 

Primitive groups in all continents have utilized 
the adolescent crisis as a means to the perpetuation 
of social heritages and to the building of powerful 
citizenship. Within and through the public crisis, 
they have brought into being mental complexes, 
sentiments and habits which in negative and positive 
ways have controlled attitude and conduct through 
the remainder of life. The methods and results 
have been endlessly varied, but the broad result has 
been to insure recurrent flowerings of emot'on, con- 
formities of behavior, and adequacies of effort at 
the varied crises within the group. 

Effort and art which will be untold forever have 
gone into the creation of human society through the 
pubic institution, from the ice-age until yesterday. 
The conceptions of totem and of magic have given 
a profundity to these pubic ordeals and festivals. 




THE WHITE GATEWAY 



Through suggestion and auto-suggestion, through 
travails, fastings, lonely marches and group-assem- 
blages, the youth prepared himself that the spirit 
of the dead, the genius and consecration of the super- 
natural tribal ancestor, might enter him, convert 
him, empower him, command him. Through mimicry 
driven by emotion at its highest collective inten- 
sity, he sought to coerce, to persuade, to empower 
the gods — thus to control rain and storm, fertility, 
the outcome of war and, in general, destiny. All 

that was deepest, most 
awful, most romantic, 
most energizing in his 
emotions, rose within 
this social setting and 
discharged itself toward 
social ends. Of all the 
contrasts between primi- 
tive and modern life, 
none is more complete 
and perhaps none is so 
tragical as this one, as 
Stanley Hall has pointed 
out, and William James 
in The Moral Equivalent 
of War. Has the mod- 
ern world lost the art 
of adolescent character- 
building and emotional 
education forever? 

When many primitive 
families or clans united 
to form a tribe, they 
brought their several 
mythologies, their sev- 
eral disciplines and arts, contributing them all to- 
ward the fulfillment of the tribal imperatives. This 
union took place very long ago in the Pueblo Indian 
groups. The co-existing variety of quest for psychic 
intensity and the wealth of ritual art has insured a 
continuous development of educational and ritual 
forms and has produced a complexity which be- 
wilders the anthropologist as it dazzles the esthetic 
onlooker. Today at Taos (as at Zuni and in the 
Hopi villages and in other pueblos beside) life from 
infancy to the grave is a rhythm, which sinks only 
to rise again through all the flying seasons, of wor- 
ship and of the quest through art expression for 
an ecstasy communally realized and associated with 
practical social aims. 

What is said of the pueblo's dance, song and 
drama, would have been true in some measure, a 
few years ago, of the pueblo's handicrafts. These 
latter have been commercialized on a basis of in- 
dividual reward (how pitifully meager a reward, 
usually!) for individual output. A socially purpose- 
ful and businesslike crafts-effort would have amaz- 
ing results in all the reservations of the Southwest. 
Output would increase, standards would rise and 
new creations would begin; lapsed or degenerated 
arts and crafts would revive, as actually they have 
done in the cases of Navajo weaving and Hopi 
pottery. 

Before facing the practical question, can the 



By Vinton Higgins 



THE RED ATLANTIS 



19 



pueblo survive, we must give further details of the 
Pueblo Indian's handicap. First of all he is com- 
pelled as a child to attend a school which is strictly 
"classic," which conscientiously ignores the Indian 
and even the surrounding Mexican past and present, 
which laboriously segregates itself from the com- 
munal and family life, the play life and agricultural 
and craft life of the child. Then, as an adolescent, 
he (or she) is taken away to a boarding-school 
which is co-educational and where many tribes are 
mixed indiscriminately together; and this higher 
school with an even more conscious system than that 
of the elementary school endeavors to proselyte the 
child and shame him away from his tribal settings, 
his Indianhood. 

Second, the Indian is anybody's victim. White 
men want his lands, his tiny savings; they want 
extortionate interest on money or goods he borrows 
(interest paid often in labor or in crops). They 
want him as a cheap laborer, and at Taos one be- 
comes a center of hostile criticism if he pays to an 
Indian a white man's wage for work equal to a 
white man's. In a brief prepared for Secretary 
Fall of the Department of the Interior, Colonel 
R. E. Twitchell 
states: 

Trespasses on Pu- 
eblo lands have been 
the rule rather than 
the exception, and 
our local courts 
have yet to show, in 
my judgment, where 
an Indian has ever 
received a square 
deal. Assaults have 
been committed by 
white men upon 
these Indians, when 
seeking relief in the 
courts, and all sorts 
of charges trumped 
up for the occasion 
have been urged in 
the peace courts, in- 
variably resulting in 
the discomfiture and 
disadvantage of the 
Indian. 

Third, the In- 
dian is subject to 
the local Indian 
agent, whose 
powers are in ef- 
f e c t limitless, 
who himself is 

beset by exploiters seeking to "get at" the Indians, 
and whose departmental tradition became "frozen" 
away back before the days of President Grant. Com- 
munity initiative toward self-saving is not likely to 
come while an arbitrary, socially dogmatic and not 
infrequently venal power may and does invade the 
community at any time and often. 

What now of the social future of the pueblo? 
Four propositions are basic to everything else: 




IN THE LAND OF MANANA 



I. The Indians must be given civil status. To- 
day the non-citizen Indians are "wards" of Congress 
and of the Bureau of Indian Affairs of the Depart- 
ment of Interior. The first named of these "guard- 
ians," accountable to no higher power save an elec- 
torate which cares not, has a record of three genera- 
tions of ruthless treaty-violation and of robbery to- 
ward the Indians. The second named is a highly 
bureaucratised, monopolistic and immune sub-de- 
partment of a cabinet office. It holds over the 
reservation Indians every arbitrary power short of 
the right to slay. Not today in the Congo, and 
not under the peace-time rule of any other large 
nation, are the non-white "subjects" so deprived 
of all the status of man as in the case of the Red 
Indians by the United States. The guiding pol- 
icy down to the present has been to deprive the 
Indian of his land by direct and indirect means, and 
to trample out his community life — his "tribal re- 
lationships" in which his physical stamina and moral 
life are implanted and from which flowers his spirit. 
No especial reference to the Indian Bureau of to- 
day is here implied. As stated bv Warren K. Moore- 
head, one of the official Board of Indian Commis- 

By Courtesy of the Union League, Chcago SIOneTS in hlS fine 

book, The Amer- 
ican Indian : 

The present un- 
satisfactory condi- 
tion has grown up 
through a gradual 
process of evolution. 
Beginning fifty years 
ago, the evolution 
proceeded regularly, 
but irresistibly, until 
it terminated in the 
bureaucracy of the 
present time. 

2. The dwin- 
dled reservations 
which still exist 
must be conser- 
ved; and those 
Indians on whom 
individual owner- 
ship has been be- 
stowed or forced 
must be permitted 
to establish some 
form of cooper- 
ative landhold- 
ing. It can be said 
of most of the 
Indian tribes that 
while still Indian they fail even to conceive of the 
individual ownership of land. Francis A. Leupp, 
former Indian commissioner, has described the flight 
of Indians into the wilderness to escape this be- 
stowal of private ownership which, as the report 
of the Board of Indian Commissioners for 192 1 
frankly admits, has been disastrous to the Indians. 
The question of citizenship is distinct from that of 
land; under Supreme Court rulings citizenship can 



By Walter Ufer, A. U. A. 



20 



THE RED ATLANTIS 



be granted while yet the lands are held under direct 
guardianship or withheld from alienation through 
contract with the tribes. 

3. Instead of being broken down, the tribal 
relationships must be conserved, encouraged and 
helped to make their own adaptations. The 
Spaniards long since, influenced by the wise Francis- 
cans, adopted this policy toward the pueblo groups. 
British colonial administrators have given it the 
name "indirect administration." The American 
government's assault on the tribal relationships of 
the pueblos has had ghastly results. Just eighteen 
miles from Taos Pueblo, where there is no tuber- 
culosis and apparently no venereal malady, is Picuris 
Pueblo, moribund from the white man's diseases 
and, as a place of moral decay and psychic melan- 
choly, comparable to the Marquesas Island com- 
munities described by Robert Louis Stevenson. 
Fifty miles south is San Juan, robbed of its splendors 
and its vitality alike; and just beyond it is Santa 
Clara which droops and turns wan like a flower 
whose roots have been severed. It is not "civili- 
zation" which has worked these horrors, but stupidi- 
ties and exploitations of a definite, needless and pre- 
ventable kind. Chiefly it is that "Americanization" 
which beats down and drives underground the com- 
munity life — the tribal relationships with their moral 
sustenance and adaptive capacity. Partly it is the 
school system whose maladaptations to the Indians' 
community need are excruciating. Taos has held 
its own, as Zuni and Santo Domingo have, and a 
few other pueblos, but in the present generation 
they are making their last stand. 

4. Finally, the pueblos as agricultural and indus- 
trial communities must be given advantages equal 



to, and in the main the same as, those claimed by 
white farming communities all over this country. 
The Department of Agriculture, the state agricul- 
tural colleges, the state schools, the United States 
and state public health services, the Farm Loan 
Board : these are the agencies which the Pueblos 
and most of the other Indians need. At Taos, the 
Indians borrow their seed-grain in April and repay 
it in October at 100 per cent interest. At Taos, 
months of solicitation by the Indians and of ham- 
mering by outside friends were required before the 
government acknowledged that the trachoma which 
had invaded the pueblo was trachoma; through six 
months more the Indians with their friends strug- 
gled to make the government do something about 
the disease before it should spread. These are 
examples merely, given because this article deals with 
Taos. White men say that red men cannot run 
well the modern race. When the manacles are cut 
from their hands and the hundred-pound drag is 
removed from their legs, then we may start our 
comparisons. 

If all these conditions were met, could the pueblos 
live on, and inter-act with the white man's world 
while keeping and increasing their own values? For 
example, could the communal habits and the high 
spirit of team-action in the pueblos be placed behind 
a cooperative organization of the modern type? 
And could adolescents receive their needed addi- 
tional schooling successfully while remaining within 
the pueblo for that far profounder education they 
are receiving there? These questions raise many 
"ifs and ands." I have become maturely convinced 
that the answer is "Yes." Others, who know the 
{Continued on page 63) 




TAOS 



Etching by Ralph M. Tearton 



Eight Indian Portraits 

PAINTED BY AMERICAN ARTISTS IN THE TAOS COLONY 







Courtesy Bourgeois Galleries 



INDIAN HEAD 
By Maurice Sterne 



Courtesy Bourgeois Galleries 




INDIAN GIRL 



By Maurice Sterne 



Courtesy Milch Galleries 




HOPI INDIAN 



By E. L. Blumenschein 



Courtesy Milch Galleries 




JIM 



By Walter Ufer 



Courtesy .Milch Galleries 




ME AND HIM 



By Walter Ufer 



Courtesy Milch Galleries 




INDIAN GIRL 



By Robert Henri 



Courtesy Montross Gallery 




BUFFALO DANCER 



By Randall Da'vey 




WINNOWING WHEAT 



By Will Shuster 



The Men I Left at Leavenworth 



By PIERCE C. WETTER 




HE other day I was riding in a 
street car in New York behind two 
well dressed men deep in their daily 
papers. Their comments on some 
of the dispatches about the railroad 
strike reminded me more of James 
Whitcomb Riley's refrain: "The 
goblins'll get yer if yer don't look out" than any- 
thing I had heard for a long time. 

"I tell you, those I. W. W. fellows . . ." one of 
them rumbled. 

"It doesn't say it's proved yet they were 
around . . ." the other suggested timidly. 

"Huh! Doesn't need to!" the first shook his 
head ominously. "Nowadays a man takes his life 
in his hand wherever he goes. I believe in giving 
that kind of vermin a wide berth. I never saw one 
of them and I never want to!" 

The next instant there was some sort of mix-up 
with a truck on the track and we all got a violent 
jolt. The speaker, who had risen in his seat to get 
off at the next corner, became rather badly tangled 
with some passengers across the aisle. I helped to 
disentangle them and he was at once all smiles and 
amiability — "Almost like one of our college football 
rushes," he grinned, in the easy fellowship an earlier 
generation is apt to accord its successors on the 
same campus. 

I should have liked to watch his face when I told 
him that I am a sincerely convinced, indelible I. 
W. W. ; that I had just been released from Leaven- 
worth prison on expiration of a five-year sentence 
under the 191 8 Chicago indictment; and that I am 
now working with all the strength and ability I 
possess in the interest of my fifty-two fellow-work- 
ers, fellow-prisoners, still in Leavenworth, some 
with twenty-year sentences. 

But "We're late for that appointment," his 
companion reminded him, and I missed my chance. 

He will doubtless go on indefinitely repeating his 
"bogey-man" stuff about people whom he admits he 
has never seen and knows nothing of except by 
hearsay. I wonder how many people who read this 
have done exactly the same thing? And how long 
they are going to keep on doing it? 

This is why, when I. W. W.'s are on trial, whether 
in courts or in newspapers, practically "everything 
goes." But in all such movements, persecution only 
serves as propaganda, and weeds out the worthless 
material — those who "can't stand the gaff" and go 
back on their principles — and shows the grain of 
the men who cannot be bribed or bought, who have 
the courage to stand by their convictions at what- 
ever cost. 

There are fifty-two such men in Leavenworth to- 
day. Over two-thirds of them are American-born. 
They have been there since 19 18, and most of them 
have ten- or twenty-year sentences. I know these 



men; and I want everyone else to know them. They 
are of the stuff that makes history, the sort of stuff 
that went to the making of our country in the begin- 
ning, and that is needed just as much right now, 
perhaps more, to keep our country true to its big 
ideals. 

I am not going to try to give fifty-two full bio- 
graphies (though I wish I could, for everyone of 
them is a story in itself — an almost unbelievable 
story!) but just a suggestion or a characteristic 
here and there of a few of the men. They are all 
very human, the same hopes and desires, the same 
flesh and blood we are all made of — fathers, hus- 
bands, brothers — it means as much to every one of 
them to stay there in prison year on year under 
those hideously monotonous, unsanitary, galling con- 
ditions, as it would to any of you who read these 
words. Try for one moment to realize what these 
things mean. Try honestly. And then try to under- 
stand what it means in terms of character for these 
men to stay there rather than to compromise. 

NOT long ago the Rev. Richard W. Hogue, 
known doubtless to many Graphic readers as 
the international secretary of the Church League for 
Industrial Democracy, made a visit to Leavenworth, 
and James P. Thompson was one of the men with 
whom he talked. 

"How can we, how can any decent, self-respecting 
man," Thompson said to him, "buy his release at 
the cost of his manhood, by promising to refrain 
ever after from expressing his convictions and 
standing by his principles? It would be degrading 
and dishonest for us to accept 'parole' on the terms 
on which it has been offered us. We will go out of 
here as men, when we do go, not as 'criminals' pur- 
chasing 'liberty' with the barter of our convictions 
and our consciences. When we leave this place it 
will be with our heads up. . . ." 

Thompson has been called the "rough-necked 
Isaiah of the American proletariat." Over six feet 
tall, with clear-cut features, deep-set eyes and level 
brows, he is not altogether unlike the common con- 
ception of ancient prophets, especially when he 
thunders — "The very people who are abusing the 
I. W. W. today, would, if they had lived in the 
days of our forefathers, have been licking the boots 
of King George. They would have said of the boys 
fighting barefooted in the snow at Valley Forge, 
'Look at them ! They haven't shoes to their feet, 
and they are talking about liberty !' The people who 
are knocking the I. W. W. are the same type as 
those who dragged William Lloyd Garrison through 
the streets of Boston with a rope round his neck; 
who killed Lovejoy and threw his printing press 
into the Mississippi River." He is fond of quoting 
Woodrow Wilson's The New Freedom where it is 
developed in detail how the industrial interests of 



29 



30 



THE MEN I LEFT AT LEAVENWORTH 



America control the whole machinery of govern- 
ment: of quoting Supreme Court Justice Brandeis 
as saying that "America has a hereditary aristo- 
cracy of wealth which is foreign to American ideals 
and menacing the nation as a democracy," and ex- 
President Taft: "We must keep law and justice a 
little closer together in order to justify the law," 
and Judge Cullen : "There is danger, real danger, 
that the people will see with one sweeping glance 
how we lawyers in the pay of predatory wealth cor- 
rupt law at its fountainhead; that the furies may 
then break loose and all hell will ride on their 
wings." 

After some three years on the Leavenworth "rock 
pile," during which time he studied mechanics in all 
his spare hours, especially with reference to motors, 
Thompson now has charge of the prison garage, and 
also teaches in the prison night school. 

PRACTICALLY all these fifty-two men have 
taken up some definite study or course of read- 
ing and are fitting themselves for various kinds of 
work and socal service. They have in a sense, inso- 
far as such a place will permit, dominated their sur- 
roundings and made their own world. Several have 
enrolled in the University of Wisconsin extension 
courses in electricity, medicine, and so on, many of 
them teach in the prison school, many are writers — 
Ralph Chaplin's poems, for instance, are too well 
known perhaps to need much comment here. 

Then there is Mortimer Downing, nearly sixty 
years old, a newspaper man, well educated, widely 
travelled, with friends among people of influence all 
over the world. Not long ago he was offered a post 
in the prison printing-plant, a position for which he 
is eminently well fitted, and one not requiring hard 
or very monotonous labor. But he refused it and 
remained as "runner" for the "rock-pile gang" (a 
tedious post, involving exposure and considerable 
exertion, the "rock-pile" being the official Gehenna 
of the prison) because in this way he could keep in 
closer touch with this group of fifty-two (all I. W. 
W's., as he is) and continue to be of service to them 
individually. A practical example of the fine sense 
of fellowship and solidarity that characterizes all 
I. W. W.'s worthy the name. 

G. J. Bourg is a construction worker, imperturb- 
able, indomitable. One of his chief distinctions with 
us is the grit with which he used to keep doggedly 
on with his organizing — harvest fields, lumber 
camps, everywhere — no matter how many t'mes he 
was "beaten up" by "Vigilantes" and "Citizens' 
Committees." He would crawl into camp and stay 
long enough to get "fit," and out he would go again. 
He does not seem to know what fear means. George 
O'Connell is another construction worker — white 
haired, slow of speech, gentle-voiced, his infrequent 
smile is a reward in itself: he is another hard stu- 
dent and has made himself proficient in electricity. 
AndAlexanderCournos, who was assistant "weather 
man" out in South Dakota — short, slender, keen- 
eyed, wiry — would rather calculate than eat or 
sleep. 

Sam Scarlett (whose very name conjures visions 



of the time of Robin Hood) claims he is a "citizen 
of industry" and has no other nationality. 

"Where is your home?" he was asked by the 
prosecution during the Chicago trial. 

"Cook County Jail." 

"Before that?" 

"County Jail, Cleveland, Ohio." 

"And before that?" 

"City Jail, Akron, Ohio." 

"Are you a citizen?" 

"No." 

"That's enough." 

Scarlett was a champion soccer football player 
for some years and is also a skilled machinist and 
electrician and one of our best speakers and organ- 
izers. Robert Connellan, a man of almost sixty, 
is a chemist, a graduate of the University of Cali- 
fornia, and a musician (playing in the prison 
orchestra). We know him best as never too tired 
to explain something to some of us younger fellows, 
to explain carefully, in detail, no matter how tedious 
the matter may be. He is one of the famous "Silent 
Defence" men who survived those awful days in the 
vile Sacramento jail — an ordeal intended to break 
their spirit but which instead shattered their health 
but confirmed them in their principles. 

One Saturday afternoon there was a movie show 
at the penitentiary, and for no reason whatever we 
I. W. W.'s were singled out (and particularly the 
long-sentence men, contrary to the custom in all 
prisons) to shovel coal while the rest went to the 
show. Of course we refused, and equally of course 
we were all put in The Hole. We missed the show, 
but we made a stand against the policy of domineer- 
ing injustice that officials had inaugurated against 
us. For the first three years we were in prison, we 
were kept steadily on the "rock-pile" — a deputy 
warden, since transferred, told us he had orders 
"from Washington" "not to give us any easy time" 
but to "break our spirit," and he was going to give 
us "good reason to know that he was running that 
prison." 

Two of our men — Caesar Tabib and Edward 
Quigley — are suffering from tuberculosis aggravated 
if not contracted in the Sacramento jail where they 
spent a year before they were brought to trial. 
Because of their physical condition, these two men 
were prevailed on by the rest of us to make applica- 
tion for release, for "clemency," but their applica- 
tion was coldly refused by the Department of Jus- 
tice. Apparently thev are not yet near enough to 
death to make it "safe" to release them. 

Another of our number, William Weyh, was kept 
on the "rock-pile" last December until the exposure 
resulted in severe illness, hemorrhages — twelve in 
a single day. He was so emaciated as to be scarcely 
recognizable. It was at this point that a prison 
official said to him: "I don't believe you have an- 
other ten hours to live if you stay in this place. 
Drop vour I. W. W. affiliations, and you can go 
out of here as soon as vou please." Wevh's answer 
was: "No. I'll die first." We had been urging 
him to make application for release and he at last 
consented, and the authorities agreed, apparently 



THE MEN I LEFT AT LEAVENWORTH 



31 



preferring that he should die outside the walls. He 
stipulated, however, in writing, that "I have not 
wavered in my adherence to the I. W. W. and its 
principles." 

There is not space here to go further down the 
list of these fifty-two men; they all have the same 
splendid spirit, the same high courage, the same 
sense of the crucial human value of solidarity. 

AGAIN and again I am asked by those who depend 
only upon newspapers for their information, 
why we refuse to ask for "clemency"; and last July, 
when a petition for general amnesty (that is, tor 
unconditional release tor all charged with the same 
"offence") signed by some three hundred thousand 
names from all over the country, was presented to 
President Harding by a delegation of representative 
men and women, the President expressed "surprise" 
about this refusal on our part, and of course at the 
same time went through with that same ancient 
formula — "No one advocating the overthrow of the 
government by violence will be pardoned." This 
phrase is continually used by officials, apparently in 
lieu of any reason they can give for our continued 
imprisonment. 

The truth of the matter is, not one ot these fifty- 
two men was ever even indicted on the preposterous 
charges brought against them in the press during 
war-time hysteria, such as the receipt of German 
gold, and being spies. They are in prison now 
solely for expression of opinion, and none of those 
opinions have anything to do with the overthrow of 
any government in any way — they are merely opin- 
ions against war. Note also that these men are con- 
fined under the Espionage Act only, though it is now 
no longer in force. In lieu of any legal reason 
for their continued incarceration, Attorney General 
Daugherty even felt obliged to resort to giving out 
false information in reply to inquiries made on this 
subject by the Federal Council of Churches (see 
March ii, 1922 issue Information Service Research 
Department, Commission on Church and Social 
Service, F. C. C. C. A., room 604, 105 East 22 
Street, New York). 

Now, to revert to the President's "surprise" that 
we are unwilling to crawl out, I don't for a moment 
doubt his genuineness. It is entirely likely that it 
really is very difficult for him to understand such a 
thing. Let me quote from the Open Letter since 
prepared bv these fifty-two men and sent a month 
ago not only to the President, but also to all Cabinet 
officials. Congressmen, the Governors of the forty- 
eight states, and to a number of editors and others 
throughout the country. (I shall be verv glad to send 
a codv to any one who will write me in care of the 
Survey.) 

We are not criminals and are not in prison because we 
committed any crimes or conspired to commit them. From 
the beginning, justice has been denied us and the truth of our 
case withheld from the consideration of the public. ... In 
the press, the I. W. W. is like the Mexican in the movie 
show; he is always the villain. . . . We are in prison now 
solely for exercising our constitutional rieht of free sneech. 
... If it is a crime to exercise the right for which our 
fathers laid down their lives, we have no apology to make. 



. . . To make application for pardon would make hypocrite* 
of us all. . . . We refuse to recant, and continue to refvte 
to beg for a pardon which in common justice should ha;i 
been accorded to us long ago. . . . We are but a small 
group, insignificant in the universal scheme of things, but 
the ideas we are standing for are not insignificant. They 
are big and vtial and dynamic and concern every man, wo- 
man and child in America. It matters little what happens 
to us, but if the American people lose the right of free speech, 
the loss to the whole world will be irreparable. . . . We 
believed before we were convicted and we believe now that 
the present economic order is wasteful, planless, chaotic and 
criminal. . . . We seek to replace it with a well-ordered 
and scientifically managed system — in which machinery will 
be the only slave ... a civilization worthy of the intelli- 
gence of humanity. . . . Persecution is not new to us. Some 
day the truth of the incredible atrocities perpetrated upon 
our workers in this "Land of the Free" will become known 
to the world. Our imprisonment is only a single episode in 
the long history of brutality, . . . onslaughts of cruelty to 
be compared only with the burning of witches — exile and 
torture and deliberate murder have for years been our in- 
variable lot. But ideals cannot be altered by force; human 
convictions cannot be caged with iron bars ; human progress 
cannot be damned with a prison wall. . . . 

Captain Sidney Lanier, of the U. S. Military In- 
telligence Corps, with the facts of this case weigh- 
ing heavily on his conscience, made a direct appeal 
to President Wilson: "I am of the opinion," he de- 
clared, "that these men were convicted contrary to 
the law and the evidence, solely because they were 
leaders in an organiaztion against which public senti- 
ment was aroused, and the verdict rendered was in 
obedience to public hysteria." His opinion is borne 
out by the fact that war-profiteers, German agents, 
and others convicted of direct assistance to Ger- 
many during the war have long since been released, 
and of the 946 convictions under the so-called 
Espionage Act, (of persons not I. W. W.'s), all but 
five are now free. 

Solidarity — the basic, ineradicable, human faith 
that an injury to one is an injury to all — is the 
spirit, the very essence of our organization. Com- 
promise of any sort, for any purpose, is cheap 
enough; to compromise the principle of solidarity is 
essentially disloyal not only to the rest of the group, 
but to the whole vital cause for which we stand. 
"We were not convicted as individuals, but as a 
group. We were convicted of a 'conspiracy' of 
which we are all equally innocent or all equally 
guilty." 

THESE men in prison are bearing the brunt of in- 
tolerance and repression bred of the war and of 
the forces that bred the war. They are standing by 
their ideals at the cost, literally, of their lives in the 
full knowledge that for them individually there is 
everything to lose and nothing to gain, that no ad- 
vantage can possibly accrue to them personally. 

You who read these words: do none of you care 
whether justice is done? Do none of you care 
enough to make it your serious, personal concern to 
get the facts, all the facts, the whole truth, about 
this matter? And then add your influence to the 
forces already at work for the release of these men. 



Time 



By' CLEMENT WOOD 



I. 



IV. 



OWIND, blowing steadily from the gray 
Long moment ending hollow nothingness, 
Up to the flitting mist we call today, 
Toward tomorrow, gray and fathomless, 
All things that are — the living and the dead, 

The granite crag, the lightest, faintest dream, 
Wherever Space lifts up its Cerberus head, — 
Are in your unseen and insensate stream. 

O more than father, more than mother: you 
In whom beginning was, and being lies, 

Who grant existence to the cloaking blue, 
And all that is below the spinning skies, — 

Untiring Time, stepping with shrouded face, 

Clothed in the robe you weave, and name as Space. 



II. 



The rock is dead, and does not mark your going ; 

The grass that feeds upon its aging head 
Takes of the ancient soil to speed its growing, 

But to your passing is forever dead. 
The pine that shivers on the windy height, 

The seaweed dozing in the stagnant sea, 
Are blind to blazing sun and blinded night, 

As to the gray stretch of infinity. 

The deer that crop the grass are mo/e than these, 
Stirring upon the stirless face of land ; 

The bird that has its choice of kingly trees 
Kings it, all unaware that near at hand 

There is a hidden and a precious way 
To make long yesterdays nourish today. 



III. 



But out of jungle loins a being came 

Fitted to smooth the jungle to his will. 
Whose groping vision sharpens to a flame 

That leapt lightly above your highest hill ; 
One who could add one day unto another 

Until the hoarded store was rich and vast; 
Kin of the ape, and the strong eagle's brother — 

And yet himself, and none of these, at last. 

No fancied genius of the shrouded wood 
Jetted his spirit, and engendered man ; 

No god rutting in misty solitude 

Topped stolid earth, to spawn him: he began 

Son of the jungle loins; yet his own kind, 
By the rude magic of his flowering mind. 



V. 



Now tremble, Time, for your unbroken sway — 

Here is a lord will share your ancient throne. 
He travels far beyond the thin today, 

And makes forgotten yesterdays his own. 
He shapes tomorrow with a regal will, 

Until his sons have power as of kings: 
Altho you flee with all your ancient skill, 

Man is the trapper who shall bind your wings. 

For what is life but hoarding of the past, 

And brittle dreams of what the future holds? 

Dreams men will forge to shining deeds, to last 
Beyond the irk of summers and of colds. 

The half-chained spirit, Time, shrinks at man's nod- 
And a whole conquest makes of man a god. 



VI. 



Why, there are larks that wake the English woods 

Whose fathers saw fierce Caesar beach his keel, 
And shake the Druids' solemn solitudes 

With the harsh clangor of the naked steel. 
There are sleek dolphins in the tossing spray 

Whose ancients saw Apollo come to port, 
And yet their knowledge cannot leap today, 

Nor spin the heavy ages for their sport. 

Forever locked to grass ai.d toughened tree. 
Forever barred from animal and bird, 

The travelled vistas of eternity, 

The dust the marching centuries have stirred. 

Thev are Time's abject creatures: they are slaves. 
Who crumble dumbly into crumbling graves. 



When we shall live, not for the far delight 

Of pampered ease in heavens never known. 
Nor to bring cringing man beneath the might 

Of sword or bleeding gold or iron throne. 
But to build years of comfortable mirth. 

That the clear laughter of the sons of men. 
As with a belt of light, may ring the earth, 

And give the tired heavens youth again. 

Then have we used the tool in its own task : 

And tho the haft be cracked, the point be blunted, 

F'or no rewarding heaven men will ask. 

With shriveled souls, and minds and bodies stvinted : 

But thev will welcome death's consumine ha7e. 
Who have built Heaven, and lived it, all their days. 



32 



The Unprintable Text Book 



By JOSEPH K. HART 







i 




W^anf&za 


Eli? 


Z&; -i*srs«} 



UMAN beings cannot let the world 
alone. Our world, whether physic- 
al or social, has been greatly modi- 
fied by means of inventions. Some 
of these inventions are distinctly 
social. "Man is an institution-build- 
ing animal," said Aristotle. That 
is to say, man is a social innovator — when he needs 
to be. Frequently, however, our inventions turn 
upon us and control us. In the estimation of some, 
our institutions have become our masters: institu- 
tions are everything, the individual and the com- 
munity are nothing 1 

However that may be, the boundaries between the 
various social institutions have never been clearly 
defined, and the competitions among them for the 
allegiances of men, women and children have been 
keen, even bitter and deadly. The church, the state, 
the home, the shop : all these compete for the loyal- 
ty and the energy of us all. In recent centuries, the 
school has entered into this arena of competition, 
especially with respect to the time and energy of 
children. 

Schoolish men and women are greatly disturbed 
by the fact that the boundaries between the school 
and the other social institutions are not definite. 
"If," say they, "we could just get the community 
to agree as to what the work of the school is, we 
could proceed to organize that work in such specific 
ways as would advance education immeasurably. 
But now the home interferes, now the state, the 
church objects and industry interrupts. Nothing 
definite can be done! Education could organize the 
world; but the other institutions won't permit it!" 
This desire that education should belong to the 
school and that the school should have a domain 
of its own, safe from all these interferences of the 
community, is perfectly natural. In a stationary 
social order, such a school and such an education 
might be permitted. But in a democratic and scientific 
age, no such contention can be accepted. The school- 
house is not the center of education; the school- 
man is not the arbiter of what education should be. 
The whole problem is infinitely more complex. But 
whatever its complications, democracy must face the 
issue. That issue is defined, not by the schoolhouse 
but by the community of which it is a part. 

Consider the educational processes and result 
found in a primitive community before schools came 
into existence. The school is the youngest of our 
social institutions, an invention of comparatively 
recent times. Education is as old as the race, at 
least; the school is not. 

In that little primitive community group of, let 
us say, some five hundred members, education was 



just the sum total of all the experiences of the com- 
mon life. That community had its industries, its 
religious ceremonials and rituals, its organized social 
controls, its family life — with all the current tradi- 
tions, customs and habits that had grown up about 
these common relationships and activities. Children 
were born into this group life; they grew up in the 
midst of its activities and influences; they took on 
its habits, its skills, its customs and traditions; they 
graduated from its apprenticeships into adult mem- 
bership, fully educated for the life they were to live. 
That education was thorough, practical, moral. For 
the needs of that group life it was all that could be 
desired. It assured, within limits, the survival of 
the group. 

But consider further what happened in those 
later days when populations increased and that com- 
munity of five hundred members found itself be- 
coming an aggregation of ten thousand, a hundred 
thousand. In that small community everyone 
worked; everyone shared in the structure of the 
social order; everyone was a member of the family 
life; everyone was of the religious life; all belonged, 
and each became what everyone else became, sub- 
ject to unalterable differences in the individual 
natures. 

BUT as that community grew into what we came 
to call the city, those common experiences neces- 
sarily failed. Children could no longer share com- 
pletely the old common life. Various interests be- 
came institutionalized and segregated. The city de- 
veloped its "residence district"; its "industrial quar- 
ter"; religion was sequestered in a church building; 
and the social order grew into a "state," with its 
"city-hall" and its jail. No child could longer find 
all the primitive interests in its immediate world. 

Moreover, the people themselves became special- 
ized : labor was "divided." Some became workers, 
per se; some became politicians; some became 
"churchmen." Each type tended to monopolize the 
activities and the prestige of its particular interest, 
and to neglect or decry the other newly competing 
interests and activities. No child could longer find 
all its needs represented in the interests of its own 
immediate group. And few there were, indeed, 
who rose above these specializations of personality 
and of social interest and became true members of 
the ideal community still imaginatively existent 
above these fragmentations of interests: that is to 
say, few individuals could become citizens, in the 
psvchological sense. 

Yet, then and now as of old, education is not 
complete without some sense of the whole environ- 
ment within which one's life is to be lived. There 



33 



34 



THE UNPRINTABLE TEXT BOOK 



are some of course who can function in a fragment 
of existence, shuttling back and forth in a slot, while 
the great currents of life pass by unknown and un- 
considered. But most people have to get on the 
outside of their environment, at least in some meas- 
ure. Even though the city grows beyond immediate 
comprehension, they must do something that will 
bring them at least a little understanding. Educa- 
tion is not experiences alone: it is experience! 

HOW did this primitive community meet the con- 
ditions of break-up in its old, immediately per- 
ceptible world? The answer is illuminating. Be- 
tween that older community without organized 
schools and our own modern society with its mas- 
sively organized education we catch glimpses of a 
little period in which a very peculiar institution 
existed — an institution whose only trace remaining 
to us is a word that seems at best whimsical. I refer 
to the pedagogue. How greatly changed is the 
meaning of that elderly word and institution! 

Yet in those transitional days in Athens, when 
the primitive life had broken down and the "aca- 
demic" days had not yet come, the pedagogue was 
the chief educational factor. He was first of all 
a citizen — an individual who still knew his way 
through the city's life and therefore could help be- 
wildered children find their ways through and into 
the life of their city. The pedagogue was never a 
school-man. He was a city-man, a city-zen.. He led 
his charge, or his charges, through the city's streets. 
He stopped to talk with them about the novel things 
they saw. He helped them understand what this 
too-large environment meant. He helped them inte- 
grate their experiences into a meaningful experience, 
"with power on their own lives and on the world." 

Ben Franklin tells, in his autobiography, of the 
days when his father led him through the streets of 
Boston town, showing him shops and stores, offices 
and all the other indications of vocational differ- 
entiation. When this investigation had been thor- 
oughly finished, the father said to the boy: "Of 
all the vocations we have examined into, Ben, which 
would you choose?" That was the work of the 
pedagogue! 

BUT the city grew. Time passed. The pedagogue 
grew old and came upon the days of his depar- 
ture. He knew a great deal about the city, historical 
and contemporaneous. The city might never see his 
like again. He wrote a book of his remembrances, 
the full story of ' is city as he knew and loved it. 
And so he died! 

There was none like him to take his place in 
the same complete way. Some knew certain aspects 
of the city — for their own purposes. But no one 
knew the city in that complete and understanding 
way which was the pedagogue's; none could reveal 
its hidden activities to the children as he had done. 
What should now become of the education of the 
children? The answer to this question is illuminat- 
ing also. 

Though no one knew the city as the pedagogue 
had known it, there were those who had read his 



book. One such could be found who was practically 
letter-perfect (say 92^ percent) in it. As a sub- 
stitute, this or.e might do. But with many children 
on his hands and with a book to teach, he could 
find no time to wander about the city. Accordingly, 
they built a house for him — a house with windows 
so high from the floor that the children could not 
be distracted by outward sights. Here he met the 
children and assigned them lessons in the book. And 
this was the first school! 

And here we find the first school-teacher in the 
academic sense: one who has taken upon himself 
the bookish learning of other people and who de- 
votes himself to passing on this second-hand learn- 
ing to third parties, particularly little children who 
have no way of defending themselves from the pro- 
cess. Such a school-teacher does not know the ma- 
terials he is putting over. He finds them in a book. 
He teaches the book. He does not dare permit 
himself to be too closely quizzed about the materials. 
He can but insist that the children learn what is in 
the book. They ask him for the city and he gives 
them bookish irrelevancies. They ask him for bread 
and he gives them a stone ! 

SO education gets into a compartment of its own: 
it leaves the market-place and the city streets, 
where Socrates walked and talked with his pupils; it 
retreats, with Plato, into the shady groves of Aca- 
demus, in the suburbs, and becomes "academic"! 
The teacher and the school-house get into the tradi- 
tion. The book becomes supreme. A book about 
a city obviates the necessity of investigating the city. 
A book is something inescapable: "It is written!" 
Which by translation in to the Greek becomes: "It 
is scripture!" From the which there is no escape! 
Education ceases to be something that goes on in 
the life of the community and in the growing life 
of the child. It is something stored up in books, 
treasured in school-houses, guarded by school-teach- 
ers, to be taken on in organized fashion by children, 
willy-nilly. 

All this would not be so undesirable were it not 
for the fact that the cult of the school developed by 
this process assumes to monopolize the word educa- 
tion. It holds that education is something that goes 
on in school-houses, under the supervision of school- 
teachers. Nothing else, or at least little else, can 
be accepted by the schools — "for credit." All else, 
all the rich and varied experiences of life and the 
world may be valuable — "for some things" — but 
not for credit in the schools. The schools in this 
fashion achieve a world of their own, with its own 
standards and rules, the academic world, not the 
real world. Education is discussed by teachers of 
this sort, not from the standpoint of its bearings 
on life and active experience, but from the stand- 
point of its conformitv to some phase or aspect of 
the tradition. The schools are troubled by the fact 
that a "real world" lies all about them. Teachers 
are disturbed by the possibility that sonic pupil will 
come alive in the midst of a recitation and ask some 
"funny" question. 

For this reason, in most schools children are 



THE UNPRINTABLE TEXT BOOK 



35 



never found: only "pupils"! The pupil is that part 
of a child which consents to accept and abide by 
the rules and folkways of the school-room. The 
connection between the school-room pupil and the 
living child that waits at the door for the end of the 
hour is usually very tenuous, sometimes exceedingly 
remote. Always this barring-out of a part of the 
child's personality results in some degree of division 
of attention; not infrequently it results in a divided 
personality, with all the pathological after-effects 
that we know. But for most children it means their 
quick elimination from the schools. 

Meanwhile all sorts 
of constructive and de- 
structive educations are 
going on elsewhere, in 
all the activities and ex- 
periences of the child 1 s 
life. An hour spent in 
the school-room has no 
superlative virtue. Ex- 
perience is experience, 
wherever achieved. To 
be sure, some experi- 
ences are more impor- 
tant than others. But 
labeling an experience 

"educational" does not guarantee that superiority. 
Whatever helps the individual to grasp his world, to 
tear that world to pieces for purposes of understand- 
ing, to put it back together again for purposes of 
control: such experiences, wherever secured, are the 
significant experiences for that kind of education 
which seems to be needed in democratic and scien- 
tific age. 

The school might help children of all ages, today, 
to develop such growing experiences — such a grow- 
ing experience. But other factors in the community 
help in these ways, also, and always will help. In- 
dustry was once the chief means of educating boys 
and girls in the primitive community, as we have 
seen; in the pioneer country district, as many will 
remember. No matter how important, or how in- 
telligent the school becomes, education will always 
inhere, in some degree, in the vocations, in the social 
situation, in community interests and ideals, in every 
experience of the plastic years. 

Moreover, these experiences outside of schools 
are the primary experiences of life. Just as they 
existed for children before the school came into 
being, so they exist for children now, before they 
ever start to school: they surround the children in 
all their hours outside of school; they will still con- 
dition adult activity in the years after schools are 
left behind. Schools may be escaped altogether. 
In any case, they will soon be left behind. But ex- 
perience cannot be escaped by any sentient being: 
in spite of schools, education goes on from birth 
(or even from before birth) until the nervous 
system becomes so set, or sot, that nothing longer 
makes impression upon it. 



The Gulf Between 

By JEAN SCHICK GROSSMN 

Their mother at her frying pan, 

Unkempt, a billowy form, 

Her tired eyes intent upon her drudgery. 

Her children — a million miles away 

At the table close beside her, 

One studying the physics of electro magnetism, 

Another, Ward's Dynamic Sociology. 



It seems clear, therefore, that in any discussion 
of education, the argument must begin with the 
"education outside of schools," the education con- 
tributed by the community. This method of dis- 
cussion leaves the school in a peculiar position. The 
argument resolutely denies that, in a democratic 
society, the school has a right to its own traditions, 
its own standards, its own materials, its own private 
compartment. As an academic institution, the school 
will claim such "rights." But securing them will 
rather quickly subject it to the criticisms of the com- 
munity. Some of those criticisms will be unfair; 

some will be ridiculous. 
Enough of them will be 
obviously irrelevant, 
and hardened school- 
man will be able to 
make it appear that all 
criticisms of the schools 
are motivated by ignor- 
ance or jealousy or 
some biased bent of 
mind. 

None the less, the 
school as an academic 
institution is an unintel- 
ligent substitute for the 
immediate experience-world of the primitive com- 
munity and for the illuminating guidance of the old 
pedagogue. As compared with either of its pre- 
cursors, its work it faulty in the extreme. The 
pedagogue might have become institutionalized, in 
time. He too might have become bookish, pedantic, 
and remote from reality. It may even be that the 
school of today is just the institutionalized peda- 
gogue. The survival of that word and its present 
meaning tend to support that possibility. 

ID UT the pedagogue was once the most intelligent 
*-* member of the community, and at the same time 
the most understanding and sympathetic member. 
He knew his community. He knew the needs of 
the children. He illuminated the life of the com- 
munity for the bewildered minds of the children, 
and thereby illuminated those minds. He did not 
substitute his own experience for theirs. He made 
his own experience a means and a guide in helping 
them to develop experiences and experience of their 
own. He had one function in his own right: He did, 
as pedagogue, those things that needed to be done 
to help bewildered children find their ways through 
and into the larger, inclusive life of their city, their 
world. 

The school, if it is to do the work of democracy 
and support the efforts of science, must return from 
its academic aloofness, with Plato, and find its place 
once more in the midst of the actual experiences of 
life and the world, with Socrates, the pedagosoie — 
must draw them in, must go out to them. What 
goes on inside of schools must be seen to be the ap- 
proach to what goes on outside of schools. 




Constantinople 



An American Social Survey in the Trouble Center of the Near East 

By CLARENCE RICHARD JOHNSON 



OW could a group of Americans 
make a social survey in a complex 
city like Constantinople with over a 
million inhabitants of many nation- 
alities including Turks, Greeks, 
Armenians, Kurds, Persians, Arabs, 
Russians, all with conflicting inter- 
ests? "It can't be done!" This was the attitude 
of many people who knew the Near East. Some 




such a study have been possible. Our leading Amer- 
ican educator in the Near East, C. F. Gates, for 
the past twenty years president of Robert College, 
while the investigations were going on, said to a 
group of survey workers: 

When those of us who were here during Abdul Haniid's 
reign look about and see what has been accomplished, we 
find that much progress has been made. In the old days, the 
moment you tried to open a school the police came to find 



mocked, others scorned. Some said they would hear out all about it. The general attitude was one of repression, 
us again — that was, after we had failed. But what 



ought to be done can be done. We felt it ought 
to be done; for, the knowledge available in English 
or in any other language of the social life in this 
historic city was extremely scanty. And for the first 
time in centuries the doors were wide enough open 
for investigation by foreigners. If more who had 
ears and who yet heard not had given us a helping 
hand, we could have carried on our investigation 
more widely; but even so we have gathered more 
accurate information on the government and people 
of Constantinople, on the children who work, its 
schools, prisons, churches and mosques, houses of 
ill-fame, its widows and orphans, its recreations, 
than has ever been gathered bv Americans in all 
their vears of residence in the city. 

In fairness to the great missionaries of other days 
it should be added that not unt ; 1 the fall of the auto- 
cratic regime of Sultan Abdul Hamid in 1908 would 



and now here we are going about the streets and asking 
questions. Why, that was unthinkable only fourteen years 
ago ! 

Among the leaders of the various races that make 
up the cosmopolitan population of Constantinople, 
and not least among the Turks, the survey was re- 
ceived most cordially. The acting minister of the 
interior assured us that every facility would be 
given us to studv the prisons and such other condi- 
tions as we wished to inquire into. The minister 
of public instruction, Rashid Bey, assured the di- 
rector of his interest in this study and said: 

As a member of His Majesty's government, I welcome 
this survey. You are making this study in the interest of 
science; and you can count on my hearty cooperation. 

One of our women investigators who was granted 
an interview with the Sheikh ul Islam, the head of 
religious law for all the millions of Moslems in 
Turkev. describes the visit in these words: 



36 



CONSTANTINOPLE 



37 



The Sheikh ul Islam fairly beamed good will and benevo- 
lence when I explained to him, through an interpreter, what 
a social survey is and what might be its ultimate good to 
Constantinople. He wished me to know the details which 
I sought and further gave me permission to visit the 
imarets — the buildings clustering about the mosques where 
Moslem theological students live at the expense of the 
government and where the poor come unbidden and are made 
welcome. With his soft, colored robes and scarlet setting 
of Turkish carpets and hangings he made a wonderful pic- 
ture which belonged to the time of the Old Testament. The 
Sheikh ul Islam desired me to know that he considered that 
the United States had given the greatest uplift to mankind 
— the most powerful blow at evil — when it passed the law 
of prohibition. The conscientious Moslem is, of course, 
temperate. 

The late Greek Patriarchal Locum Tenens said: 

I am very glad you are going to make a study among the 

Greeks, because, if you find conditions good, it will please 

me; if you, on the other hand, report that they are not good, 

I shall be happy to find this out so that I may change them. 

Professor Abraham Der Hagopian, for forty-six 
years an honored member of the faculty of Robert 
College and now President of the Armenian Na- 
tional Assembly, in speaking of the survey said: 



Americans can direct such a study in our various com- 
munities as perhaps no other people could, for their philan- 
thropic motive, free from all political aspirations in the 
Near East, is recognized by all the inhabitants of Turkey. 

Not only among the leading Turks was this sur- 
vey welcomed, but also among the common people. 
To show this, two instances will suffice. We had 
investigated the working conditions of a number of 
cab-drivers. 'They were so pleased at the attention 
that they put up a notice to this effect at their central 
meeting place. And again, on learning of our sur- 
vey, the hamals, the burden bearers of Constantino- 
ple, implored us: "You are studying the way other 
people live. Study, too, how the hamals live." 

The idea of a social survey in Constantinople 
came from an American, since martyred by bandits 
while on the dangerous road between Aleppo and 
Aintab. That American was James Perry to whom 
Constantinople Today, The Pathfinder Survey of 
Constantinople, soon to be published by the Mac- 
millan Company, is dedicated. James Perry had 
grown up in a small city on the coast of Maine 
where he had known everybody and everything that 
went on. At college and seminary he had kept up 

Publishers' Photo Sfmic* 




Santa Sophia - the Spiritual Stronghold of Changing Empires 



38 



CONSTANTINOPLE 




An Open-Air Market 

TRADE AND INDUSTRY 

From the Report of Lawrence S. Moore 

CONSTANTINOPLE has a magnificent natural harbor. 
This has made the city an emporium of oriental trade 
for twenty-five centuries. It has all the elements of 
a successful world port and will hold its own under modern 
conditions. The grouping of industries follows the tradi- 
tions of centuries. Stamboul, the site of old Byzantium, is 
noted for its bazaars, hand trades, and wholesale houses; 
Galata, the medieval Genoese quarter, is the center of 
banking and shipping; Pera is the fashionable shopping 
center. 

Rapid transportation and communication are difficult. 
There were no electric street cars or automobiles before 
1908. The complexity of streets and business blocks would 
worry to despair any postal service; for this reason, as well 
as for others, the local Turkish postal service is less used 
by business firms than messenger service. Telephone service 
has been established recently. Electric lighting is not uni- 
versal. There are not more than a dozen elevators in the 
entire city. Heating methods are primitive; the brazier is 
still largely used. Fire escapes are almost wholly lacking. 
Twenty-five thousand wooden dwelling houses, aside from 
business structures, have been destroyed by fire since 1908. 
Few buildings have been erected in their places. Fire fight- 
ing apparatus is primitive and inadequate. Conservatism is 
rampant. With certain exceptions, the more considerable 
firms in Turkey are foreign. 

Previous to 1908, inventions and industrial improvements 
were looked upon with suspicion by the government. For 
instance, cranes for loading and unloading vessels are few; 
most of the labor of moving cargoes is performed by hand. 
The war did not promote industrial development in Con- 
stantinople. Labor organizations are just beginning to 
appear. 

CONSTANTINOPLE is still a city of small trades. Mo- 
^- > dern industrialism is all but unknown. There are few 
establishments that employ in permanent work over a hun- 
dred workmen. The total number of employes in the 
factories visited was 2,850. Of this number 1,050 were 
men; the remainder, women and children. Hours, wages, 
working conditions leave much to be desired. Conditions at 
the tanneries, of which seven are of good size, are worse 
than at the factories. Slight provision is made for the wel- 
fare of the employes. 

The modern steam laundry is unknown. The large 
majority of laundries u re "mere holes," as one worker ex- 
pressed it. They are scattered all over the city, for the 
most part in private homes. 

The bakieries of Constantinople were the subject of a spe- 
cial study. Home baking is rare in the Orient. Bread is 
bought at the bakery or dough is prepared at home and 
brought to a public oven. There are in Constantinople 350 
bakieries employing 3,500 men. Conditions were revealed 
in this essential industry which remind (he reader of those 
that prevailed in some American communities before the 
enactment of sanitary and industrial codes. 

In the retail stores Greeks predominate. Less than 35 
per cent of the employes are women. Three-fourths of 1 
per cent are children. Hours vary from seven to ten per 
dav. In the department stores the beginning wage of men 
and women does not differ appreciably. The maximum 
wage of men is 20 per cent above that of women. Wages in 
the smaller stores range from $16 to $48 per month. 



his questioning habit. As a Y. M. C. A. worker 
among French troops in France for four years he 
had continued in his art of gathering information. 
When, after the armistice, sent to take charge of all 
Y. M. C. A. work in the Turkish empire, he arrived 
in Constantinople, he again asked questions on the 
social life of the people; but this time no one 
seemed able to answer his questions. He asked 
Turks and Greeks and Armenians, and they could 
not answer. He went to British and French and 
Americans and usually was told: "We don't know." 
One American missionary, better informed than 
most of his fellow countrymen in Constantinople, 
very frankly said that for twenty-five years he had 
been going back and forth to his office and never 
known much of what was going on three blocks to 
the left or three blocks to the right of the path to 
his office. 

To an energetic New Englander, used to knowing 
what was going on, it was surprising to find that 
many Americans lived in Constantinople for years 
and still could not read the Turkish, Greek or 
Armenian newspapers. He found Constantinople 
had been for ages under a despotic government 
which concealed and repressed facts. He learned 
reports were not always reliable. No one knew ex- 
actly what the population was. The estimates made 
by leading citizens seemed almost ludicrous to a 
Maine man who had known even as a boy and later 
as a man exactly how many people inhabited the 
city where he lived. Here the estimates made by 




The Ever Popular Ice-Cream Man 



CONSTANTINOPLE 



39 



leading citizens ranged from eight hundred thou- 
sand to more than a million and a half. No careful 
census had ever been made, the population being 
estimated sometimes by counting the number of 
houses. It is not surprising that there was no di- 
rectory. Telephones were first installed ten years 
ago, and the telephone directory is the only list 
available; but this was of course inadequate as it 
would be in any large city. 

Then there was the complicated system of gov- 
ernment, with Inter-Allied control above the central 
Turkish government, and with governments within 
governments; for, back in 1453 Mohammed the 
Conqueror had allowed the various races certain 
powers of self-government. In this communal sys- 
tem it was only natural that there should be different 
powers working along different lines, jealous of each 
other, their members composed of different races, 
speaking different languages, suspicious of foreign- 
ers, and particularly suspicious of people who asked 
questions. 

Mr. Perry saw that much philanthropic work in 
a great city with such shadowy knowledge of its 
social life must necessarily involve waste both of 
time and money. He determined that a social sur- 
vey along established American lines was exactly 
what Constantinople needed. To some it seemed 
needless expense, but he argued that since Amer- 
icans were spending millions of dollars in rescue and 
uplift work in the Near East, they might reasonably 
spend some thousands of dollars in gathering facts 





Turkisfi^Delight - A Peddler of Candy 



Where Ancient and Modern Carriers Meet 

CITY ADMINISTRATION 

From the Report of W. W . Peet 

THE constitution at present in force in Turkey was 
established by imperial Irade in 1908. It provides for 
a parliament of two houses which together constitute 
the General Assembly. Parliament meets each year at the 
beginning of November and closes at the beginning of the 
following March. The senators are appointed by the sultan 
for life; their number must not exceed one-third that of 
the deputies who are chosen by electors nominated by the 
notables in the proportion of one to every fifty thousand 
inhabitants and serve for four years. The cabinet consists 
of the grand vizier and the sheih-ul-Islam, the head of the 
Moslem church, both appointed by the sultan, and ten mem- 
bers selected by the grand vizier. 

OlNCE 1453, when Mohammed II captured Constantinople, 
*~* the city enjoys a community autonomy granted to the 
principal national groups which gave them a fair oppor- 
tunity for economic and cultural development. But the 
Greek patriarch, until a new constitution was approved in 
i860, did not have full civil authority over the Greek people. 
Since that year, the affairs of the Greek community are 
managed by the Holy Synod which is composed of twelve 
archbishops from the provinces, with the patriarch as presi- 
dent. There is also a mixed council of archbishops and 
laymen, the latter elected for two-year terms by an assembly 
composed of elected representatives of the parishes which 
meets once a year. 

The Armenian local government, under the general pro- 
visions of the Turkish law, is similarly ancient and simi- 
larly constituted. Under a constitution granted in 1862, a 
religious assembly and a political assembly, both under the 
Armenian Patriarchate, are recognized. In certain cases 
they combine to form a mixed assembly. The constitution 
lays down the duties of each assembly and of the councils 
and committees organized by them, also the system of na- 
tional taxation and of provincial administration. The Ar- 
menian General Assembly met regularly in Constantinople 
until 1892. Although some of the provincial assemblies con- 
tinue to hold their meetings, the constitution is practically 
in abeyance owing to the unsettled political conditions that 
now prevail. 

FOREIGNERS in Turkey live under the Capitulations; 
that is, by a fiction of the law, they are regarded as 
dwelling under and subject to the laws of their own coun- 
try. Thus a number of foreign colonies observe their own 
laws and customs, have their own courts and other institu- 
tions and enjoy practical autonomy within the Ottoman 
empire. 

Since the conclusion of the war, the government of Con- 
stantinople is carried on by a council of British, French and 
Italian high commissioners. Their control is exercised 
through ten commissions, the most important of which are 
in charge of the police, sanitation, naval and military affairs 
and the bureau of censorship. 

AN instance of international cooperation in the govern- 
ment of Constantinople is the Sanitary Commission 
which is composed of representatives of the three Allied 
Powers and controls a number of services while the physical 
plant, especially the drainage system, is more exclusively 
under Turkish control. The interallied police has declared 
certain districts "out of bounds" for allied troops; there are*, 
however, other red light districts, controlled by this police 
and accessible to the soldiers. 



40 



CONSTANTINOPLE 



so as to have a more intelligent idea about the peo- 
ple among whom more than a hundred thousand 
Americans have made contributions, large and 
small, during the last few years. Most of the lead- 
ing Americans in Constantinople were won over to 
the idea. 

The Pathfinder Survey of Constantinople contains 
ten sections. Two other sections, one on housing 
and one on health, had to be given up for want of 
adequate funds. The ten subjects studied are: 
Historical Setting, Industry, Adult Delinquency, Or- 
phanages. City Administration, Refugees, Widow- 
hood, Community Organization, Education, and 
Recreation. The investigations closed on May 25, 
1921. 

One of our keenest students of life in the Near 
East at the beginning of our survey remarked, "I 
don't know of any place where it is so difficult to 
get facts as in Constantinople." The reasons for 
this are apparent. There is in Constantinople the 
difficulty of language and custom, for in a single 
half hour on the bridge between Stamboul, the 
largest Turkish quarter, and the newer European 
section, one can hear at least thirty languages 
spoken. Here East meets West, and the ancient 
oriental means of transportation, the camel, may be 
caught in the same photograph with the latest model 
of a Detroit automobile. 

Even more difficult for the surveyor is the in- 
accuracy which seems to reign in the statement of 
facts. Like the early biologists, who in the midst 
of their heated discussion as to the number of teeth 
a horse has, never thought of counting those teeth, 
so here the vast majority debate without first seek- 
ing the facts. 

Another important reason is that the rank and 
file of the people who have grown up in this part of 
the world think differently from westerners. Their 
minds do not seem to cut so sharply as the mind of 
our average American. Of course, I know some 
Turks and Greeks and Armenians who are as keen 
thinkers as any Americans, but I am talking now 
rather of the mass. To make the difference clear, 
let me quote a conversation which took place be- 
tween our investigator and one of the widows she 
interviewed. Our investigation of widowhood con- 
sisted of a careful study of one hundred Turkish 
widows, one hundred Armenian widows, a hundred 
Greeks and a hundred Jews. This conversation 
took place with a Turkish woman : 

Question. What kind of work do you do? 

Answer. I, Hanum EfTendia? (Lady, Madam) 

Question. Yes, you, Madam. 

Answer. What should such a lowly, humble person as 
I do? 

Question. Do you go out and work by the day? 

Answer. Well, when I am called T go. Rut there are 
many to be called and few who call. Seldom am I called. 

Question. But when you are called, what do you do? 

Answer. I, Hanum Effendia? 

Question. Yes, you, Madam. Do you wash ? 

Answer. Why, Hanum Effendia, sometimes I clean the 
floor, or sometimes I may clean the clothing of those who 
walk on the floors that I have cleaned. 



1 1 


1 




. ^ A 




Football on Santa Sophia Field 

RECREATION 

From the Report of G. G. Deaver 

THE East and the West take their pleasures differently. 
What is recreation to a westerner seems like strenuous 
activity to the man of the East; what the latter con- 
siders enjoyable bores the man of the West. Most of the 
leisure time in Constantinople is spent in sedentary pleasures. 
The common people like to sit in coffee-houses where, in the 
society of equals, they sip coffee or sherbet and perhaps 
smoke a water-pyje. The thousands of coffee-houses of 
Constantinople are almost always rilled with people of all 
nationalities. 

A leisurely walk along a city street or in one of the open 
spaces or parks plays an amazingly important part in the 
lives of most people — Moslems, Jews and Christians alike. 
Innumerable play spaces, entirely unsupervised by the gov- 
ernment, are dotted at intervals along the coast. In these 
natural playgrounds the people congregate. In summer 
there is much boating, bathing and fishing. 

Quite different in character from the coffee-houses are the 
beer-halls, dancing-halls and saloons which are generally 
patronized by native Christians and reflect the commercial 
and maritime life of the shipping district. These places are 
almost invariably of a low and undesirable type. 

The motion picture theater is becoming increasingly pop- 
ular as a recreation. There are forty such theaters in the 
city in addition to several real theaters. 

NEARLY all the more energetic uses of leisure time have 
been introduced by western residents. Numerous clubs 
are organized for sports, principally football, and they are 
still growing in number and patronage. The French, Eng- 
lish and American schools provide gymnastic facilities, or- 
ganize games and promote Boy Scout and other organiza- 
tion for open-air recreation. But as elsewhere, a vast num- 
ber of the young people of Constantinople have no interest 
in games except as onlookers. 

An American Y. M. C. A. and a Y. W. C. A. have been 
organized within recent years. These two institutions pri- 
marily interest themselves in guiding the leisure time acti- 
vities of the young and in giving them opportunities for 
indoor sports, picnics, hikes and summer camping. The Y. 
M. C. A. has, further, been instrumental in teaching train- 
ing instructors of games and gymnastics for native schools. 

IN general, the need for improved recreational facilities is 
great, not only for school children but even more so for 
young men and women, vast numbers of whom do not un- 
derstand how to use their spare time healthfully and pro- 
fitably. Various foreign organizations, with the coopera- 
tion of native agencies, are doing their best to remedy this 
state of things; but it will be some time before the rather 
phlegmatic people of the Orient will realize the joys of 
exercise. 

THE uses of recreation in the solution of social problems 
is hardlv as yet realized. The report on work among 
the refugees states: "The value of recreation in solving the 
problem of the unemployed and the destitute has received 
scant recognition, and only in comparatively rare instances 
has any effort been made to provide recreation from with- 
out or to seek it from within." The people of the Orient do 
not know how to play, and the foreign social workers who 
try to teach them come up against a difficult psychological 
problem. 



CONSTANTINOPLE 



41 




On the Way to School 

THE SCHOOLS 

From the Report of Professor F. H. Black 

FEW cities present the complicated problems in education 
found in Constantinople — a city composed of many na- 
tional groups each of which lives much to itself, seek- 
ing its own interests and developing its own social institu- 
tions. 

There is no educational policy as a whole nor could one 
have succeeded at any time in the past, even if it had been 
proposed. The two essentials of such a policy are lacking — 
a common language and a common educational ideal. The 
Turkish language is generally understood by all nationali- 
ties, but it is the mother tongue of Moslems only. Each of 
the principal nationalities desires to lay the main emphasis 
in education on its own language, literature and cultural 
traditions. 

P HE principal national groups supporting their own 
-*• schools are the Turks, the Greeks, the Armenians, and 
the Jews. Schools are also supported by the Bulgarian, 
Albanian, and Persian communities and by many foreign 
organizations. Of the foreign schools the French are the 
most numerous. The Turkish government has been liberal 
in the past in allowing the development of so many extensive 
school systems which are generally based on the systems of 
continental Europe. 

The Turkish university is the only institution of higher 
learning in the city, except for certain foreign schools which 
offer some courses of university grade. The three principal 
faculties of the Turkish university are those of law, medi- 
cine and literature. 

A LL schools in the city have suffered much during the 
•*»■ last eight years. Funds are extremely meager. The 
one bright factor at present is the eagerness of a majority 
of the pupils to employ their time in school diligently. With 
few exceptions buildings are poorly adapted to school pur- 
poses, badly equipped and generally cheerless. The pre- 
paration of many teachers for their work leaves much to be 
desired. 

There is less illiteracy than one might suppose. No 
census has been taken up to this time, however, showing 
figures in regard to this. The number of pupils of the four 
principal nationalities are as follows: Turkish primary 
schools 29,111, secondary 15,920; Greek primary schools 
20,490, secondary 3,812; Armenian, all grades, 8,727; Jew- 
ish, all grades, 7,460; Turkish university, 2,010. To these 
figures must be added about 20,000 pupils in the Bulgarian, 
Albanian, Persian and foreign schools, making a grand total 
of about 97,630 students of all grades in all classes of 
schools. 

In the 341 primary and 36 secondary schools belonging to 
the four principal nationalities there are approximately 
2,290 teachers; and in fifty foreign and special schools 1,200, 
making a total of nearly 3,500. 

T N the Christian communities the elementary schools are 
-^ usually co-educational, but not so in the Moslem communi- 
ties. The elementary course is followed by a secondary 
course which should extend through the twelfth year of 
school work but in many schools does not extend beyond the 
tenth. The secondary schools correspond to the American 
high schools, both in the number of school years and in the 
ages of the pupils. 



Question. And in that work how much do you gain ? 

Answer. All 1 gain is eaten. 

Question. But what do you spend for eating, say in one 
day? 

Answer. That I have never reckoned in all my life. 

Question. But do you gain enough for eating? 

Answer. Hanum Effendia, when I do not gain enough, 
that day Allah does not give me hunger. 

Question. Well, do you gain two liras ($1.60) in a 
month ? 

Answer. I gain only what Allah gives, but he is great. 
We must not criticize. 

Question. Perhaps you are not strong enough to work 
every day. Are you well ? 

Answer. Yes, Hanum Effendia, thanks to Allah and to 
you I am well, or at least so-so. 

Question. And your children, are they well? 

Answer. Yes, Hanum Effendia, thanks to Allah and to 
American milk, they are very well. 

And yet, there is a new order of life in this Queen 
City. Before the restoration of the Constitution 
in 1908, if an American had a visitor from another 
town, there was a spy who called soon after to 
learn who the visitor was. Women lived a re- 
stricted life behind veils and latticed windows. To- 
day they go about in public unveiled and are even 
allowed to attend the theater. Positions of re- 
sponsibility are more and more open to them. When 
the writer first came to Constantinople, eleven years 
ago, there were no electric cars, no telephones, no 
electric lights. Today we have all of these con- 
veniences and in addition the "honk honk" of hun- 
dreds of automobiles which disturb the peace and 
tranquillity which had settled over this city for cen- 
turies. 

Peace and tranquillity, yes — and this in spite of 
the fact that few other cities have had so colorful 
a human history. Soldiers, merchants and the 
priests of a score of nationalities have trod its 
streets and called the city their home. The Ar- 
menian, second only to the Turk and the Greek, has 
made it his metropolis. There are more Armenians 
in Constantinople than in any city in Armenia or 
anywhere else. The story of their colony from its 
origin in the fourth century to the present, traced 
in its broad outlines, reveals a hardy nation, ever 
resourceful, hopeful, and aggressive. 

The burning question of modern Constantinople 
should be set in its proper historical perspective. 
The change which came over Ottoman history dur- 
ing the last half of the Eighteenth Century and the 
first half of the Nineteenth, may be characterized 
as acknowledgment of the essential failure of the 
Asiatic regime and the acceptance of the necessity 
of more conformity to European standards. For 
more than four centuries the Turks had been 
masters in their own house. Their sway was scarce- 
ly challenged. They occasionally tolerated but 
never respected foreigners and their governments. 
Russia first brought them to their knees. As the 
result of a long struggle, in the treaty of Kainardji 
in 1774, they were for the first time forced to 
acknowledge their inability to maintain the old 
standards of contempt for foreign powers. From 



42 



CONSTANTINOPLE 




An Early Apprenticeship 

CHILD LABOR 

From the Report of Lawrence S. Moore 

AMONG the most startling conditions of work found in 
Constantinople were those among the child laborers. 
In the shoe factories 2,500 boys below the age of 
fifteen are employed. Most of the shoe shops are on the 
top floors of rickety old buildings which are unsafe and in- 
sanitary. The average age of these children is eleven, al- 
though some of them are but seven and only a few are 
above thirteen. They work from 8:30 in the morning until 
6 at night and in the winter occasionally as late as 8:30 at 
night. The wages average $2 a week, and some little chil- 
dren receive as little as $ .80. It costs approximately as 
much to live in Constantinople as in New York. 

In the garment trade, 600 boys and 200 girls are em- 
ployed. Working conditions on the whole are better than 
in the shoe trade. These children receive from -$1.60 to $4 
a week for a ten-hour day. Thirty per cent of them cannot 
read. The average age is thirteen. 

Three hundred children were seen at work in factories 
where they do fine needle-work and hemstitching. It is esti- 
mated that at least five hundred children do this work. 
They work only four hours a day, but children as young as 
six years of age were seen working. The older children 
receive an average of $2.80 a week, but while learning thev 
receive only $ .04. Few of them can read or write. Their 
average age is ten. In the cigarette and tobacco factory 
children work nine hours a day, and for these hours the 
highest paid receive $2.80 a week. Their average age is 
twelve. 

On the Grand Rue de Pera no less than one hundred 
children are employed as clerks and messengers. The 
average wage is $1.20 a week for a ten-hour day. The 
average age is eleven. Only 20 per cent of them have at- 
tended school for more than six months. 

T N our interviews with 45 boys who are working as hamals 
■*- (the human burden-bearers so often seen in the Near 
East) we found the youngest only nine and the average 
twelve years of age. To be a hamal requires no equip- 
ment but the basket which the boy carries strapped to his 
back, and his earnings vary from $ .24 to $2.40 and even 
to $4 a week-day during the holiday shopping. Most of 
these boys are found in the markets, where they work all 
day. 

Most of the children working in the streets are vendors; 
a majority of them boys. The little match sellers earn only 
$ .16 a day while children who sell candy earn as much 
as $r.6o. 

AN interesting form of child labor is that of begging. 
We interviewed 32 children who make a living as 
beggars; 15 were girls and 17 were bovs. Twenty-five had 
never attended school at all; the remaining 7 had been in 
school from three months to two years. The average age of 
these 32 beggars was ten years. Their earnings ranged 
from $ .24 to $ .34 a day. Three of the boys were orphans 
who lived with shop-keepers; the others lived with rela- 
tives, generally with their mothers. In a few cases the 
child had a secondary occupation, such as gathering papers 
and scraps and, in one instance, the occupation of stealing 
coal and wood. 

There is no registration of children who work, and so 
much child labor exists probably which we do not know of. 



that time forward the question with them was, not 
how they might impose their will on foreign na- 
tions, but how they might avoid the humiliations 
which foreign nations were forcing upon them. 
From that time to the present day, Europe has been 
making steady inroads into Ottoman life. 

No aspect of life has escaped the pressure of the 
West. Ottoman literature, art, education, science, 
philosophy, manners and customs, trade and indus- 
try, and, to some extent, politics and the science 
and art of government have gradually though slow- 
ly, laboriously and, in many cases, unwillingly yield- 
ed to Western ideals. The process is far from 
complete. It will be many decades before Con- 
stantinople will be thoroughly Europeanized. The 
Great War has hastened the process. The life of 
the city is bound up as never before with the life 
and civilization of Europe and the West. 

Just now, the normally varied racial composition 
of Constantinople has been rendered more complex 
by the thousands of refugees who have come into 
the city since the war. There are the simple Turk- 
ish peasants from Asia Minor who have left their 
homes fearing the Greek soldiers; Greeks who have 
fled for fear of Turkish soldiers; Armenians from 
Cilicia who thought they might not be safe after 
the withdrawal of the French; Russians, some of 
whom formerly had more than their share of the 
wealth of Russia and who now have nothing. 




Picturesque Salesmanship 



CONSTANTINOPLE 



43 



The survey brought a large number of natives and 
Americans working with different organizations to- 
gether in a concrete search after truth as regards 
the social life of our city. 

The Civic Welfare League has already used our 
findings, particularly with regard to prostitution, as 
a basis for constructive work. It has opened a home 
for the reclamation of young girls led into a life of 
vice. 

The survey has vitalized the teaching of sociology 
both in Constantinople College and in Robert Col- 
lege. Too much of our teaching in the past has dealt 
with social conditions in America, for the simple 
reason that we did not have available information 
about our own city. It has made our students want 
to know more about the social life in their home 
towns and some of them have since made excellent 
surveys of poverty, of a group of bootblacks or of 
refugees in a given section of the city. 

The survey gave us additonal contacts with the 
high and the low among all the leading nationalities. 
It gave us a new insight into, and a new appreciation 
of these peoples of the Near East. For some of us 
this was especially true as regards the Turks who 
opened their doors to us foreigners — as hospitably 
as if they had been fellow-Americans back in New 
York. 

The "Terrible Turk" may exist, but certainly we 
did not meet him among all those kindly Turks who 
welcomed our survey and helped to make it a success. 




Vending the Products of His Own Craft 




Nature Study in an Orphanage 

ORPHANS 

From the Report of Mrs. J . Wyl'ie Brown 

WAR, deportation, disease and famine have left behind 
in the Near East a vast number of orphans of all 
nationalities. Nearly ten thousand of these are in the 
orphanages in the Constantinople district. New recruits are 
daily brought in, and the older orphans are placed in posi- 
tions of self-support. 

There are twenty-five American orphanages, two of them 
for children afflicted with trachoma. These orphanages are 
mainly supported by the American Red Cross, but much 
assistance is received from the Near East Relief and other 
philanthropic organizations. 

There are eight Turkish orphanages in the city, all sup- 
ported by the government and conducted on a uniform basis 
under careful supervision. In the Turkish orphanages every 
effort is made for proper physical care and regular school 
instruction. Financial support is scanty, which makes strict 
economy a necessity. Most Turkish orphanages are located 
in old konaks, or places formerly belonging to sultans or 
grandees. 

Of four Greek orphanages, three are admirably situated 
as regards health and natural surroundings. The orphanage 
for girls on the island of Halki occupies a building con- 
structed originally as a monastery; and the great orphanage 
for boys on the island of Prinkipo occupies a large building 
formerly used as a summer hotel, situated six hundred feet 
above the sea in the midst of a large pine grove. There 
are six hundred boys in this orphanage. A third orphanage, 
accommodating three hundred boys and girls, is situated 
at Pendik on the shore of the Sea of Marmora. All these 
are kept scrupulously clean and orderly, but suffer from 
lack of funds. 

The three Jewish orphanages shelter boys and girls in 
the same buildings. The girls range in age from seven to 
sixteen years, while the boys are under twelve. These or- 
phanages are poorly equipped in every respect. Besides the 
orphans cared for in these institutions, nearly five hundred 
others are boarded out in private families. 

Two hundred and eighty Russian children have been 
placed in two orphanages. They are the children of refugees 
who arrived in the city in the winter of 1920-21. One of 
these orphanages is supported by a Russian and the other 
by an American organization. 

THE education of the orphans is a serious problem in all 
the orphanages. The difficulties under which this work 
is carried on arise partly from the emergency nature of the 
orphanages themselves but mainly from lack of funds for 
the equipment of schools and the employment of a sufficient 
number of well trained teachers. One of the largest or- 
phanages in which there are six hundred boys has only ten 
teachers. A pressing task in the education of the orphans 
is that of training them for some trade or occupation to 
which they can turn when old enough to leave the institu- 
tion. At present most of the orphanages are inadequately 
equipped for such work. Shoe making, carpentry, black- 
smithing and tailoring are among the principal trades 
taught in the orphanage for boys, and some excellent work 
has been developed in these trades. In the orphanages for 
girls all kinds of needlework are taught; the girls make 
clothing for themselves and for other orphanages. 

The school work follows closely the program in the reg- 
ular schools of the nationality to which the orphanage be- 
longs. Wherever possible the orphans are sent out to the 
community schools, for they have no resources with which 
to meet increased expense. 






Blast-Furnace Shifts 



By CHARLES R. WALKER, Jr. 






T was my first day as a laborer on 
the blast-furnaces, and I rather 
hoped the stove-gang boss would 
talk. He did. 

"Ever work blast-furnace be- 
fore?" he began. 

"No," I said, "I have worked on 
the open-hearth furnaces, a little. But before that 
I spent about two years in the army." 

"Me in Austrian army," he said musingly, 
"fifteen year ago. Sergeant artillery." 

I thought about that, and it occurred to me that 
he retained something of the artillery sergeant still, 
necessarily adapted a little to the exigencies of 
American blast stoves. I found he knew about 
ordnance and boasted of Budapest cannon makers. 

"How do you like this country?" I asked. 

"America, all right," he said. 

"Good country?" I pushed him a little. 

"Mak' money America," he explained, "no good 
live. Old country fine place live." 

We developed that a little. We discussed cities. 
He asked me about London, and Paris, and other 
European cities. Which did I like best, cities over 
there or American cities? I said, American cities. 
He asked what was the difference. I thought a min- 
ute, comparing New York and London. European 
cities did not have the impressive forty-story edifices 
of American and looked puny with four or five. 

"Ah," he said, "tall buildings no look good. 
Budapest good city, no can build over five story." 

Here was unlooked-for discrimination. I began 
feeling provincial. He went on to describe the 
cleanliness of Budapest, and to contrast it with 
Pennsylvania cities of his acquaintance. He cer- 
tainly had me hands down. Next he said: 

"No can build stack that t'row smoke into neigh- 
bor's house. Look at dis place," pointing to Bouton. 
"Look at Pittsburgh." 

I said no more, but nodded swift agreement. 

He was a little more encouraging about the 
United States when it came to government. 

"You have a man president that no good, after 
four year you kick him out. My country sometimes 
get king that's all right, sometime get damn bad 
one. No can kick him out." 

But he relapsed into censure again when he came 
to American women. "Women," he said, "in my 
country do more work than men this countrv." 

"They have more time here," I said, "and don't 
have to work so hard." 

"American women when vou meet 'em always 
ask: 'How much money in de pock?' What they 



•From Steel: The Dinrv of a Furnace- Worker, to be published this 

montli liy The Atlantic Monthly Press. 



do? Dress up — hat, dress, shoe — walk all time 
Main Street. Bah!" 

It was a refreshing shock to receive this out- 
spoken critique of America from a "Hunky," a 
Hungarian stove-gang boss of a blast-furnace. I 
was amused very much by it, except the phrase 
"America all right mak' money, old country place 
live." I coupled it up with some talks I had had 
with men on the open hearth. America, steel 
America, which was all they knew, was very largely 
a place of long hours, gas, heat, Sunday work, dirty 
homes, big pay. There was a connection in that I 
thought with the gigantic turnover figures of labor- 
ers in steel, the restless moving from job to job 
that had been growing so fast in recent years. Too 
many men were taking America as a good place to 
take a fortune out of. The impulse toward learn- 
ing English, building a home and becoming Amer- 
ican, certainly wasn't strong in steel America. But 
I left these questions in the back of my head and 
returned to the stove-gang at Adolph's command. 

In a few days I was well in the midst of my 
gang novitiate. We were formally introduced by 
name one day in front of No. 12 stove. The little 
Italian with the black mustache said: 
"What's your name?" 

"Charlie," I said, knowing that first names were 
the thing. 

"All right," he said, "that's Jimmy, Tony, Joe. 
Mike not here. You know Mike? Slavish. John, 
that's me. That's John, too, wid de bar." 

"Hey!" with an arresting yell that made the 
others look up, "dis is Charlie/" 

I became a part of an exclusive group of seven 
men who had worked together for about two years. 
There is a cohesiveness and a structure of tradition 
about a semi-permanent mill group of this sort that 
marks it off from the casual labor gang. The phys- 
ical surroundings remain unaltered, and methods and 
ways of thought grow up upon them. I was struck 
by the amount of character a man laid bare in twelve 
hours of common labor. There are habits of temper, 
of cunning, and strength, of generosity, and comrade- 
ship, of indifference, that it is capable of throwing 
into relief beyond any a priori imagining. It begins 
by being extensively intimate in personal and phys- 
ical ways; you know every man's idiosyncracies in 
handling a sledge or a bar or a shovel, and the ex- 
pression of his face under all phases of a week's 
work; you know naturally the various garments he 
wears on all parts of his body. You proceed to 
acquaint yourself, as the work throws up oppor- 
tunity, with the mannerisms and qualities of his 
spirit. It is astonishing with the barrier of a differ- 
ent language, onlv partly broken down by a dialect 



44 



BLAST FURNACE SHIFTS 



45 






American, how little is ultimately concealed or kept 
out of the common understanding. 

My eyes, ears and most of my nerves were alert 
for impression during those few weeks I spent with 
the blast-furnace labor gang. I had the sensitivity 
of the traveller who sees a new country and yet is 
admitted into the houses and customs of the original 
settlers. 

I was impressed by the precise practices estab- 
lished in doing the work. Every motion and every 
interval of the job had been selected by long trial. 
If you didn't think the formula best, try it out! 
Many considerations went into its selection — today's 
fatigue, tomorrow's and next month's. It had an 
eye for gas effect, for the boss's peculiar character, 
and for all material obstacles, many of which were 
far from obvious. 

When the flue dust had been removed from the 
blast-stoves, I found wheeling and dumping it an 
easy and congenial set of movements, and conse- 
quently took off my loads at a great speed. 

At once I became a target. "Tak' it eas' — What's 
the matter with you, tak' it eas'." 

John, Slovene, and stoic, put in an explanation: 
"Me work on this job two year, me know, take it 
easy. You have plenty work to do." 

"Take it easy," I said, "and no get tired, eh, feel 
good every day?" 

"You no can feel good every day," he amended 
quickly. "Gas bad, make your stomach bad." 

So I slowed up on my wheelbarrow loads, sat on 
the handles, and spat, and talked — till I found I 
was going too slow. There was a work rhythm that 
was neither a dawdle nor a drive; if you expected 
any comfort in your gang life of twelve hours a 
day, you had best discover and obey its laws. It 
might be, from several viewpoints, an incorrect 
rhythm, but at all events it was a part of the gang 
"mores." And some of its inward reasonableness 
often appeared before the day was out. 

THE little blower called Dippy, I found, knew the 
furnace game in all its phases with great prac- 
tical thoroughness. I used to try to get chances of 
talking with him on questions of technique. 

"What about those jobs in the cast-house?" I 
said one day, "the helper's jobs? Isn't it a good 
thing to know about those, if you're learning the 
iron game?" 

"You don't want to work there," he said quickly, 
"Only hunkies work on those jobs, they're too god- 
dam dirty and too goddam hot for a 'white' man." 

So I got to thinking over the "hunky" business, 
and several other conversations came into my mind. 
Dick Reber, senior melter on the open hearth, had 
once said, "There are a few of these hunkies that 
are all right, and goddam few. If I had my way, 
I'd ship the whole goddam lot back to where they 
came from." 

Then I thought of the incident of my getting 
chosen from the pit for floor work on the furnaces. 
Several times Pete, who was a Russian, discrimi- 
nated against me in favor of Russians. Then Dick 



came along and began discriminating in my favor 
against the hunkies. 

How many hunkies have risen to foremen's jobs, 
I thought, in the two departments where I have 
worked? One in the open-hearth — a man who 
"stuck with the company" in the Homestead strike, 
and none on the blast-furnaces except Adolph, the 
stove-gang boss. 

I USED to eat my lunch and keep my clothes in 
a little brick shanty near No. 4, sharing it with 
the Italians of the stove gang. Although by the 
bosses' arrangement it was a mixed gang, Italian 
and Slav, the mixture did not extend to shanty ar- 
rangements, and race lines prevailed. I felt that I 
should learn low Italian in a few weeks if I con- 
tinued with this group; the flow of it against my 
ear drums was incessant, and some of it had already 
forced an entrance. Besides, I was learning a great 
deal about how to live; what to wear on your head, 
on your feet, and next your skin; where to get it 
— good material to resist the blast-furnace, and 
cheap as well; wisdom in eating and drinking, and 
saving money, in resting, in working, in getting a 
job and keeping it. 

There was a whole store of industrial "mores." 
In some respects the ways of living of these work- 
men seemed as rooted and traditional as the man- 
ners of monarchs, and as wise. I won considerable 
praise when I brought in a kersey cap that I got 
for seventy-five cents, and lost much when I re- 
luctantly admitted the price of my brown suit. 

Every one on the gang washed up after work with 
the greatest thoroughness and success. They de- 
voted minute attention to the appearance of the 
clothes they wore home. Rips and holes got a neat 
patch at once, and shoes were tapped at the proper 
time — before holes appeared. I have seen only 
one or two men in the mill who were not clean in 
their going-home clothes. 

I talked to John one day on the subject of neat- 
ness. He asked, "You have to clean up good in the 
army?" 

I dilated on the necessity of policing when wear- 
ing khaki. 

He said: "Man. that no look neat, no good. I 
no like him, girls no look at him. Bah!" 

I was almost always offered some food from the 
bursting dinner buckets of my friends; a tomato, 
some sausage, a green pepper, some lettuce and 
cucumbers. I accepted gladly, for it was always 
superior to my restaurant provender. 

Tony told me one day that Jimmy had come over 
"from old country too late to learn speak English 
and be American." He was thirty-one years old. 
He was going back this Christmas. And Tony was 
going, too, but just for a visit. They were going 
to Rome. We had talked it over a good many 
times, all Italy in fact, people, women, farms. Tony 
turned to me: "You come Italy with Jimmy and 
me this Christmas? We go see Rome." 

I assented quickly, wishing I somehow could, and 
was extraordinarily proud of that invitation. 



The Unmaking ot a Myth 

Chicago's Race Riots: an Analysis and a Program 






T is possible, of course, to reduce all 
national and racial conflicts to econ- 
omic terms and to shout "oil" when 
a question concerning American re- 
lations to Mexico is up for discus- 
sion, or "American standards" when 
some one suggests a more liberal 
immigration law. But the most serious of our 
American race problems involve much more than 
a single set of considerations. As Mr. Collier points 
out, on another page in this issue, the present un- 
satisfactory status of the American Indian has 
neither arisen from economic necessity nor can it be 
improved merely by an application of economic pol- 
icy. The case of the Negro is even more thoroughly 
integrated with all sorts of social and political trends 
which make up American history, though it would 
not be difficult for one who prefers the simplicity of 
a half-truth to explain it entirely in terms of value. 
When a gradually increasing friction between whites 
and Negroes in Illinois since the beginning of the 
war reached its crisis in the Chicago race riots of 
July and August, 19 19, it was quite easy to explain 
the whole business by the increased competition for 
jobs between white and colored wage-earners and 
the lower standards of the recently arrived Negroes 
from the South which gave them, theoretically at 
any rate, an enormous advantage in the labor 
market. 

To the great credit of the citizens of Chicago and 
of Frank O. Lowden, then governor of Illinois, be 
it said, that in addition to the steps which com- 
mended themselves for making a speedy end of that 
disgraceful affair, the matter was not allowed to 
rest with some simple explanation of the kind in- 
dicated, but that the most thorough and scientific 
investigation ever made in such an event was at once 
taken in hand and subsequently carried through 
without hurry and without political or any other 
bias. The Chicago Commission on Race Relations, 
appointed by Governor Lowden, this week is pub- 
lishing its full report, a document of some seven 
hundred pages strikingly illustrated from photo- 
graphs of eye-witnesses, which by the fulness of its 
considerations throws light not only on the events 
of 1919 but on the whole problem of American 
race relations, now and probablv for long to come. 
[The Negro in Chicago. Chicago University 
Press.] The commission consists of an equal num- 
ber of white and Negro members, with Edgar A. 
Bancroft as chairman. While much of the credit 
for the report belongs to the two social workers who 
acted as secretaries for the commission, uraham 
Romeyn Taylor and Charles S. Johnson, the com- 
mittee organization of the commission, the large 
number of meetings held and internal evidence in- 
dicate that the members have a very considerable 
share in it. 



How far we are as yet from a true understanding 
of the basic elements involved in the American race 
conflict, and how far from agreement even on such 
major facts as must underlie any understanding, was 
exhibited recently in the debate staged at the Na- 
tional Conference of Social Work in Providence. Is 
the Negro mentally and morally inferior? If he is 
more emotional, less industrious, more predisposed 
to crime than the white, are the causes to be sought 
in his physical inheritance or in his social inheritance 
and present circumstances? The Chicago commis- 
sion reports with a frankness which, no doubt, will 
bring it much criticism, "that much of the literature 
and scientific treatises concerning Negroes are re- 
sponsible for such prevailing misconceptions as that 
Negroes are capable of mental and moral develop- 
ment only to an inferior degree, are given to an un- 
controlled emotionalism, and have a distinctive ten- 
dency to commit crimes, especially sex crimes." 
Even more courageous because they are absolutely 
concrete and contrary to widely prevailing practices 
are some of the recommendations. As there are 
fifty-nine of them, covering twelve printed pages, 
we can here give only an illustration or two: 

We point out that Negroes are entitled by law to the same 
treatment as other persons in restaurants, theaters, stores, 
and other places of public accommodation, and we urge that 
owners and managers of such places govern their policies 
and actions and their employes accordingly. 

We have found that Negroes are denied equal opportunity 
with whites for advancement and promotion where they are 
employed. As a measure of justice we urge that Negroes be 
employed, advanced, and promoted according to their capa- 
cities and proved merit. . . . 

EQUALLY strong recommendations are addressed 
here and there to Negro citizens, as for instance: 

While we recognize the propriety and social value of race 
pride among Negroes, we warn them that thinking and talk- 
ing too much in terms of race alone is calculated to promote 
separation of race interests and thereby to interfere with 
racial adjustment. 

Other recommendations, it is necssary to add, are 
sometimes couched in such general terms that they 
lose the force and influence which they would have 
carried were they embodied in language less veiled. 
What, for instance, is one to think of the following? 

We recommend to Negroes the promulgation of sound 
racial doctrines among the uneducated members of their 
group, and the discouragement of propaganda and agitators 
seeking to inflame racial animosity and incite Negroes to 
violence. 

What are "sound racial doctrines," anyhow? 
And does the discouragement of propaganda include 
the discouragement of vigorous campaigns for the 
recovery of lost civic or social rights? Evidently 



46 



THE UNMAKING OF A MYTH 



47 



not, as one may judge from the detailed argument; 
but dicta such as these too easily lend themselves to 
a vicious interpretation. Or again, when the com- 
mission urges Negroes 

to contribute more freely of their money and personal effort 
to the social agencies developed by public-spirited members of 
their group ; also to contribute to the general social agencies 
of the community, 

does it mean to imply that on an average and in 
proportion to their fortune and income the Negroes 
of Chicago, or of any large American community, 
contribute less than their white neighbors to the 
causes of education, religion, civic and social uplift? 
If it does, the recommendation contains a serious 
injustice. But more probably it was meant to con- 
vey no more than a recognition of the fact that the 
Negroes — who, as the commission would probably 



concede, relatively tax themselves more heavily than 
do their white neighbors of similar status — might, 
with great advantage to themselves, support their 
institutions and the general social agencies of the 
community even more generously. 

AT the risk of being considered captions, we would 
feel that our cordial praise of the report as a 
whole were not quite sincere unless another word of 
criticism is added. Here we have the most graphic 
and the most trustmorthy account of any recent 
major race, conflict, a searching inquiry into its causes 
and their unflinching analysis, a set of recommenda- 
tions both comprehensive and concrete; and yet the 
editors of the report seem to have been unable to 
avoid altogether that customary verbiage of well- 
meaning people when they want to discuss the race 




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A PRIME FACTOR IN THE CHICAGO RACE RIOT 
These charts, compiled from federal census statistics, sho'w the distribution of Negro population in 
part of the black belt of Chicago (Kinzie Street to 71 Street J in 1910 (at the left J and 1920 (at 
the right), each dot representing forty Negroes. This concentration of Negro population within a lim- 
ited area — in many streets mixed in 'with cabarets, pool rooms, brothels and other resorts of the worst 
type — was both an effect and a cause of race conflict. It resulted from the hostility of residents and, 
therefore, of property o'wners to permit Negroes to rent or buy homes in other parts of the city more 
accessible from the places of their employment, and it led to congestion and exaggeration of race feeling 






48 



THE UNMAKING OF A MYTH 




AFTER THE BEATING 



By V. Van Hove 



problem without hurting any one. A little oratory 
in the after-dinner style, it may be said, can do no 
harm; but it does detract from the value of an 
authoritative statement by making it appear less sin- 
cere than it really is. We read, for instance: 

Both races need to understand that their rights and duties 
are mutual and equal, and that their interests in the com- 
mon good are identical ; that relations of amity are the only 
protection against race clashes ; that these relations cannot 
be forced, but will come naturally as the leaders of each 
race develop within their own ranks a realization of the 
gravity of this problem and a vital interest fn its solution, 
and an attitude of confidence, respect, and friendliness toward 
the people of the other race. 

Read this statement in connection with the volu- 
minous evidence of constant and all-present dis- 
crimination against all types of Negroes in such 
chapters as those on housing, on industry and on 
racial contacts, and it will be clear how silly, if not 
dishonest, it must sound to the sensitive, educated 
Negro who cannot go a step outside his house with- 
out encountering some obtsacle to the fulfilment of 
any amiable wish he may have to make his interests 
identical with those of his white fellow citizens! 

I HASTEN to add that paragraphs such as the one 
just quoted are not typical of the tone of the re- 
port as a whole. It may be unavoidable that they 
should creep into a work that has many authors. Let 
us return, therefore, to some of the outstanding con- 
tributions made by this study to our knowledge of 
the origins of racial conflicts in America and of the 
ways which may be found to prevent them. 

An important section — though to my mind less 
important than those on racial contacts and on pub- 
lic opinion in race relations — is that on the Negro 
in industry. A large majority of employers inter- 
viewed stated that Negro labor had proved satis- 
factory and was as efficient as white labor. Never- 
theless, so great is the influence either of public 



opinion or of preconceived ideas that Negro em- 
ployes were not, as a rule, admitted to the more 
highly paid kinds of work for which their proved 
ability qualifies them. Economic motives, there- 
fore, were not paramount; they were, in fact, fre- 
quently found disregarded, as for instance in the 
important industries which, in spite of a labor 
shortage, refused to open their doors to Negroes 
even in unskilled positions. There is today in 
America widespread sympathy for educational ef- 
forts among Negroes; but when those who have 
qualified themselves for specialized technical work 
or for administrative responsibility seek a job, the 
best they can sometimes do for themselves is to 
wait at table or run an elevator. There is much 
fair talk on the part of trade union leaders about 
the absence of color discriminations; but in spite of 
resolutions at national conferences, the local 
branches are subject to the same popular prejudices 
as other groups in the community and, in one way 
or another, most of them — obviously contrary to 
their vocational interests — exclude Negroes or make 
it difficult for them to join and thus rear for them- 
selves the competition of non-organized workers in 
their trade. 

The commission, in this as in other group relation- 
ships, has no easy remedy to propose. It is true that 
in recommending to labor unions "that they admit 
Negroes to full membership whenever they apply 
for it and possess the qualifications required of white 
workers," they seem to be satisfied with a gesture; 
but they also "strongly condemn the efforts of self- 
seeking agitators, Negro or white, who use race 
sentiment to establish separate unions in trades 
where existing unions admit Negroes to equal mem- 
bership with whites," and thus put it definitely up 
to the unions of white workmen to mend their ways. 
They also are quite sound in visualizing the progress 
of Negro workers from the less to the more skilled 
occupations as largely a matter of training, and in 



THE UNMAKING OF A MYTH 



49 




VENGEANCE 

demanding of employers that they provide the neces- 
sary opportunities and of Negro workers that they 
take advantage of them. The best remedy for the 
prevailing false belief that Negroes are racially dis- 
qualified from giving satisfaction in skilled trades 
would be the actual presence among the ranks of 
the unskilled of men who have prepared themselves 
to fill vacancies in the ranks of the skilled. It is a 
slow process, but a process that is bound to work 
eventually. 

NOR is there an easy way out of the housing diffi- 
culty which, from a careful weighing of all the 
mass of evidence, would seem to have been the main 
immediate cause of the Chicago riot of 19 19. Negro 
householders, because of race prejudice, have to pay 
more for their homes than white ones; hence they 
have less money to spend on improvements and up- 
keep; hence their reputation as undesirable neigh- 
bors receives some sort of justification; hence more 
race prejudice and higher rents — a vicious circle. 
The first and most obvious measure to break that 
circle, as the commission of course realized, is for 
the city authorities to enforce minimum standards 
and to refuse the continued habitation of houses that 
fall below those standards. This at once brings up 
the much more difficult problem of the general short- 
age of homes. But here again the prevailing race 
sentiment stands in the way; and the commission 
makes two statements, resulting from its investiga- 
tions, which should go far to induce a saner policy 
on the part of builders and investors: 

Depreciation of residence property generally charged ex- 
clusively to the presence of Negroes in a neighborhood is 
often largely due to other factors. 

Many Negroes of this city meet their obligations in such 
a manner as to make their home-building and home-owning 
investments seem a more desirable risk than has been gen- 
erally supposed. 

We therefore recommend that these facts be taken into 
consideration in connection with loans on Negro property. 



"By V. Van Heme 

Underlying the industrial, housing, crime and 
other specific problems, the commission again and 
again finds an appalling ignorance and credulity on 
the part of the people. Indeed it is to this that, in 
their effort to "get something done about it," they 
are obliged to direct themselves in their treatment 
of every symptom of race conflict and maladjustment. 
Their report itself will be a magnificent instrument 
of enlightenment — and not least among citizens who 
have thought they knew all about it but who have 
too gullibly accepted the current rumors and made 
the current deductions from them on Negro char- 
acter and potentialities. 

I cannot more appropriately close my brief ac- 
count of the report than by quoting from it these 
significant paragraphs: 

Group myths, like those about the American Indian, the 
Oriental, and the Jew, are very common. Usually they are 
the expression either of a wish or of fear, which sociologists 
call a negative wish. Mythical stories and anecdotes about 
Negroes, accepted by whites, are usually popular. Many of 
them have had a reasonable origin, but as a matter of fact 
have long outgrown it. So long as they are uncorrected they 
hold and exercise a marked degree of control over personal 
conduct. 

In the category of myths fall the popular beliefs of whites 
concerning the mentality of Negroes, and the more definite 
myth that the mind of the Negro child ceases to develop 
when he reaches the age of puberty. The sex myth is always 
in evidence. It involves the fear obsession of Negro men 
held by many white women, fear of miscegenation, the con- 
donation of lynchings, repressive social restrictions, as well 
as attempts at legislative restraints. Negroes are by these 
myths shown to have a predilection for sex crimes. This 
sex myth has been stressed in almost every riot. It pre- 
cipitated the Washington riot; it provoked the most brutal 
murder of the Chicago riot, and it was responsible for the 
brutality of the Omaha and Tulsa riots. Always resident 
in the background of popular consciousness, it shows the 
same head and the same features in almost every clash of 
races. 3 l. 



Taking a Flyer in Good Causes 



By BRUNO LASKER 




NY observant "mixer" must have 
been impressed these last few years 
with the number of people who 
seem to have lost their grip on 
whatever props of authority had 
previously sustained them. Parents 
of adolescent boys and girls, for in- 
stance, quite commonly complain of the increasing 
difficulty of controling them. Employers say that 
a spirit of "bolshevism" is in the air with which 
they do not know how to deal. On the other hand, 
there is the recurrent complaint that those in 
authority, whether as employers or public officials, 
show less regard for human sentiments. Sensitive 
persons, especially women, express concern because, 
from the information at their disposal, they are un- 
able to judge the merits of the larger controversies 
in which they must take definite sides. Many of 
the newly enfranchised women take their responsi- 
bility seriously, and are not content — as it was often 
predicted they would be — to follow the lead of their 
male relatives. Others, in positions of social leader- 
ship, feel even more the weight of added burdens. 
Unfortunately, the information and advice to be 
had from political parties, churches, college courses, 
books, "liberal" periodicals and inspirational lec- 
tures are usually too general to be of much help in 
solving practical individual problems. The house- 
keeper, the small employer, the conscientious college 
graduate, the thoughtful workingman want to know 
what they can do within their own small circles to 
make the world a little better. Should they follow 
the advice of their radical friends to throw in their 
influence and ability only with movements having 
for their aim fundamental social changes? Or, dis- 
regarding theories altogether, should they give of 
their best to the obvious tasks of betterment lying 
close at hand? Should they, before attempting any- 
thing at all, devote their energy to the acquisition 
of greater knowledge? 

It is not possible, of course, to dissolve these 
doubts within the confines of an article, or to dis- 
regard altogether the differences in temperament, 
opportunities and desires that must affect each indi- 
vidual judgment. But one may perhaps point out 
some of the pitfalls to be avoided, and suggest ways 
in which time and energy may be used to advantage. 
One of the current errors is the idea that social 
responsibility can be delegated; that a citizen can 
do his duty to his fellow men by liberally support- 
ing the causes or agencies he believes in, without 
personally lending a hand to help them through. 
There is too much of such second-hand social activi- 
ty: there are too many movements in which the 
burden of decision and action rests upon a small 
executive implicitely trusted by a large following. 
As has often been pointed out, the absence of the 



average citizen from party councils is one of the 
great weaknesses of American politics; and this 
criticism holds good of the many movements on the 
fringe of what usually goes as politics, which try 
to operate upon the body politic either by influenc- 
ing legislation or by direct action. If we could but 
reestablish in some form the spirit and competence 
of the New England town meeting, or whatever 
may be its modern equivalent in the non-political 
concerns of society, our institutions would be filled 
with new life. 

ANOTHER error, more difficult to combat, is the 
belief that concentration of forces necessarily 
makes for greater efficiency. Concentration usually 
means compromise — at least in method if not in prin- 
ciples — and compromise means lessened enthusiasm 
and weakened action. Because in many industrial 
enterprises concentration has made possible division 
of labor, reduction of waste and more effective con- 
trol, all contributing to greater productivity, it has 
often been falsely assumed that the same principle 
must apply to other human concerns; that the combi- 
nation of churches and schools, to secure larger units, 
is necessarily beneficial; that a national organiza- 
tion to combat some specific social ill is necessarily 
more effective than a multitude of local organiza- 
tions; that a little influence in national affairs is 
worth more than much influence in local affairs. 
Hence, "education" of the "men at the top" — na- 
tional and state office holders, legislators, trade 
union leaders — often seems to be regarded as the 
only thing that matters. As a matter of fact, the 
old saying that no people has a better government 
than it deserves is still true, even when applied to 
their non-political social organization, and in the 
sense of appreciation rather than deserts. 

Extensive and intensive educational efforts must 
go together to achieve maximum results. If the 
average citizen does not share with the government 
and the leaders of his community a sense of re- 
sponsibility toward the foreign-born his daily rela- 
tions with the foreign-born with whom he comes in 
contact will not be influenced. A good city govern- 
ment can do much to protect the health of the com- 
munity, but individual carelessness may impair the 
value of its work. A rigorous campaign against the 
social evil will not succeed in a community so long 
as the moral standards of many citizens are lax. 
Concentration, espeeiallv of educational standards, 
usually has the effect of substituting large-scale ac- 
tion for the continuous, intensive, local effort neces- 
sarv to achieve permanent results. 

The third great error, it seems to me, is excessive 
interest in the economic at the exclusion of other 
social issues. It is true that industrial relations 
(Continued on page 58) 



<0 



ANNOUNCEMENT 
The Survey: Twice -a- Month 




N mid-November comes the tenth 
anniversary of Survey Associates as 
a spirited adventure in cooperative 
journalism. 

First under the aegis of a parent 
society and now for a decade as a 
mutual enterprise, we have grown 
from a handful of well-wishers to a body of 1,600 
members, representing every state in the Union and 
twelve foreign countries. We have mustered in all 
ten times that number of subscribers. We are plan- 
ning to celebrate our tenth anniversary by a dinner 
in New York in mid-November in honor of the 
founders of the Survey Graphic — the contributors 
to its four-year promotion fund which makes our 
tenth year not an ending but a beginning. 

THIS number marks the opening of the second 
year of the Graphic. The plan as we have 
conceived it is to build up an illustrated monthly 
magazine which shall reach out after five times our 
convinced body of regular subscribers, which shall 
employ the graphic arts, drawings, paintings, etch- 
ings, maps, charts, photographs, to visualize the 
results of social experience and research, now so 
often buried in formal reports or scattered in the 
general periodicals; which shall afford an arresting 
medium for social aspiration and proposal; and 
which shall set out to capture for sober questions of 
economics and practical social work some of the 
gleam of the explorers of all ages. We have been 
testing the plan out for ten months past. The run 
on each of our Graphics has been 50 per cent larger 
than our regular subscription list, and the circulation 
of one — our special number last April on Coal: 
Mines, Miners and the Public — was double that. 
The plan is not without generous supporters. Our 
need is for a promotion fund of $50,000 a year for 
four years, and we have today $44,000 pledged in 
units of $iooo, pledges which (with three excep- 
tions) are for the full four years. Our hope is to 
round out this fund by the time of our anniversary 
meeting; and we shall count it most fortunate if any 
reader of this column should be prompted to con- 
tribute to this alluring experiment in a new form of 
social education. 

WITH this new publication year we are embark- 
ing on a new publication schedule of which 
much is anticipated. Hereafter, the Survey will 
be published twice a month. The Graphics will 
be brought out the first of each month, and our 
weeklies will be merged into a Mid-monthly, which 
will achieve, we hope, as genuine distinction as the 



Graphic. We conceive it as a budget of prac- 
tical experience of service to men and women every- 
where who are shouldering the load of national and 
local undertakings for the common welfare. 

The subscription price of the twice-a-month 
Survey, 12 Graphics and 12 Mid-monthlies — 
will remain at $5. The Graphics, complete in 
themselves and with their wider appeal, we shall 
spread on a monthly subscription basis at $3, under 
the name Survey Graphic. 

The decision to make this change is the result of 
much study by staff and board, of conferences with 
groups of readers, as at Providence at the time of 
the National Conference of Social Work, and of a 
questionnaire published in the Survey in July and 
sent out also by mail to four thousand representative 
readers, to our full membership and to regular 
subscribers in four states, North, South, East and 
West, in selected large and middle-sized cities and 
in some twenty smaller communities. 

Our schedule for the past year was one of transi- 
tion while we were trying out the Graphics. It 
was made possible by employing a considerable 
share of our Graphic fund to distribute the illus- 
trated numbers without extra cost to our regular 
subscribers — our first and most natural clientele. 
As a permanent and sound publication plan, the 
choice for the new year lay between a combined 
schedule of Graphics and weeklies at an advance 
in price; or a twice-a-month schedule at the same 
price. The vote was four to one for the latter. 
In scores of letters, the change regardless of cost 
was hailed as an advance. 

OUR first Mid-monthly under the new plan 
will be distributed two weeks hence, and at 
that time, with the issue itself as an exhibit, we shall 
have announcements to make of plans ahead for the 
fall and winter — of staff work strong enough to 
carry out the fundamental educational purposes of 
the venture, and pliant enough to respond to the 
quickening impulses of a new time. 

LOOKING back upon our ten years of effort, we 
feel that we have met each new, emergent task 
of social interpretation with a degree of success that 
was possible, often under adverse circumstances, 
only by the ungrudging cooperation of a great 
number of social thinkers and workers, of writers 
and artists. Time and energy that were engaged 
in throwing light upon the social problems of the 
war and reconstruction periods, upon unemployment 
and nation-wide strikes, are now free to be devoted 
to a fuller exposition and thinking through of the 
enduring problems in our American life. 



51 




EDITORIALS 



THE latest novelty in federal injunctions is doubtless that 
of Massachusetts against babies. Notice has been served 
upon Secretary Mellon and the Federal Board of Maternity 
and Infant Hygiene that the attorney general of Massa- 
chusetts has filed a petition praying the Supreme Court to 
enjoin them from administering the Sheppard-Towner Act. 
The board consists of Grace Abbott, chairman, chief of the 
Children's Bureau, Commissioner Tigert of the United 
States Bureau of Education, and Surgeon General Cum- 
mings of the Public Health Service. 

If this proceeding were less gruesome, it would be humor- 
ous. Massachusetts ranks sixteen among the states when 
listed according to infant mortality and, by the latest figures 
of the United States Bureau of Vital Statistics, for 1920, 
loses before their first birthday 91 babies in 1,000 born alive. 
Having refused the proffered federal funds for 1922 and 
1923, the state administration now attempts to stop the 
forty-seven other states from entering upon this national 
program to keep babies alive and well. Do the people of 
Massachusetts count losing 91 babies in every 1,000 a con- 
stitutional right worth fighting for? 




ALMOST all the accounts that have come from the 
. disaster at Smyrna speak of the extraordinary respect 
shown by persons of all nationalities, including the Turks, 
for the Stars and Stripes. One time it was an American 
woman who brought her charges of Armenian refugees 
through streets filled with soldiers to the quay; another time 
six hundred orphan boys marched to the pier taking their 
turn at holding the flag. And yet, with all the stories of 
bravery shown by American men and women in this 
emergency, we cannot be wholly proud of our part in this 
appalling affair. For five years or more we have known 
that our responsibility in the Near East could not rest with 
a policy of rescue and relief. Yet we rejected the mandate 
and have repeatedly refused to take part in political meas- 
ures which offered the only possible chance of preventing 
massacres such as these. We have salved our conscience by 
putting our hands into our pockets. Some twenty million 
Americans — how heavily would their vote count were they 
but led in common political demands — have contributed to 
the Near East and will doubtless again give money. Already 
appeals to them have gone forth. Since 191 5, forty million 
dollars have been given; but in the same period about a 
million Armenians, two fifths of the race, have been blotted 
out of existence in the massacres at Marash, Harpoot, Sivas 
and in Cilicia. Shall we go on to raise orphans for future 
massacres ? 

In 1915, when the Turks were devastating the villages 
of Armenia, Ambassador Henry Morgenthau suggested that 
the small fragment of this Christian nation be brought to 
America and given asylum. The razing of Smyrna brings 



up the suggestion with tremendous force. Of course, any- 
one who knows the Armenian spirit realizes that devotion 
to a national home would make for many death by fire or 
sword preferable to an exile that would help Turkey tempo- 
rarily to defeat the Armenian cause. But it was a wise Ar- 
menian who said : "The first duty of every patriotic Armenian 
is to survive." 

In the face of this tragedy, has America the right to say, 
as it is saying today, that only 2,388 Armenians may come 
to the United States in 1922? Vast stretches of undeveloped 
land in the West and Southwest call for just the ability 
which the farmer from the dry plateaus of Armenia or the 
scrubby foothills of the Caucasus bring with them. Where 
Armenians as at Fresno have gained access to the land in 
the United States, they have shown an energy, thrift and 
success that has gained them the envy of their neighbors. 
The United States needs skilled workmen today. The Ar- 
menian refugees in Smyrna and Constantinople have become 
skilled workmen — tailors, shoemakers, weavers and machin- 
ists. 

In the little country of Czecho-Slovakia, with only 
thirteen million inhabitants, there are few villages that have 
not their quota of Russian refugees. In one year alone, 1921, 
that small nation has adopted into its homes over 18,000 
Russian exiles. Why should not we, with our immeasurably 
larger resources, our stretches of undeveloped country, our 
ability to organize, with our navy of unused Shipping Board 
vessels rusting in the Hudson, instead of merely putting our 
hands into our pockets, stretch out our hands. Let us waive 
at once the Armenia quota in our immigration law, and in- 
vite the Armenian people to make their temporary home 
with us? And could we not. if even the universal regard 
for American disinterestedness shown throughout the Near 
East does not suffice to entice us from our political seclusion, 
at least give the surviving youth of the massacred nation 
years of protection and education? 




THERE is a measure before Congress affecting the Pueblo 
Indians, the effect of which, according to friends of the 
Pueblos, would be disastrous. This measure is the Bursum 
Bill (Senate bill 3855: introduced April 20, 1922, referred 
to the Committee on Public Lands and Surveys). For 
three hundred years, non-Indian claimants have seized or 
otherwise acquired parts of the lands which were conveyed 
to the Indians by the Spanish crown. At San Juan Pueblo, 
for example, about three-quarters of the irrigable land has 
been appropriated by Mexicans and Americans. The San 
Juan Indians cannot make a living on the fragment of land 
remaining. Taos Pueblo has suffered similarly, and some 
other Pueblos have suffered even more. The United States 
courts have never been willing to confirm the white claims 
to these lands, but the occupancy continues. 



52 



EDITORIALS 



53 



A recent decision of the United States Supreme Court 
•declares in effect that all of these lands belong to the Indians. 

The Bursum bill, if adopted by Congress, would direct 
the United States courts to confirm the seizure of these 
lands. The court would have no option, and occupancy 
even without "color or title," if established since the United 
States acquired New Mexico in 1848, would be confirmed. 
No doubt some of this land was acquired by Spanish, 
Mexican and American owners in good faith, and some 
•equitable adjustment with respect to such holdings would 
not seem impossible. Yet, even a squatter who established 
himself tomorrow on the Indian lands would by the pro- 
posed law be entitled to stay there and obtain a clear title. 
In the latter case the pueblo would receive compensation 
but would have no option to refuse to part with its land. 
Pueblo land and pueblo life are inseparable. 




TODAY, as months ago, the challenge in Ralph Chaplin's 
verse stands — Ralph Chaplin who has "spent five Christ- 
mases in a prison cell and watched five New Years in." He 
wrote in Stars and Shadows: 

Mourn not the dead that in the cool earth lie — 

Dust unto dust — 
The calm, sweet earth that mothers all who die 

As all men must. 

Mourn not your, captive comrades who must dwell — 

Too strong to strive — 
Within each steel-bound coffin of a cell, 

Buried alive. 

But rather mourn the apathetic throng — 

The cowed and the meek — 
Who see the world's great anguish and its wrong 

And dare not speak! 

Chaplin is one of the I. W. W.'s left at Leavenworth by 
Pierce C. Wetter (p. 29). Their industrial philosophy has 
yet to be accepted by more than a very small minority, but 
their continued incarceration is a betrayal of the liberties 
of all of us. And on all of us, no less than on the attorney 
general's office which reckons on the hostility of some, the 
lethargy of all, rests the responsibility for a continuance in 
America of an intolerant and intolerable overhang of the 
war, of which war-torn Europe itself affords no counter- 
part. Those who "dare to speak" in freeing these men 
should make themselves known to the Federal Council of 
Churches, the American Civil Liberties Union and the 
General Amnesty Committee. 




FEW people realize that 75,000 coal miners are still on 
strike. Most of these strikers are in Somerset, West- 
moreland and Fayette counties, Pa., with others in Cambria 
and Indiana counties and still others in West Virginia and 
Maryland. To them the popular belief that the "coal 
strike's over" is irony. Their strike is now approaching its 
sixth month. Thousands of their families, evicted, are in 
tents, and winter is ahead. Their opponents include the 
United States Steel Corporation, other manufacturing and 
transportation companies involving the Rockefeller and 
Mellon interests which had run non-union before last spring, 



and — indifference. The government at Washington is 
showing no sense of responsibility for reopening the mines 
still shut by this end of the national strike. In Somerset 
County there are 1,200 evicted families in tents, and others 
are being routed out of company houses daily. Tent colo- 
nies dot the Connellsville region. The strike is still on at 
the mines of the Berwind-White Company, the customary 
source of the New York Interborough subway's fuel. In 
Maryland the Consolidation Coal Company is using in- 
junctions and evictions; Federal Judge MoClintic who 
granted a sweeping but abortive injunction at the start of 
the national strike is sending miners to jail for "contempt" 
of new injunctions issued by him. What all these miners 
are out for is the same conditions — the Cleveland agree- 
ment — as contracted for by the majority of the country's 
coal operators with the United Mine Workers last August. 
For example: in spite of the Steel Corporations' professed 
policy of "not dealing with labor unions," sixteen of its 
nines in Illinois, Indiana and near Pittsburgh are in strong 
union districts and have been unionized for years. In 
signing up for these sixteen mines, representatives of the 
subsidiaries of the Steel Corporation are reported to have 
told the union leaders: "We will 9'gn here, but we will 
fight you everywhere else." 




WRITES an employer: "I feel about certain phases of 
trade unionism a good deal the way a Frenchman feels 
about Germany." Unconsciously he unearths one root of 
the old apple of discord among men. That's the way many 
working men think about Capital — many employers about 
Labor. If the Survey can help working men to think about 
employers and employers to think about working men, 
Frenchmen to think about Germans, and vice-versa, and 
Americans about both, then we shall have done our bit. This 
issue, we hope, will help people to think about Indians and 
Negroes, Greeks and Armenians and speakable Turks; about 
school teachers and children and foremen ; about political 
prisoners and women who want work for their hands; about 
people as people; about the common soil that clings to the 
roots of the apple of discord — and nourishes wheat stalks 
and hyacinths. 

Significantly enough, the National Federation of Settle- 
ments, at its annual conference at East Aurora last month 
decided to put into the forefront of its program a study of 
race relations as they express themselves in the social life sur- 
rounding the neighborhood houses of America. Some of the 
settlement workers have given the first impetus to an inten- 
sive and sympathetic inquiry into industrial relations which 
since then has been taken up and developed by national 
bodies with larger equipment for such work. So now another 
pressing problem of American life will have the benefit 
of their intensive personal knowledge and interest. 

At no time have world happenings proved more clearly 
the need for determined advance towards better inter-racial 
understanding — a genuine, popular reaching out towards a 
comprehension of the view point and mentality of the foreign- 
born. We must start out afresh and see ourselves :s we 
really are; not at the end of an era of mechanical inven- 
tions that have revolutionized human intercourse but rather 
at the threshold of one that conceives the old task in an en- 
tirely new light. The problem as it gradually defines it- 
self is that of creating intellectual links and links of fel- 
lowship in common aspiration to a higher human type than 
any race or nation can evolve in isolation from the rest. 



Neighbors 




HREE years ago, after the crisis in our 
relations with our southern neighbors, 
Samuel Guy Inman, secretary of the 
Committee on Cooperation in Latin Amer- 
ica, revisited their country and in addition 
to material for a book, Intervention in 
Mexico (Association Press), brought back 
an understanding account of The Young 
Mexicans which was published in the Survey for August 30, 
1 919. He has been in Mexico again this year and again is in- 
viting us to share with him the acquaintance of some interest- 
ing people he has met. Mr. Inman has the floor: 

An outstanding figure among the new types of character 
produced by the Mexican upheavel is Jose Vasconcelos, 
the minister of education. His activities are so many 
that one is reminded of a cartoon of Colonel Roosevelt which 
showed him one morning, while on vacation, cutting a cord 
of wood, playing a set of tennis, writing a chapter of a book 
and reading half a dozen papers — all before breakfast. Ideas 
jump from Vasconcelos like rats from a sinking ship. Under 
his direction the newly created ministry of education has be- 
come the most talked-of department of the government. He 
has no use for the old scholasticism and says so at every turn. 
He counts that day lost when half a dozen old educational 
or social idols are not smashed. There is something doing in 
his department every minute, and he does not hesitate to 
change his mind and his orders on occasion. He is like the 
man who was reminded that what he was saying on a certain 
subject was not what he said the day before. His reply was, 
"I know it isn't; and it's probably not what I'll say tomor- 
row, but it's what I am saying today." 

Under the enthusiastic direction of the minister, the de- 
partment of education, with a budget of 50,000.000 pesos 
(about five times as much as it ever had before) is branch- 
ing out into all sorts of new drives on ignorance, illiteracy 
and scholasticism. Here are a few: First there is the "mis- 
sionary" teacher, who goes from village to village in the 
more remote sections of the country, spending a few weeks 
in each to teach the people to read and write and then secur- 
ing the help of local literates to continue the work until the 
missionary returns for another stay. Then there is the cam- 
paign against illiteracy, which is enrolling the students of 
the universities and secondary schools, the labor unions, 
local officials and influential individuals who agree 
to invite a few people into their own homes and 
teach them to read. A third item 
in the program is the multiplication 
of night schools where practical 
courses are given for workmen. 

Grants are made to states finan- 
cially unable to carrv out the educa- 
tional program. This help is con- 
ditioned upon their conforming to 
educational standards laid down by 
the department. The government 
printers are compelled to abandon 
the printing of long official reports 
which nobody reads and work in- 
stead on the publication of great 
books, of both ancient and modern 
times, which are furnished at as- 
tonishingly low prices to public 
schools and libraries. Plato and 
Don Quixote are among the classics 
already issued, and it is expected that 
an enormous edition of the Bible 



will be added soon. Another new departure is the opening 
of summer courses in the University at Mexico City especially 
for students of Spanish, history and archaeology from the 
United States. More than two hundred from the United 
States, mostly school teachers, attended in 1921, and this 
year there were five hundred. The government gives 
students free transportation from the border. 

Seflor Vasconcelos is a lawyer, not a professional educator. 
He believes that the university and all its affiliated schools 
should be made more practical, but it seems to have been 
difficult for him to find the men to carry his ideas into a 
practical realization. He is encouraging students to come 
to the United States and other foreign countries to take back 
the best in education to Mexico. He is earnest in his atti- 
tude toward social and political questions. "Mexico can 
never be civilized as long as she has pulque and the bull- 
fight," is one of his numerous thrusts at the evils in Mexico. 

The people of the United States will have a chance to see 
Vasconcelos, as he has accepted our invitation to lecture in 
New York and to visit some of our educational institutions 
on his way to represent his nation at the celebration of 
Brazil's centennial this fall. He has not always been an 
intense admirer of the United States, believing in Pan 
Latinism rather than in Pan Americanism, but there are not 
lacking evidences of a change of heart. When he heard that 
Mr. Inman had attended the Pan American Congress of 
Women in Baltimore, he requested him to lecture on the 
subject before the principals of the schools of Mexico City 
and was not only present himself but gave orders that every 
principal should be there. 



M 



Photograph from Keystone 




Jose Vasconcelos, Mexico's Iconoclastic 
Minister of Education 



ANUEL GAMIO is another enthusiast. Like Vas- 
concelos he is a young man, probably about thirty-five. 
But he has under his direction wdiat is possibly the most im- 
portant archaeological field in the world. A pupil of Pro- 
fessor Franz Boaz at Columbia University, he is a trained 
scientist. Backed by President Carranza first and then by 
President Obregon, he has done wonderful things in un- 
earthing the past glories" of the primitive races of Mexico. 
The riches of these Mexican ruins are becoming more as- 
tounding every day. A map of his operations which Seiior 
Gamio recently prepared, shows seven hundred important 
towns, pyramids or temples, representing various civilizations 
that reach back from two to five thousand years. His most 
remarkable work is the restoration of the ruins at Teotihua- 
can. It was Mr. Inman's privilege 
to be taken out to these rviins by 
Seiior Gamio and to spend the day 
in seeing them under his guidance. 
They are only twenty-eight miles 
from Mexico City. 

The name Teotihuacan signifies 
"the abode of the gods." although 
there are other possible interpreta- 
tions commanding some support. 
This prehistoric city was built in 
a gently sloping valley, sheltered 
from the chilling breezes of the 
North by the great crater of the 
volcano Cerro Gordo, now extinct. 
Blocks cut from the volcanic lava 
of the mountain are one of the 
principal building materials of the 
city. In ancient days the citv cov- 
ered an area of about eight square- 
miles; it is remarkable for the per- 



54 



NEIGHBORS 



55 



feet symmetry of its proportions and the magnitude of its 
edifices. Among the more remarkable of these buildings is 
the terraced Pyramid of the Sun, nearly two hundred feet in 
height, which is still in a remarkable state of preservation. By 
far the most important temple yet unearthed is that erected 
to the god Quetzalcoatl. While not as imposing in its pres- 
ent state as the Pyramid of the Sun, its decorations and 
sculptures are well preserved and are much more profuse 
than in any other building in the ancient city. This great 
temple is to be completely restored by a corps of experts work- 
ing under the direction of Sefior Gamio. When this restora- 
tion is complete it will present a picture of the magnificence 
of ancient civilizations like nothing else in the world and will 
undoubtedly draw students and tourists from the four corners 
of the earth. 

"I am anxious to have the cooperation of archaeologists 
from other countries," Sefior Gamio says. "These evidences of 
a great civilization of the past do not belong to Mexico alone. 
They belong to the whole world. 
Our only desire 'is to have them so 
preserved that they will be of the 
greatest service to science, history 
and society at large." 

SOME of the most interesting 
representatives of the new type 
of Mexican produced by the revolu- 
tion are women. Mr. Inman tells 
of one of them whose name should 
be known beyond the boundaries of 
her own country: Elena Torres, 
the manager of Mexico's children's 
restaurant, which has furnished 
one hundred and fifty-seven thou- 
sand free breakfasts to the poorer 
children of the capital during the 
month of April. When investi- 
gators showed Miss Torres the 
appalling undernourishment of the 
school children who fell on the Presidents of Self-gor 
playground at the least exertion Professor Oropesa's 

and who went listlessly through 

their lessons, she resolved to do something about it. But 
she could find no help. With her own hands and with a 
single brazier and kettle, she prepared hot milk, coffee and 
buns for children in one of the schools. The results were 
so remarkable that others became interested, among them 
Minister Vasconcelos. A house and a small sum of money 
were granted, Eittle by little Miss Torres made new 
friends who helped her to develop the work, and when Mr. 
Inman visited the center in the wee small hours, he found 
several young men and women, with a number of laborers, 
keeping the fires going under great cauldrons of milk and 
coffee which was poured boiling hot into dairy cans and 
hustled off in trucks to schools in every part of the city. 

This is only one of the activities of Miss Torres. She is 
Minister Vasconcelos' "right-hand man" in many of the 
social experiments that the department of education is carry- 
ing out. She knows the needs of the poor from personal ex- 
perience. The daughter of humble parents, she was com- 
pelled to earn her living from the age of twelve, when her 
father abandoned the family. Her own struggles in the in- 
dustrial world, where the women were commonly considered 
fair game for the men, has made her a militant against the 
double standard of morality, the exploitation of children, the 
drink evil and false educational methods. She won her 
teacher's diploma by study at night. Besides teaching, she has 
studied the social problems of Mexico's cities as a nurse, as 
inspector of police and as an official of the socialist partv. 




As a delegate to the Pan American Congress of Women, at 
Baltimore, she received a new vision. The contact with the 
women of the United States has reduced her radical tenden- 
cies, and her service to the women and children of Mexico 
will no doubt be of increasing importance. 

ELENA LANDAZURI is another type of the young 
woman who is a born leader. She represents the aristo- 
cratic element in Mexico's new leadership. Study of art 
and philosophy in the University of Mexico gave her a de- 
sire to see more of the world. She spent three years at the 
University of Chicago, where her interests were turned from 
philosophy to social problems. She changed from the atheistic 
position held by most Latin American students to active 
membership of a Chicago church, pastored by her professor 
of philosophy. She has visited Europe to study social and 
moral problems, and during the few months she has been 
back in Mexico she has stirred the women of her city to 
? ^reat activity along moral lines. She 
has surrounded herself with a group 
of progressive men and women who 
are engaged in providing lectures 
and entertainment for workmen 
in the moving picture theater on 
Sunday mornings, in organizing con- 
certs in the parks where people from 
the tenement districts can come to 
sing their beautiful and touching 
folk songs, in studying the question 
of moral education in school and 
society, and in various other activi- 
ties. She expects to return to the 
United States soon for a course in 
the Y. W. C. A. Training School 
in order to assist in the organization 
of such an association in Mexico 
City. 



ernment Committees in 
School in Mexico City 



ANEW type of literature is 
becoming popular in Mexico, 
of which Mr. Inman counts Andres 
Osuna one of the leading exponents. 
Trained in some of the best educational institutions of the 
United States, Sefior Osuna has come to be a leading figure in 
modernizing the educational system of Mexico. Being per- 
suaded of the great power of a new literature in the recon- 
struction of Mexico he has recently accepted the position of 
manager of the Union Press and is introducing books on 
social and educational reform, temperance, ethics and New 
Thought which bid fair to change the general attitude of the 
nation if the large plans he has in mind oan be carried out. 
He has lately been called to a leading position in the govern- 
ment educational system, but prefers to stay engaged in his 
literary work. 

With the government's aid he has placed eleven 
thousand copies of a volume on temperance in the schools 
in the space of a few weeks. He has just sold five hundred 
copies of the Bible to the government for use in public 
libraries and in the university, where it is used as a textbook 
of ethics. Translations of the latest works of John Dewey, 
Paul Monroe, H. G. Wells, William James and the more 
popular books of Marden and Trine, along with various 
works on district nursing, juvenile courts, cooperative 
societies, playgrounds, the Boy Scout movement, feminism 
and university extension are eagerly devoured by the younger 
generation of Mexicans who have been stirred by the revolu- 
tion to a belief that their country's salvation lies in social 
and moral regeneration rather than in panaceas. 

When one stops to think what a large part good literature 



56 



NEIGHBORS 



has played in building up the social consciousness of the 
United States, and that Mexico has been fed for centuries 
on the worst of French romanticism, German materialism 
and Spanish pessimism, one can share Senor Osuna's enthusi- 
asm over what a new type of socially optimistic literature 
may do for Mexico. 

FIRST of all the interesting new types arising in Mexico 
whom he has met, Mr. Inman places a man to see whom 
he arose one morning at five o'clock and hunted all through 
the Balsa district (the Bowery of Mexico City), finally 
locating him surrounded by hundreds of boys. Here was a 
man who seemed to embrace the best of Froebel, Montessori, 
John Dewey and the founder of the George Junior Republic 
— without ever having known them or their teachings. 

Oropesa is a quiet, unassuming, earnest young man 
of about thirty-five. He was an officer in the revolutionary 
army but did not care for fighting and, when he found him- 
self in Lower California on one of his expeditions, asked 
to be given a school. He has never studied pedagogy, but 
has studied his people as he went from place to place. He 
set out to make the children natural, able to make their own 
decisions and abide by them, eager to do things because they 
liked to do them. The state inspector visited his school 
and reported that he had no discipline. The governor called 
tor him and informed him that he must establish military 
discipline such as obtained in the other schools. He told the 
governor that if he cared to visit his school within a week 
he would see the kind of discipline desired. 

Oropesa then called all his pupils together and explained 
the situation. Their devotion made them promise to do 
anything to help him. So he purchased a great gong which, 
when sounded, meant that the children must stop in their 
play on the instant. They obeyed so perfectly that they 
would even stop with arm or leg extended if that happened 
to be their position at the time the bell sounded. The 
governor came. The gong sounded. The children stopped 
their play like a lot of small puppets, formed in line, marched 
into the classroom, faced about and took their seats in a 
strictly military one-two-three-four fashion. "Magnificent," 
said the governor. But the teacher tendered his resignation. 
"This is the discipline of the barracks. Anybody can implant 
it in a week. When the children leave the school grounds 
they forget it immediately. The discipline I implant is the 
kind that is guided by love and reason and will always go 
with the child." And so he left. 

In Mexico City Oropesa has been allowed to go out into 
the worst slum district, take over an abandoned property and 
assemble around him the forsaken waifs of the neighborhood. 
He opened his school where there had never been a school 
before. He has todav, after four months, nine hundred chil- 
dren in his day school and three hundred adults and employed 



adolescents at night. Five hundred boys and girls of the 
district, who are accustomed to sleeping either on the streets, 
or in equally bad conditions in the tenements, now sleep in 
two long rooms used during the day as class rooms. 

On Mr. Inman 's arrival at 6 A. M., the various "commis- 
sions" were already at work. A brigade was sweeping the 
yard, another was getting the long table ready for breakfast 
out-doors, another was cutting hair, another drawing water 
for the morning scrub. The visitors were presented to the 
chiefs of the various commissions, that of Cleanliness, Car- 
ing for Younger Children, Garden Plots, Distribution of 
Books, Clean Noses and others equally interesting. The 
children are not educated out of their environment, but are 
taught to be clean and moral within it. Each child must 
pass an inspection before being seated at the great table 
around which there is room for about two hundred. This- 
table is filled three times, and the food is furnished by the 
free breakfast organization already mentioned. 

Each child may have a garden plot by asking for it in 
writing. He is allowed to sell his produce and spend the 
proceeds for his own support. The commission on garden 
plots is quick to remove the cultivator if the plot is not well 
cared for. If a teacher finds that the class in geography, 
for example, is not attentive, the director orders that it be 
taken out into the open to work in the garden or discuss 
practical botany or natural history. 

The influence of the school is extending through the homes 
of the neighborhood. Every Sunday morning the director 
takes a pushcart full of books through the district. He talks 
to a family about reading, selects a work he thinks they will 
like and leaves it with them. He reports that he has not 
lost a single book and that the people almost worship the 
ones loaned to them, as they are generally the first books they 
have ever had. 

The night school is as well organized as the day school. 
It is the only mixed night school in Mexico City. Senor 
Oropesa teaches that it is natural for the sexes to study to- 
gether, as they must live and work together. He finds that 
the men respect the women in a new way. The teaching 
in the night school is individual : that is, each pupil is asked 
what his need is in reference to his daily work and is taught 
that particular thing. The teacher leaves each pupil with 
a problem while he goes to the next one, trying to make each 
one feel that he has learned something that will help him 
in his work the next dav. At the close of the class hour, 
all are led in singing folk songs under the direction of a 
trained musician. 

AND so, says Mr. Inman. one might go on telling indefi- 
nitely of this new type of Mexican that is arising. "But," 
he asks, "of what interest are these people to us? We can- 
not recognize them until thev have changed their constitution 
to our liking and shaped their laws to benefit our investors" 



A yearly subscription to The Survey 

□ Twice-a-Month at $5 includes the 12 monthly issues of Survey 
Graphic and 12 Mid-Monthly numbers. 

□ Or, Survey Graphic may be taken by itself — 12 fully illustrated 
monthly issues at $3 a year. 

Check the one wanted and send with check or money order. 

Name 

Address 



In the Classroom 

More than 4000 students in 218 college 
and school classes read the Survey reg- 
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Mail to SURVEY ASSOCIATES, INC., 112 East 19tk Street, New York 



The Case for the Indian 



(Continued from page ii 



Soon after the visit of the congressional committee I re- 
ceived the volume of hearings connected with the'r trip. It 
•Vos a bulk}' volume, but I read it from cover 10 cover, and 
as 1 read, I gained amazing knowledge of the value of the 
Indian holdings in the Southwest. Billions of tons of coal 
under the Navajo and Moqui reservations, not one ounce of 
which has been mined ; millions of feet of timber ripe for 
cutting; deposits of asbestos, tufa, copper, oil; hundreds oi 
thousands of acres of fertile land lie here. All these un- 
touched assets not only constitute perhaps the biggest estate 
in the world, but they represent a portion of the potential 
resources of our nation. 

THE General Federation of Women's Clubs has taken up 
this problem of the Indian and will not lay down the task. 
The aim of the federation is to work out a simple, basic- 
policy, aimed primarily at the improvement of the Indians' 
economic condition. It hopes to cooperate with the govern- 
ment in a sustained effort toward 
keeping for the Indians the land 
which they still possess and getting 
back for them the land of which 
they have been illegally dispossessed, 
and toward fostering the Indian 
arts and crafts. 

In the pueblos of Arizona and 
New Mexico visitors may see the 
older Indian women at work mak- 
their beautiful pottery. At Santa 
Clara pueblo the black pottery is 
made without the use of the wheel. 
Three kinds of mud are mixed into a 
dough, and the jug is artistically 
formed by hand. It is burned in a 
pile of dry manure, smoothed down 
by rough sand, and given the final 
touches by the tedious process of 
polishing with a black stone. In 
nearly every hogan in the Navajo 
country you find weaving done, but 
always by the older women. On 
those reservations are day schools 
where the children go till they are 
ready to enter the sixth grade. In- 
stead of the half an hour a day 
which is allowed in the school pro- 
gram for industrial work, wffiy not 
give enough time to have these chil- 
dren taught their native arts by the 
best craftswomen of the tribe? In 
those early years our own children 
are taught handicrafts. How much 
more necessary it is that the Indian 
children, who inherit wonderful 

primitive arts, be made to realize that in that heritage lies 
their very existence. Congress will be asked to enact a law 
putting government guarantee on each Navajo blanket, with 
a penalty for the removal of the guarantee. Money should 
be appropriated establishing a permanent national col- 
lection of the Indian arts and crafts. All these things 
will help to save and restore the self-respect of the 
Indians. 




The Governor of Taos Pueblo 



The weakness ol the government's Indian program has 
been that with each changing administration there has been 
a complete change of policy. The result has been loss of 
confidence on the part of the general public, lowering of 
morale in the large permanent force of the Indian Bureau, 
and discouragement both of the Indians and the well-wishing 
public from any long-range constructive effort. In order that 
the General Federation may help in formulating and in main- 
taining a consistent policy, there is being formed a close or- 
ganization throughout the Indian country, and a special 
group is prepared to undertake the necessary field investiga- 
tion and propaganda. There is no doubt but that the attitude 
of the Indian Office today is good. There is a disposition 
to consider carefully the many complicated problems which 
continually arise in Indian affairs. The result cannot fail to 
be profoundly helpful to the Indians. But the fact remains 
that the Indian today must depend for his protection and for 
his elementary rights, not on the law but on the personal 
policy of the ever-changing heads 
of departments. 

The case of the Indian is plain. 
In his days of savagery, through the 
inevitable connection of the Indian 
with the development of the new 
country, the government was forced 
to establish a self-assumed guardian- 
ship that is unique in history. Offi- 
cials were endowed with discretion- 
ary powers so that they might act 
on their own initiative in subduing 
outbreaks that retarded the develop- 
ment of the country and endangered 
the safety of whole communities. 
These powers were absolutely auto- 
cratic in their bearing and made of 
each reservation a kingdom, ruled 
over, many times, by a petty tyrant. 
For fifty years we have had 
schools established ; millions of dol- 
lars have been spent for the educa- 
tion and development of the Indian, 
and he has emerged from ignorance 
and savagery. Thousands of our 
Indians today are pathetic figures, 
educated, given our standards, our 
hopes, our fears, but deprived of 
our rights and privileges. 

There is no point in the program 
of social welfare at which the prob- 
lem of the Indian does not touch 
our own ; health, education, citizen- 
ship, legislation — in all these and 
others he must have his place, for 
he is a part of our body politic. In 
the economic development of the vast resources of which 
he is ow T ner he must be considered, for he is our responsibility, 
and we can no longer afford to ignore him. The American 
people must realize that the Indian, instead of being a 
liability, is one of our national assets. The ethnologist, the 
archaeologist, the artist, the dramatist, the musician, the 
economist are coming to a tardy realization of the wealth 
of material that lies untouched here. 



57 



THE AUTHOR SAID : 



"As I worked with business people I noticed 
that all the books were really written for busi- 
ness men — and so I decided to try my hand at 
something for the business girls who so often 
come to me for advice" — 

That is why Jean Rich (Helen Thompson) 
of the Yonkers Public Library wrote and the 
Womans Press published 



DO'S AND DON'TS for BUSINESS WOMEN 

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Taking a Flyer in Good Causes 



(Continued from page 50) 



are bound to intrude more and more into civic relations; 
but we are in danger of dwelling too much on inequalities 
of fortune and of becoming absorbed by the fear of industrial 
conflict. We are too apt to explain every social maladjust- 
ment in economic terms. American concern over the dollar, 
so often commented upon by foreigners, is a fact, even though 
not so limited to personal questions as sometimes pictured. 
Social crusades are too often considered primarily as drives 
for funds, which, it is hoped, will be oversubscribed; inter- 
est in the financial results is widespread, but only a few 
concern themselves with the actual use of the funds, when 
they are raised. A community is called prosperous when 
its property values have been doubled within a few years, 
or when its wage-earners are content. But real prosperity 
consists of a richness in the social texture of life in which 
material affluence and contentment are only one, though an 
important, element. There are, for instance, in the United 
Stntes, many large and prosperous communities in which no 
work of art can be found, and where neither good music 
nor good drama may be enjoyed from one year's end to 
another. 

The typical exclusive suburb, made up of wealthy homes 
and their satellites, may be in a sense a rich town ; but if 
its boredom, its absence of intellectual and artistic interests, 
its clinging to obsolete individual and social relationships, 
its dependence for entertainment upon the outside world 
are considered alongside the creative and stimulating atmos- 
phere of some small, progressive industrial community where 



the people cooperate in securing the best things in life, the 
comparative happiness and prosperity of the former may 
be doubted. 

Nor is all the misery in our great cities due to bad in- 
dustrial conditions. Even where these are evident and call 
aloud for reform there are many other urgent problems 
reaching to the bottom of our social structure. Too rapid 
a growth may have brought about congestion and haphazard 
development that can be remedied by careful planning. 
There may be a lack of civic cooperation between racial 
groups. Or again, progress may be retarded by an un- 
democratic and corrupt form of local government. The 
efforts of citizens to improve such conditions are independent 
of any struggle between organized labor and organized capi- 
tal. The bringing together of good men and women from 
all walks of life may even help to overcome their mutual 
ignorance and prejudices, and thus lessen the severity of the 
class struggle, inevitable as it may seem. 

What then can the individual man or woman do to be- 
come a more effective factor for social progress? One is 
tempted to reply, "First of all, do thus and thus." But life 
is not so simple. Many things must be done simultaneously 
to make the life of the individual in relation to his social 
environment one of rounded and satisfying completeness. 
"First of all, learn to know your own community." Yes. 
but little is gained from flitting hither and thither to dis- 
cover all the ins and outs of its human composition, the 
structure of its associations, the movements at work to im- 



58 




What of the Negro? 

What solution is there for America's grave problem of race relations? What will prevent another race riot 
such as that in Chicago in July, 1919? Is the Negro problem to be settled by deportation, segregation, or 
education? 



The Negro in Chicago 

By The Chicago Commission 
on Race Relations 

is published in the hope that out of a detailed study 
of Chicago's race riot will come a knowledge for all 
America of the way the Negro lives in the North, 
of his industrial position, of the prop-aganda used 
to influence his migration about the country, and of 
what an investigating committee of both races con- 
siders are the main factors in the adjustment of racial 
difficulties. Illustrated, $6.15 postpaid 

These two books contain much information on the Negro that has been known to only a few interested per- 
sons in the past. What they now disclose should be familiar to every American citizen. If you will send 
your name and address to the publishers, additional information on these volumes will be sent to you with- 
out obligation. 

For sale by your bookdealer 

THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS 

5746 Ellis Avenue Chicago, Illinois 



The Negro Press in the 
United States 

By Frederick G. Detiveiler 

approaches the Negro question from another angle 
by delineating the scope of the Negro periodicals. 
It gives an estimate of the importance to America 
of the volume and influence of the papers edited by 
and for the Negro. It describes their policies, de- 
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degree to which the Negro is controlled by his own 
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prove it, if at the same time the wholesome wish to "do 
something about it" is held in check and atrophied. 

Or, first of all, relieve whatever distress one may meet 
without any deep study or new and complicated organiza- 
tion. But why should one devote oneself to feeding the 
starving, clothing the naked and visiting those in prison if 
at the same time evil forces are at work in the community 
to replenish the ranks of those who fall by the wayside and 
to make the need for remedial effort permanent? Is it not 
better to combine, so far as may be, first aid with a thought- 
ful survey of the problems and the planning of preventive 
measures? 

First of all, get rid of the corrupt city government; or, 
first of all, help the wage-earners to win a strike for a living 
wage; or, first of all, promote thrift so as to foster self-help 
in emergencies ; the very multitude of first claims — accord- 
ing to whatever happens to loom largest in the eyes of the 
counselor — is confusing. 

But, asks the seeker for opportunities of service, what of 
the further steps to insure the benefits of the specific reforms 
you demand ? Should a wider program of reform be left 
entirely to the future? Or would not this be courting the 
danger that other factors overlooked at present will vitiate 
the good results expected from the immediate measures? 

No, the duty of the good citizen does not lie in spasmodic 
and isolated action against some specific evil ; he must try to 
see it in its relation to the social problem as a whole and 
make his immediate activity a step in a moderately consistent 
if not completely worked out program. This is not to say 
that he must at all times work on all problems even in his 
own community; or that he must have mapped out a long 
program before he tackles the job that lies nearest. Vitality 
would be lost by such diffusion of effort ; and it is both 



natural and desirable that each should center his interests 
and so far as possible become proficient in at least one 
special field. 

But individual and group action will gain immeasurably 
in effectiveness when supported by an informed public 
opinion ; and this means that each specialist must take a 
helpful interest in movements related to his own ; and, 
further, that his special work — whatever it may be — must 
be carried on within the umbra of a wider cooperative move- 
ment for social reform, so that the separate causes, however 
far removed from each other, and however much individuals 
may differ on specific policies, may be ennobled one and all 
by the sense of a larger fellowship. 

The Undesirable Volunteer 

There is one matter which it would not be necessary to 
discuss in this connection, were it not a frequent cause for 
complaint by experienced social workers. This is the neces- 
sity of looking upon even the special job as a whole, and not 
as something that can be divided into pleasant and un- 
pleasant elements — leaving the latter to professional work- 
ers who are "paid for the job." There are two reasons why 
a social movement cannot be carried on in that spirit and 
by that method of organization. First, the citizen who 
shirks drudgery in his efforts to advance a cause usually gets 
a mistaken notion of the cause itself. Discussing plans, 
mapping out campaigns, designing appeals, auditing accounts, 
addressing meetings, going on deputations and writing to "our 
senator" is all well enough, and quite necessary, perhaps. 
But often the very drudgery of the detailed work, of "put- 
ting over" a job carefully conceived in advance, discloses 
flaws and suggests better procedures. Second, paid workers 
should not be expected to do effectively under the direction 



59 



Room At The Top 

In Social Work as in Other 
Professions 

Two hundred American cities are seeking men trained 
and experienced in community organization to direct 
Councils of Social Agencies, Welfare Federations and 
Joint Financing Enterprises. 

If you have had administrative experience in social 
agencies you can get Professional Training and Prac- 
tical Experience in Community Organization Work 
at the 

School of Applied Social Science 
Western Reserve University 

and 

The Welfare Federation 
Cleveland 

A nominal salary is paid to students during training. 
Write now for admission to the October or the Feb- 
ruary classes. 

Ja?nes Elbert Cutler, Ph.D., Dean 

11014 Euclid Ave., 

Cleveland. Ohio. 



NEW SCHOOL FOR SOCIAL RESEARCH 

Lecturers for 1922-3: John Dewey, John B. Watson, Thor- 
stein Veblen, Leo Wolman, H. W. L. Dana, Joseph K. Hart, 
A. A. Goldenweiser and others 

Registration: October 9 — 16 

All courses given in late afternoon or evening 

Write for catalogue to 

465-9 West 23d Street New York City 



RECREATION TRAINING SCHOOL OF CHICAGO 

(Successor to Recreation Dept., Chicago School of Civics and 

Philanthropy.) 

One and two year course. Community drama. 

Write for circular 

800 S. Halsted St. (Hull House) Chicago 



CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOL 



THE ALLEN SCHOOL - SOCIAL SCIENCE 

Correspondence course in Social Problems. A practical in- 
troduction to the subject, including topics in Unemployment, 
Poverty, Social Insurance and Child Labor. Students acquire 
knowledge of principles and practice through carefully ar- 
ranged lessons and projects requiring application of material 
presented. Other subjects are Psychology, Economics and 
U.S. Government. Special consultation privileges to students. 
Courses may be started at any time. For catalogue address 
HENRY M. ALLKN. A.M.. Prin.. The Allen School. Auburn. N.Y. 



J 



of others only the hard and monotonous work associated 
with the main task. Their interest must be kept alive, they 
must feel their joint responsibility, and this is possible only 
if they have the cooperation of their non-professional as- 
sociates, who should help in any burdensome work to be done- 
and share in the whole duty of carrying out the policies of 
the organization. 

A social executive recently said to me: "1 have no use 
for volunteers. They are merely people out foi a new sensa- 
tion ; and when some real work has to be done in which 
there is no occasion for their talents and sympathies, they 
are not to be found." Another said: "Streams of volunteers 
come to this office saying they want to have a part in the 
movement. Usually they are quite ignorant of what it 
means in detail, since all the knowledge they have of it has 
come out of books. But when I ask them to help compile 
a card catalogue of the various affiliated bodies, listing their 
activities, methods, and so on, the most educational task in 
this connection I can think of, they look upon it as simply 
an effort to burden them with clerical work which any paid 
person might do; and they go away disappointed." This 
seems to indicate that volunteer social workers are insincere ; 
but as a matter of fact many sincere and earnest persons 
simply do not understand the close relationship between the 
larger and the more detailed parts of the work to be ac- 
complished. Therefore, the advice not to shirk the less inter- 
esting tasks that are a part of every social movement is 
necessary and timely. 

Adequate preparation, while it may seem a tedious inter- 
ference with rapid action, is often the quickest way toward 
making one's own influence and work most effective. To 
the enthusiast it may be anything but agreeable to spend 
much time in thorough training before even starting on what 
he considers the most important job to be done. With the 
superficial amateur who goes into a social reform movement 
for self-gratification rather than a desire to serve humanity 
we are not here concerned ; obviously he will be even less 
inclined to go into training. Many will protest that they 
have no time for study ; that what little they can spare must 
go directly into social activity if they are to be active at all. 
But this attitude rests upon a misconception of what train- 
ing consists of. There are, as in every other form of educa- 
tion, short as well as long courses, intensive as well as ex- 
tensive methods of preparation. And, what is more im- 
portant, the social task itself can be made educational or 
non-educational, according to the way in which it is tackled. 

Where are the War Workers ? 

During the war, thousands of people, stirred by deep emo- 
tion, threw themselves into a wide variety of social activities, 
ranging from therapeutic work with wounded soldiers to 
making garments for Serbian orphans. Most of them, when 
the wave of enthusiasm had passed, took back with them to 
their daily life no more than the consciousness of having 
very feebly contributed to the national cause by some specific 
effort now happily ended. But some, no less enthusiastic, 
learned to realize that the needs for social service disclosed 
by the war were, for the most part, needs of peace time 
also ; that some of the problems associated with the war 
were merely distinct phases of larger problems that must 
be solved by large measures. They set to work, therefore, 
to find out what these peace-time needs and permanent 
problems really are, what agencies are at work to deal with 
them, and how their own help might contribute toward 
results. In their cases, the war experience has been educa- 
tional or at least has led to the demand for more enlighten- 
ment. Often preoccupation with a specific question of de- 
stitution or social maladjustment has led such persons to 
take a new interest in the ever raging discussion of funda- 
mental social questions, to read the literature of social work. 



60 






TRAINING COURSES FOR 
SOCIAL WORK 



The Johns Hopkins University 
Courses in Social Economics 

Courses offered first year: — Social Case Work, 
Health and Preventable Diseas?, Social Medicine, 
Community Problems and Organization, Social Work 
and Law, Immigrant Peoples. Twenty-one hours a 
week field work training under professional executives. 

Second year, specialized. 

Psychiatric and General Medical Social Service train- 
ing given by the Social Service Department of The 
Johns Hopkins Hospital. 

College graduates eligible for M.A. degree after com- 
pleting the two years' course. 

For circulars address T. R. BALL, Registrar. 



L 



Porter R. Lee, Director 

Walter W. Pettit, Assistant Director 

Margaret Leal, Secretary 

Among others on the 1922-23 staff are 

Henry W. Thurston — Child Welfare 
John A. Fitch — Industry 
George W. Kirchwey — Criminology 
Bernard Glueck — Mental Hygiene 
Shelby Harrison — Social Surveys 
Michael Davis — Hospital Social Service 
Kate H. Claghorn — Social Research 

107 East 22nd Street 
New York City 



The Pennsylvania School for Social Service 

in affiliation with the University of Pennsylvania, 

offers a ten month's course in Public Health Nursing. 
This course consists of both theory and practice and 
is open to qualified graduate nurses. Through co- 
operation with other agencies, training is giving in visit- 
ing nursing, child welfare, school and industrial nurs- 
ing, hospital social service and rural community nurs- 
ing. New year begins Monday, September 5, 1922. 



For detailed information apply to 

MISS HARRIET FROST, Director of Public Health Nursing 
The Pennsylvania School for Social Service 

339 South Broad Street, Philadelphia 



to revise their ideas both as regards existing social conditions 
and their own relation to the social life of their community. 

Many persons such as these have recently "seen the light" 
— though by no means always the same light — and it is 
they who, perhaps, are most in need of wise counsel. As a 
rule, of course, they are associated with leaders in social 
reform who are able to advise them with intimate reference 
to their abilities and circumstances. But it is not always 
safe to rely exclusively upon counsel given within too narrow 
a circle of acquaintances. It should be supplemented by 
wide reading to make sure that no decision rests upon a frag- 
mentary knowledge of the subject. 

Those who have not hitherto tried to link the problems 
of their daily life and surroundings with the great move- 
ments of social reform that agitate the world at large will 
be startled to find how the two clarify each other. In con- 
nection with the local school, with a church committee, with 
some small effort on behalf the poor or the sick or the aliens 
in the community, with domestic helpers and so on, knotty 
questions constantly arise that hitherto may have been looked 
at in a purely personal way, without any thought of the 
wider principles at stake. Small matters take on new mean- 
ing when they are seen as part and parcel of some big prob- 
lem which has puzzled the best minds in the country. The 
circle or community in which they crop out is transformed 
into a social laboratory of intense human interest. 

It's Simple, After All 

If I were asked by a person of limited experience and 
with little time how to satisfy a longing for service to hu- 
manity, I should answer without hesitation: go outside your 
own community only when you are satisfied that there is 
nothing for you to do in it; and further, seek outside your 
community as well as in it for causes or remedies for the 
evils you meet there. It may be that there is a law ready 
to hand which will straighten out the trouble between Mrs. 
Jones, the washwoman, and her landlord if she be but told 
of her legal rights. Your failure to enroll the foreign-born 
of your district in citizenship classes may be due not so much 
to their stubbornness as to your faulty way of reaching them, 
a way which may have been corrected elsewhere. In study- 
ing how it has been done in other communities you may come 
to realize that this particular bit of educational work, im- 
portant as it is, is not the whole of your duty to your new 
neighbors but that it is only one factor in a much bigger 
process of Americanization. That wage question in your 
own shop or household may be linked up with labor problems 
of national dimensions which are only dimly shadowed in 
your own community. It may be that your hesitancy to 
own shares in a corporation because you do not approve of 
its labor policy is shared by a thousand others who would 
be only too glad to join you in an effort to influence the 
directors if you would but take the lead in the matter. And 
so one could go on matching local and personal problems 
on the one hand with national — even international — ones 
on the other. 

To conclude, "social reform in a new world" which else- 
where I have made the subject of theoretical discussion [see 
the American Journal of Sociology for September], is a 
matter neither of abstractions nor of mass problems that 
affect only big cities or specialized groups of people. It is 
something that must have its roots in small things, in person- 
al as well as public relations. Unity of ideals and purposes 
cannot come from nation-wide propaganda to which people 
can either subscribe or not subscribe. It must come from a 
widened outlook among many people in many walks of life 
who see things close at hand against the long ranges of 
problems which demand concerted thought and action. It 
must come, conversely, from visualizing those problems in 
their homely human settings. 



61 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 



AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR ORGANIZING FAMILY SOCIAL 
WORK — Mrs. John M. Glenn, chairman; Francis H. McLean, field 
director; David H. Holbrook, executive director, 180 E. 22d Street, 
New York. Advice in organization problems of family social work 
societies (Associated Charities) In the United States and Canada. 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL WORKERS (formerly Na- 
tional Social Workers' Exchange) — Graham Romeyn Taylor, di- 
rector, 130 East 22nd Street, New York City. An organization of 
professional social workers devoted to raising social work standards 
and requirements. Membership open to qualified social workers. 

AMERICAN CHILD HYGIENE ASSOCIATION— Richard A. Bolt, 
M. D., General Director, 532 17th Street, N. W., Washington, D. C. 
"Helps to prevent the unnecessary loss of mothers' and children's 
lives and tries to secure for the mother and child a full measure 
of health and strength." 
Publishes monthly magazine, "Mother and Child." 

AMERICAN COUNTRY LIFE ASSOCIATION— K. L. Butterfield, 
president; A. R. Mann, vice president; E. C. Lindeman. executive 
secretary; N'at T. Frame, Morgantown, West Virginia, field secre- 
tary. Emphasizes the human aspect of country life. Membership 
$3.00. 

AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION— Miss Lenna F. 
Cooper, sec'y; Battle Creek Sanitarium, Battle Creek, Mich. Or- 
ganized for betterment of conditions in home, schools, institutions 
and community. Publishes Journal of Home Economics. 121] 
Cathedral St.. Baltimore. Md. 

AMERICAN PEACE SOC I ETY— Founded 1828, labors for an Inter- 
national peace of justice. Its official organ is the Advocate of 
Peace, $2.00 a year. Arthur Deerin Call, secretary and editor, 
612-614 Colorado Building. Washington, D. C. 

AMERICAN PRISON ASSOCIATION— Annual Congress of Amer- 
ican penologists, criminologists, social workers in delinquency. 
Next Congress Detroit, Michigan, October. 1922. E. R. Cass, general 
secretary, 135 East 15th Street, New York City. 

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE CONTROL OF CANCER— Frank 
J. Osborne, exec, sec'y.; 370 Seventh Ave., New York. To disseminate 
knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and pre- 
vention. Publication free on request. Annual membership dues, $5. 

THE AMERICAN SOCIAL HYGIENE ASSOCIATION— 370 Seventh 
Ave., New York. For the conservation of the family, the repression 
of prostitution, the reduction of venereal diseases, and the pro- 
motion of sound sex education. Information and catalogue of 
pamphlets upon request. Annual membership dues. $2. Member- 
ship includes quarterly magazine and monthly bulletin. William 
F. Snow, M.D.. gen. dir. 

CHILD HEALTH ORGANIZATION OF AMERICA— 370 Seventh 
Ave., New York. Dr. L. Emmett Holt, chairman; Sally Lucas 
Jean, director. To arouse public interest in the health of school 
children; to encourage the systematic teaching of health in the 
schools; to develop new methods of interesting children in the 
forming of health habits; to publish and distribute pamphlets for 
teachers and public health workers and health literature for 
children; to advise in organization of local child health programs. 

CHILD WELFARE LEAGUE OF AMERICA— A league of agencies 
to secure a better understanding of child welfare problems, to im- 
prove standards and methods in the different fields of work with 
children and to make available in any part of the field the assured 
results of successful effort. The League will be glad to consult 
Wiith any agency, with a view to assisting it in organizing or re- 
organizing its children's work. C. C. Carstens, director, 130 E. 
22nd St., New York. 

COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN— 305 W. 98th St., New York. Miss 
Rose Brenner, pres.; Mrs. Harry Sternberger, ex. sec'y. Promotes 
civic cooperation, education, religion and social welfare in the 
United States, Canada. Cuba, Europe. 
Department of Immigrant Aid — 799 Broadway. Mrs. S. J. Rosen- 

sohn, chairman. For the protection and education of immigrant 

women and girls. 

COMMUNITY SERVICE (INCORPORATED)— 315 Fourth Avenue, 
New York City. Joseph Lee, president; H. S. Braucher, secretary. 
Citizenship through right use of leisure. A national civic organiza- 
tion which on request helps local communities to work out a 
leisure time program. 

EUGENICS REGISTRY— Battle Creek, Mich. Chancellor David 
Starr Jordan, pres.; Dr. J. H. Kellogg, sec'y.; Prof. O. C. Glaser, 
exec, sec'y. A public service for knowledge about human in- 
heritances, hereditary inventory and eugenic possibilities. Litera- 
ture free. 

FEDERAL COUNCIL OF THE CHURCHES OF CHRIST IN 

AMERICA— Constituted by 30 Protestant denominations. Rev. 

Chas. S. Macfarland, Rev. S. M. Cavert, gen'l. sec'ys.; 105 E. 22 

St.. New York. 

Commission on the Church and Social Service— Rev. Worth m. 

Tippy, exec, ser'y.; Rev. F. Ernest Johnson, research secy.; 

Agnes H. Campbell, research ass't.; Inez M. Cavert, librarian 

[In answering these advertisements please ment 



HAMPTON INSTITUTE— J. E. Gregg, principal; G. P. Phenlx, 
vice-prin.; F. H. Rogers, treas.; W. H. Scoville, sec'y.; Hampton, 
Va. Trains Inddan and Negro youth. Neither a State nor a 
Government school. Free illustrated literature. 



THE INSTITUTE FOR CRIPPLED AND DISABLED MEN— John 
Culbert Faries, dir., 245 E. 23rd St., New York. Maintains free 
industrial training classes and employment bureau; makes artificial 
limbs and appliances; publishes literature on work for the handi- 
capped; gives advice on suitable means for rehabilitation of dis- 
abled persons and cooperates with other special agencies In plans 
to put the disabled man "back on the payroll." 

JOINT COMMITTEE ON METHODS OF PREVENTING DELIN- 
QUENCY (under the Commonwealth Fund Program for Preventing 
Delinquency) — Arthur W. Towne, executive director, 52 Vanderbilt 
Ave., New York Oity. Will begin publishing and distributing bul- 
letins and other literature in the fall of 1922. 



LEAGUE FOR INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACY (formerly Intercol- 
legiate Socialist Sooiety) — Harry W. Laidler, secretary; Room 931, 70 
Fifth Avenue, New York City. Object — Education for a new social 
order, based on production for use and not for profit. Annual 
membership, $3.00, $5.00 and $25.00. Special rates for students. 

NATIONAL ALLIANCE OF LEGAL AID SOCI ETIES— Officers: 

President, Albert F. Bigelow, 111 Devonshire Street, Boston; Sec- 
retary, John S. Bradway, 133 South 12th St.. Philadelphia; Chair- 
man of Central Committee, Leonard McGee, 239 Broadway, New 
York. This organization was formed in 1912 as a national asso- 
ciation of all legal aid societies and bureaus in the United States 
to develop and extend legal aid work. The record of proceedings 
at the 1922 convention contains the best material obtainable on 
practical legal aid work. Copies free on request. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF COL- 
ORED PEOPLE — Moorfield Storey, pres.; James Weldon Johnson, 
sec'y.; 70 Fifth Ave.. New York. To secure to colored Americans 
the common rights of American citizenship. Furnishes informa- 
tion regarding race problems, lynchings. etc. Membership 90.000, 
with 350 branches. Membership. $1 upward. 

NATIONAL BOARD OF THE YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN 
ASSOCIATIONS — 600 Lexington Ave., New York. To advance phys- 
ical, social, intellectual, moral and spiritual interests of young wo- 
men. Maintains National Training School which offers through its 
nine months' graduate course professional training to women wish- 
ing to fit themselves for executive positions within the movement. 
Recommendation to positions made through Personnel Division, 
Placement Section. 



NATIONAL CATHOLIC WELFARE COU NCI L— Official National 
Body of the Catholic Organizations of the country. 

National Executive Offices, 1312 .Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., 

Washington. D. C. 
General Secretary, Rev. John J. Burke, C.S.P. 
l'epartment of Education — Rev. James H. Ryan, Exec. Sec'y. 
Bureau of Education — A. C. Monahan, Director. 
Department of Laws and Legislation — William J. Cochran. 
Department of Social Action — Directors, John A. Ryan and JohD 

A. Lapp. 
Department of Press and Publicity — Director, Justin McGrath; 

Ass't. Director, Michael Williams. 
National Council of Catholic Men— President, Rear-Admiral 

William S. Benson; Exec. Sec'y, Michael J. Slattery. 
National Council of Catholic Women— President, Mrs. Michael 

Gavin; Exec. Sec'y.. Miss Agnes G. Regan. 
National Catholic Service School for Women, Washington, D. C— 

Director, Charles P. Neill; Dean, Miss Maud R. Cavanaugh. 
Bureau of Immigration — National Director, Bruce M. Mohler. 

NATIONAL CHILD LABOR COMMITTEE— Owen R. Lovejoy. 
sec'y.; 105 East 22nd St.. New York. Industrial, agricultural In- 
vestigations. Works for improved laws and administration; 
children's codes. Studies health, schools, recreation, dependency, 
delinquency, etc. Annual membership, $2. $5. $10, $25 and $r#0; 
includes quarterly. "The American Child." 

NATIONAL CHILD WELFARE ASSOCIATION, INC.— Chas. F. 
Powlison, gen. sec'y.; 70 Fifth Ave., New York. Originates and 
publishes exhibit material which visualizes the principles and con- 
ditions affecting the health, well being and education of children. 
Cooperates with educators, public health agencies, and all child 
welfare groups in community, city or state-wide service through 
exhibits, child welfare campaigns, etc. 

THE NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR MENTAL HYGIENE— Dr. 
Walter B. James, pres.: Dr. Thomas W. Salmon mod. dir^ As- 
sociate Medical Directors, Dr. Frankwood E. Williams and Dr. V. 
V Anderson; Clifford W. Beers, sec'y.; 370 Seventh Avenue. New 
York City Pamphlets on mental hygiene, nervous and mental 
disorders feeble-mindedness, epilepsy, inebriety, criminology, war 
neuroses and re-education, psychiatric social service backward 
children! surveys, state societies. "Mental Hygiene;" quarterly. 
$2 a year. 
ion The Sukvet. It helps us, it identifies you.) 



62 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY 



NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL WORK— Robert W. Kelso, 
pres., Boston: W. H. Parker, sec'y, 25 East Ninth Street, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. The Conference is an organization to discuss the 
principles of humanitarian effort and to increase the efficiency of 
social service agencies. Each year it holds an annual meeting, 
publishes in permanent form the Proceedings of this meeting, and 
issues a quarterly Bulletin. The fiftieth annual meeting of the 
Conference will be held in Washington, D. C, in May 1923. Pro- 
ceedings are sent free of charge to all members upon payment of a 
membership fee of five dollars. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE PREVENTION OF BLIND- 
NESS — Edward M. Van Cleve, managing director; Lewis H. Carrie, 
field sec'y; Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y; 130 E. 22nd St., New 
York. Objects; To furnish information, exhibits, lantern slides, 
lectures, publish literature of movement — samples free, quantities 
at cost, includes New York State Committee. 

NATIONAL CONSUMERS' LEAGUE— 44 E. 23rd St.. New York. 
Mrs. Florence Kelley, gen'l sec'y. Promotes legislation for en- 
lightened standards for women and manors in industry and for 
honest products; minimum wage commissions, eight hour day, no 
night work, federal regulation food and packing industries; 'honest 
cloth" legislation. Publications available. 

NATIONAL FEDERATION OF SETTLEM ENTS— Robert A. 
Woods, sec'y; 20 Union Park, Boston. Develops broad forms of 
comparative study and concerted action in city, state and nation, 
for meeting the fundamental problems disclosed by settlement 
work, seek the higher and more democratic organization of 
neighborhood life. 

NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING— 
Member, National Health Council — Anne A. Stevens, R.N., Direc- 
tor, 370 Seventh Avenue, New York. For development and stand- 
ardization of public health nursing. Maintains library and edu- 
cational service. Official Magazine "Public Health Nurse." 

NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE — For social service among Negroes. 
L. Hollingsworth Wood, pres.; Eugene Kinckle Jones, exec, sec'y; 
12 E. 23rd St., New York. Establishes committees of white and 
colored people to work out community problems. Trains Negro 
social workers. 

NATIONAL WOMAN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION — 
Anna A. Gordon, president; Headquarters, 1730 Chicago Avenue, 
Evanston, Illinois. To secure effective enforcement of the 
Eighteenth Amendment, to advance the welfare of the American 
people through the departments of Child Welfare, Women in In- 
dustry, Social Morality, Scientific Temperance Instruction, Amer- 
icanization and other allied fields of endeavor. Official publication 
"The Union Signal," published at Headquarters. 

NATIONAL WOMEN'S TRADE UNION LEAGUE— Mrs. Raymond 
Robins, pres.; 311 South Ashland Blvd., Chicago, 111. Stands for 
self-government in the work shop through organization and also 
for the enactment of protective legislation. Information given. 

PLAYGROUND AND RECREATION ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA 
— 1 Madison Avenue, New York City. Joseph Lee, president; H. S. 
Braucher, secretary. Special attention given to organization of 
year-round municipal recreation systems. Information available on 
playground and community center activities and administration. 

PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION LEAGUE— To secure rep- 
resentation for all. C. G. Hoag. sec'y, 1417 Locust St., Philadel- 
phia. Membership, $2. entitles to quarterly P. R. Review. 

THE RACE BETTERMENT FOUNDATION— Battle Creek, Mich. 
For the study of the causes of race degeneracy and means of race 
improvements. Its chief activities are the Race Betterment Con- 
ference, the E'ugenics Registry, and lecture courses and various 
allied activities. J. H. Kellogg, pres.; B. N. C'olver, sec'y. 

RUSSELL SAGE FOU N DATION— For the Improvement of Living 
Conditions— John M. Glenn, dir. ; 13fl E. 22nd St., New York. De- 
partments: Charity Organization, Child-Helping, Industrial Studies, 
Library, Recreation, Remedial Loans, Statistics, Surveys and 
Exhibits. The publications of the Russell Sage Foundation offer 
to the public in practical and inexpensive form some of the most 
important results of its work. Catalogue sent upon request. 

TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE— An institution for the training of Negro 
Youth; an experiment in race adjustment in the Black Belt of the 
South; furnishes information on all phases of the race problem and 
of the Tuskegee idea and methods; Robert R. Moton, prin.; War- 
ren Logan, treas.; A. L. Holsey, acting sec'y, Tuskegee, Ala. 



VAN 
LOON 



Hendrik Willem Van Loon's illustra- 
tions and cartoons in Survey Graphic 
are a happy introduction to the great 
wealth of them in his book, "The Story 
of Mankind." This famous "history for 
children from 10 to 70" has been bought 
by 410 subscribers through The Survey's 
Book Department. $5 by return mail of 
The Survey, 112 E. 19 Street, New York 



THE RED ATLANTIS 

(Continued from page 20) 
pueblo's through a lifetime and with minute scholarship, 
answer "Yes." Charles F. Lummis, with F. A. Bandelier, 
the Southwest's most human scholarly interpreter, answers 
"Yes" with positiveness. The general white community, 
including most of the anthropologists, would certainly 
answer "No." Many who deeply love the pueblos and who 
feel that they are watching a veritable soon-to-be-lost Atlantis 
sinking beneath the waves, would answer "No." 

Last December the Survey Graphic treated of Ireland 
in a way which yields a suggestion which need not be 
pressed too explicitly. Forty years ago there virtually were 
none who believed that Ireland could be reborn in her 
ancientness and in the same act could help to create a post- 
modern world. Scholars in Germany, in France and even 
in Ireland had deeply studied the Irish folk-components. 
Ireland herself had striven, taking her political "cue" from 
the dominating British neighbor. Passionately and mourn- 
fully was Ireland loved, by many not Irish as by her own 
children. But Frederick W. H. Myers, one of those who 
loved, wrote of Ireland's "desperate incompatability with 
the mechanisms of modern progress." By Sundown Shores 
was the title which Fiona Macleod, one of the supernal 
voices of the Gael, gave to essays, as hopeless as they w T ere 
clairvoyant, written in igoo. And Ernest Renan said in 
words too lovely to degrade through translation: 

O freres de la tribe obscure. . . . Inutiles en ce monde, qui ne 
comprend que ce qui le dompte ou le serf, fuyons ensemble vers 
l'Eden splendide des joies de l'ame. . . . Consolons-nous par nos 
chimeres, par notre noblesse, par notre dedain. Qui sait si nos 
reves, a nous, ne sont pas plus vrais que la realite? Dieu m'est 
temoin, vieux peres, que ma seule joie, c'est que parfois je songe 
que je suis votre conscience, et que par moi vous arrivez a la vie 
et a la voix. 

Only after the event, for minds realistically endowed, does 
the improbable become the conceivable. Horace Plunkett 
in his Ireland and the New Century prescribed how Ireland 
might save herself through adapting her ancient folkways 
to mechanisms borrowed from Denmark, England and the 
United States. And the inconceivable, as Goethe says, "here 
it is done." 

Two Practical Questions 

Bearing in mind this analogy, two further questions must 
be answered ; and the first of them probes deep. Why can- 
not the pueblo initiate its own adaptations to modern life — 
establish, for instance, its own grist-mill? (These Indians 
surrender half of their corn as payment for getting it 
ground.) And would effort from outside the pueblo be of 
avail ? 

In the first question we face a seeming paradox. The 
pueblo individual is vigorous, he likes to take chances, he 
is industrious, normally curious and often of marked per- 
sonal idiosyncracy. A comparative study of pueblos — those 
whose tribal and spiritual order is living still, and those 
whose order has been destroyed — makes plain that these fine 
qualities of the Indian are the product of the traditional in- 
stitutions of the pueblo. Closer contact reveals that the 
institutional life is not at all a matter of phlegmatic routine. 
To the rituals, the deliberations of the council, the kiva ac- 
tivities and the communal work, there is brought an esprit, 
a passion and a collective will such as white men experience 
only at rare moments of social crisis. And, as already made 
plain, the pueblo is steeped in communal and cooperative 
experience. And yet, while facing mournfully though not 
bitterly the tribal doom, and while willing to reason boldly 
about the situation, the pueblo individual does not initiate 
and the pueblo institution does not solicit the expedients 
which might save all that the pueblo holds dear. 

There are three definable causes (aside from the crushing 
{Continued on page 66) 



63 



CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS 

RATES: Display advertisements, 25 cents per agate line, 14 lines to the inch. 
Want advertisements, 8 cents per word or initial, including the address or box 
number, for each insertion, minimum charge, $1.50. Discounts on three or more 
consecutive insertions. Cash with orders. 



Address Advertising 
Department 



THE SURVEY 



112 East 19th Street 
New York City 



WORKERS WANTED 

WANTED: A young couple for a pro- 
gressive Jewish Orphan Home. Man to 
act as Assistant Superintendent and wife 
as Head of Girls Department. Congenial 
quarters and good salary for the right 
party. Apply to L. Deutelbaum, Superin- 
tendent of the Chicago Home for Jewish 
Orphans, 6208 Drexel Ave., Chicago, 111. 

WANTED: Family case worker for 
Associated Charities in suburb of Boston. 
At least one year's experience required. 
Salary $1,200. In answering state age, 
education and experience. 4302 Survey. 

WANTED: October 1st, gymnasium 
director and boys' worker. Must be man 
capable of handling older boys. Gads Hill 
Center, 1919 W. Cullerton Street, Chicago, 
Illinois. 

WANTED: A young Jewish woman as 
Social Directress in a Community Center in 
Brooklyn, New York. One with settlement 
experience preferred. Fair salary. 4301 
Survey. 

SOCIAL Workers, Secretaries, Dietitians, 
Housekeepers, address Miss Richards, Pro- 
vidence, R. I., Box 5, East Side. Boston 
Office, Trinity Court, 16 Jackson Hall, Fri- 
days 11 to 1. Address Providence. 

NURSE wanted, female, Jewish, knowl- 
edge of Yiddish, undergraduate or prac- 
tical. Good salary and maintenance. State 
age, references and experience. Apply to 
Jewish Home for the Aged, 169 Davenport 
Avenue, New Haven, Conn. 

GRADUATE NURSES, dietitians, labor- 
atory technicians for excellent hospital posi- 
tions everywhere. Write for free book 
now. Aznoe's Central Registry for Nurses, 
30 N. Mich. Ave., Chicago, Illinois. 

MATRON wanted, Jewish, fully con- 
versant with dietary laws, knowledge of 
Yiddish, good salary and maintenance. 
State age, experience and references. Ap- 
ply to Jewish Home for the Aged, 169 
Davenport Avenue, New Haven, Conn. 

WANTED: A competent nurse who has 
had training in tuberculosis work, to take 
charge of the Nursing Department in a 
tuberculosis hospital. An excellent oppor- 
tunity for the right person. Address 
Eagleville Hospital, 7th and Lombard 
Streets, Philadelphia, Pa. 

ASSOCIATED CHARITIES, York, 
Pennsylvania, desires thoroughly trained 
family case worker for position of assis- 
tant secretary. Experience and personalitv 
necessary. 



SITUATIONS WANTED 

EXPERIENCED Appeal or Committee 
organizer desires engagement. English 
woman. Travel if required. American 
and English testimonials. 43*0 Survey. 

(In answering these ad 



SITUATIONS WANTiD 

NOW available, social worker experi- 
enced in settlement, playground and girls' 
organization work. Expert in group re- 
creation. 4305 Survey. 

YOUNG MAN, twenty-five years of age, 
six years' experience in boys' work, best of 
references, desires responsible position in 
settlement house. 4306 Survey. 

COMPANION-SECRETARY with lady 
traveling. Well educated young woman, 
secretarial experience in business and pri- 
vate school. Isabel Hughes, Williamstown, 
Mass. 

EXPERIENCED institutional employees, 
man and wife, desire management small 
school for juveniles. Thoroughly familiar 
with the most advanced methods of correc- 
tional treatment. Highest credentials as to 
general fitness for position and further de- 
tails furnished upon request. 4268 Survey. 

WANTED: Executive position with 
Family Caring Agency by thoroughly ex- 
perienced and trained Jewish woman. 
4303 Survey. 

YOUNG MAN, formerly superintendent 
of small home for children, desires a simi- 
lar position in an institution for dependent 
or delinquent boys. Also experienced 
teacher of grade school work. Best of re- 
ferences. 4297 Survey. 

W ANTED: Superintendency of Home 
for Orphans or Delinquents by married 
man, college graduate, thirty-six years of 
age. 4295 Survey. 

BOYS' WORKER: Scout Field Exe- 
cutive, 24, college education, Jewish, expe- 
rienced organizer foreign boys, desires full 
time proposition. 4310 Survey. 

A WOMAN with varied experience ; 
social worker, camp manager, and years of 
experience as dramatic director, wishes 
executive position in Settlement or Institu- 
tion. Will furnish highest credentials as 
to fitness. 43 1 1 Survey. 

WANTED: By experienced social 
worker, Episcopalian, position in hospital, 
school, settlement or family case work or- 
ganization. New York City preferred. 
4312 Survey. 

YOUNG WOMAN, college graduate, 
major economics, two years' business ex- 
perience and social work, desires position 
in service department in large organiza- 
tion. 4314 Survey. 

EXPERIENCED case worker desires 
connection New York City or vicinity. 4315 
Survey. 



SOCIAL WORKER, PROTESTANT, 

desires position in welfare work for girls. 
Eight years' experience in club and com- 
munity work. 4318 Survey. 

WANTED: Name of rural or small town 
community house desirous of locating 
trained and experienced young couple who 
are interested and capable. 4317 Survey. 

EXECUTIVE WOMAN, extensive ex- 
perience Child Welfare, institutional head, 
secretary Red Cross and case work director 
seeks change. 4319 Survey. 

COOPERATIVE AGENCY 

MISS ARNSON'S Agency desires posi- 
tions for recommended companions, gov- 
ernesses, infants' nurses and housekeepers. 
Phone Audubon 5788, 477 West 145th St., 
New York City. 



TEACHERS WANTED 

HATHAWAY TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Free Registration 

Managers 

Miss N. S. Hathaway Mrs. E. H. Scott 

Bennington, Vt. 353 West 117th St. 

New York City 

TEACHERS wanted for public and priv- 
ate schools, colleges and universities. Edu- 
cation Service, Steger Building, Chicago. 



CURRENT PAMPHLETS 



Listings fifty cents a line, four weekly inser- 
tions; copy unchanged throughout the month. 
Self-Surveys in Schools for the Blind. A 
Manual for the Guidance of Teachers. By 
Samuel P. Hayes. The Pennsylvania Insti- 
tution for the Instruction of the Blind. Over- 
brook, Philadelphia. Price, $1.00. 
A New Supplement to the Chicago Standard 
Budget for Dependent Families, issued July 
8. Five cents per copy. Chicago Council of 
Social Agencies, 1715 Stevens Building, 
Chicago, Illinois. 
American Social Work in the Twentieth 
Century. By Edward T. Devine and Lilian 
Brandt. An airplane view of developments 
and accomplishments since 1900. 62 pp., paper 
covers. Send 50 cents to The Frontier Press, 
100 West 21 Street, New York. 
Calcium Requirements of Children. By Henry 
C Sherman and Edith Hawley. Reprint from 
Journal of Home Economics, 1211 Cathedral 
St., Baltimore, Md. Price 10 cents. 
The Motion Picture Problem. By Rev. Charles 
N. Lathrop. Commission on the Church and 
Social Service, Federal Council of Churches, 
105 E. 22 St., New York. Price, 15 cents. 

How the Budget Families Save and Have — 
the reserve system explained (5 cents); How 
John and Mary Live and Save on $35 a Week 
—a weekly budget plan (10 cents'): Weekly 
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by Florence Nesbitt, 44 pp. (10 centsV Am 
School Home Economics. 849 East 58 St.. 
Chicago. 

Credit Union. Complete free information on 
request to Roy F. Bergengren. 5 Park Square. 
Boston, Mass. 

The Gospel for an Ace of Anarchy, by 
Norman B. Barr. 24 pages; paper, 25 cents, 
postpaid. 444 Blaekhawk St., Chicago. 



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The American Journal of Nursing shows the 
part which trained nurses are taking in the bet- 
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$3.00 a year. 19 W. Main St.. Rochester. N. Y. 

Mental Hygiene: quarterly; $2.00 a year: pub- 
lished by the National Committee for Mental 
Hvgiene! 370 Seventh Avenue, New York. 



vertisements please mention The Survey. It helps us, it identifies you.) 

64 



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Training your children according to best modern edu- 
cational methods, professional man specialized in gen- 
etic psychology wants to hear from other parents seeking 
similar expert attention for exceptional (delicate, ner- 
tous, underdeveloped, handicapped) child. Will assume 
complete care of limited number. Address 4307 Survey. 

"Home-Making as a Profession" 

Is a 100-pp. 111. handbook— It's FREE. Home ttudy 
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Spacious living-room and fire-places are features 
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Furnished for light housekeeping. Adults only. 

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For Rent at Pine Bluff, N. C. 

6 miles Pinehurst, modern 6-room bungalow. 
Bath, furnace, electricity, detached servants' 
quarters. Address E. H. Roberts, Titusville, Pa. 

FOR RENT: Small room in Settlement 
House. Service required. 4304 Survey. 

SINGLE ROOMS, Settlement, light, airy, 
central location, furnished and unfurnished. 
$20 — $25 month, also apartments. Address 
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STATIONERY 

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also samples of excellent stationery for per- 
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FOR SALE: Kelsey Printing Press with 
several fonts of type, complete, for post 
cards, labels, small circulars. 4308 Survey 
or phone 7490 Stuyvesant. 

INSTRUMENTS for sale: Viola, Clar- 
inet, Banjo. 4309 Survey or phone 7490 
Stuyvesant. 

PORTABLE GARAGE WANTED by 
resident of Redbank, N. J. Single or dou- 
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RUG: Wanted, Oriental or other good 
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65 



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THE RED ATLANTIS 

{Continued from page 63) 
effect of the United States government's autocratic and law- 
less policies) for the paradox stated here. We occidental 
moderns forget how new to the world is the conception of 
change — change as a good to be pursued through empirical 
striving or an evil to be averted through empirical striving. 
Controlled social change is a very modern hope, or at least 
has been confined to brief times and limited areas of history. 
As a social group, the Pueblos dwell in what Auguste Comte 
would have called the theological stage of thought about 
events and causes. We moderns are ourselves in that stage, 
with regard to most social questions of obscure or vast 
character. 

Our second explanation is more specific — more interest- 
ing. The pueblo institutions are inward-looking rather 
than outward-looking. They look toward hygienic results, 
states of consciousness, moral and material equations within 
the group, and communal work of traditional character; out- 
ward they look only, or mainly, to the supernal magical 
powers and to war. The thought that these institutions 
might concern themselves in definite ways with the outside 
political, cultural or economic world penetrates with diffi- 
culty because of the inward-looking character of the institu- 
tional values. 

Our third explanation is a pathetic one and contains the 
tragedy of the pueblo. Save for the Roman Catholic Church 
(which now is a passive quantity in pueblo problems), every 
factor of outside life, every gesture toward change, in the 
centuries past, has moved hand in hand with force, with 
subjugation, with the bodily slaughter and communal rape 
of the Indians. Pueblo after pueblo has gone down to cor- 
ruption or extinction through changes induced or coerced by 
the white man's society encountered in its most rapacious, 
dogmatic and unintelligent aspects. Inevitably, the racial 
institutions, and the old men whose leadership still holds 
good, have been swung toward a more passionate because 
despairing inwardness of application, and to a certain extent 
against initiative and change as such. 

The efficiency of any socially efficient community needs 
from time to time to be re-applied in altered directions. 
Usually (as Gumplowitz, among other sociologists, has made 
plain), the adapting group acts under a necessity imposed 
from without, and often under a suggestion or leadership 
applied from outside the group by that which has prestige or 
resistless power. The general social law holds good of the 
pueblo. Social change or social invention could be promoted 
only with considerable difficulty by a pueblo dweller, himself 
a pueblo creation, addressing himself unaided to the tribal 
functionaries. 

The needed developments could assuredly be promoted by, 
or with the express endorsement of, just one agency — the 
United States government. Humiliating to its own citizens 
as the government may appear in its Indian methods, and 
perverse, inscrutable as it may appear to the Indians, yet to 
the Indians the government is supreme — supreme by con- 
quest, by enveloping, arbitrary power. With government 
indorsement, cooperative modern enterprise could be set in 
motion within the pueblos, and a wealth of loyalty and of 
effort and passion could be swung behind it which would 
cause a great excitement among the well-wishers of the 
American cooperative movement. This cooperative enter- 
prise would be economic primarily but esthetic likewise ; and 
not swiftly, but through the years, as the liaison with the 
tribal institutions became more complete, it would become 
educational in directions not only important to the Pueblo 
but to mankind. Nothing but the white man's skepticism, 
nothing but departmental routines, archaic official ideals 
and jealous vested interests of white men, stand in the way. 
But thev are a "whole lot." 



66 








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Graphic and pictorial "Visualization" must 
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The OBJECTIVEof a publicity campaign may 
be the raising of funds, a soliciting of support 
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pressed through those media that are most 
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But this work calls for trained men of 
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MIDMONTHLY 

OCTOBER 15, 1922 




Contributors 

JOHN CALDER J. PRENTICE MURPHY 

DR. HAVEN EMERSON W. J. NORTON 

RAYMOND UNWIN ERNST FREUND 

DR. BERNARD GLUECK "DADDY" GEORGE 

H. B. ENGLISH ABRAHAM EPSTEIN 

Departments 

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SOCIAL PRACTICE 



25 Cents a Copy $5.00 a Year 



70 



THE SURVEY 



October 15, 1922 




To All Readers of the Survey 




E are eager to have the help of every 
reader of the Survey in the interesting 
process of molding our new Mid- 
monthlies. 

This is the first of them, and the job 
is an alluring one. 

The issues this fall will be frankly experimental. 
Our anticipation is that by January we may reach a 
standard in format and contents which will fit deftly 
the common service we have in view. They are 
meant for all those who are up to their elbows in 
social work and for that growing body of Americans 
who are consecutively interested in the range of sub- 
jects we have made our own. Just so for a year past 
we have been experimenting with our Graphics to 
fit them to their educational purpose: that of inter- 
preting the same subject matter in its larger phases, 
and to win a hearing for it from wider groups of 
people. 

THIS October Midmonthly reveals at least the 
broad lines of the working scheme with which we 
start. We are salvaging the news element of our 
weeklies in our leading articles. Our reportorial de- 
partment, " The Common Welfare," continues, with 
the emphasis thrown a bit from chronicle to interpre- 
tation. We shall review the major books in our 
field in a way which should at once give the gist of 
the new publications and prove a force for constructive 
criticism. 

The circulation of the Survey in schools and 
colleges has grown by leaps and bounds. We have 
written 5,000 short-term student subscriptions in the 
last twelve months. 

The backbone of our Midmonthlies will consist at 
the start of five vertebrae — five major departments, 
each in charge of a responsible editor, which will 
appear under the headings: 

Communities Education 

Industry Health 

Social Practice 

Of possible division and subdivision of social prob- 
lems and activities there is no end. In the cities espe- 
cially the division of labor has been carried to the nth 
power. New organizations, new types of craft and 
work develop with each season. 

Obviously the Survey cannot serve any of these 
specialized groups as a trade journal. Those who are 
not only up to their elbows in such activities, but up 
to their necks or even over their heads, must look to 
the fifty or more specialized periodicals for this pro- 
fessional service. Nor can the Survey serve any one 
city or region. Its scope is national, its function syn- 
thetic ; and the very spread and variety of social move- 
ments calls for such a scope and such a function in 
the interest of comparative experience and the inter- 
play of activities. 

The purpose of our departments is to bring out con- 
structive developments in each great sphere of social 
concern, to bring them out with the authenticity of 
those who speak from first-hand knowledge, but to bring 
them out for the benefit of our full body of readers, 
not for the few ; to bring out, for example, inventions, 



experiments, and crystallizations of experience in the 
dynamic field of health and preventive medicine so that 
the executive, the social case worker, the neighborhood 
worker, the school man, the minister, the editor, the 
labor manager, the public official, the active socially 
minded citizen generally may know and assimilate the 
major contributions which physicians and nurses, and 
sanitarians, laboratory investigators and lay health 
workers have to make to the common pot of progress. 

ACTIVE socially minded men and women of no 
special tag or designation are included very de- 
liberately in this roster of readers. For it is their 
understanding, their backing and their participation 
which make possible the steady spread of undertakings 
for the common welfare. Take the case of such a 
citizen in a town such as Erie, Pennsylvania. What 
do these dim gray things which we ca 1 ! social problems 
come down to with him ? They are mosaics in human 
flesh and blood, and they group themselves naturally 
about certain relationships in his life and work. He 
is an employer or employe and he comes up short 
against the labor problem in one form or another in 
his business of getting a livelihood. He is a father — 
and there are the schools. A citizen — and does he 
want his town a living community or — just bigger? 
A householder — with a stake in the public health. A 
human being — with a lively concern that life, liberty 
and the pursuit of happiness shall have meaning in 
reconstructing the lives of the hardest placed of his 
fellows. 

We shall have something to offer him more prac- 
tical and dynamic than the dim gray abstractions of 
social problems. This October Midmonthly affords 
examples. When a score of cities have demonstrated 
a scheme for federating social agencies that eliminates 
waste and fills in gaps of neglect and indifference; 
when a great employing cooperative cuts down broken 
time by a simple wage device, or employers and em- 
ployes unite to remove casual employment in one of 
its strongholds; when the physicians, the surgeons and 
specialists of the Pacific Coast states join hands with 
the educators in a new flank attack on the preventable 
diseases; when in an Atlantic seaboard city a leader 
in work for children shows where the gap must be 
bridged if our advances in medical science are to mean 
anything to the half million boys and girls in the 
hands of philanthropic bodies; when an expert from 
overseas crystallizes the experience of his countrymen 
in laying out the bony frame-work of a town or a 
genius in dealing with adolescents blows up our old 
notions of punishment — when anywhere, any individual 
or group or agency has some real pith of experience 
of imagination or proposal to offer that will be of use 
to socially-minded citizens generally in their own 
walks in life — we are after it — for them. 

ANNOUNCEMENT of the headquarters staff 
with which the Survey will address itself to its 
tasks of investigating, editing, interpreting, will be 
made in a later issue. Here we come back to the invi- 
tation with which we started. An indispensable mem- 
ber of that staff is the reader who reads this page. 
We shall welcome his help. 



T 



SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc. 



SURVEY GRAPHIC 

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exploration, reaching out to 
wherever the tides of a generous 
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Vol. XLIX. No. 2 



The Survey: Midmonthly Number 



October 15, 1922 



TT is reassuring to know that 
■*• every other one of us is not 
feeble-minded (p. 79). H. B. Eng- 
lish is a professor in Antioch Col- 
lege, Yellow Springs, Ohio. 

In more than one hundred cities 
social agencies are pooling their 
current expense campaigns in some 
form of federation or community 
chest. W. J. Norton's article on the 
plan in this number is the first of 
five (p. 89). Mr. Norton, as execu- 
tive of the Detroit Community Fund 
and president of the American As- 
sociation for Community Organiza- 
tion, speaks with authority. 

"Nothing in human behavior hap- 
pens quite fortuitously." It is the 
psychiatrists who seem now closest 
on the trail of the reasons why 
things do happen. Dr. Glueck, who 
describes the psychiatric attitude 
(p. 105) is not only one of the 
most distinguished of American 
psychiatrists, but is deeply con- 
cerned with the application of this 
new technique to the prevention of 
juvenile delinquency. He directs 
the Bureau of Children's Guidance, 
conducted by the New York School 
of Social Work, one of the three re- 
lated demonstrations in this field 
now being financed by the Com- 
monwealth Fund. The article is 
part of a paper read at the New 
York Conference of Charities and 
Correction. 



Published semi-monthly and 
copyright 1922 by Survey As- 
sociates, Inc., 112 East 19 St., 
New York. 

Price 25 cents per copy, $5 
per year. Canadian postage 
65 cents, foreign postage 
$1.25 extra. 

Entered as second-class mat- 
ter, March 25, 1909, at the 
post office, New York, N. Y., 
under the act of March 3, 
1879. Acceptance for mailing 
at a special rate of postage 
provided for in Section 1103, 
Act of October 3, 1917, au- 
thorized on June 26, 1918. 



CONTENTS 

Laid Off Drawing by Joseph Stella 72 

THE COMMON WELFARE 73 

Armament, Debts and Our Duty — On Their Way to 
Jail — Ellis Island Stuck Fast — Intolerance in Ore- 
gon — Smyrna 

Is America Feeble-minded? - - - - H. B. English 79 

The Fork in the Road A. J. 81 

The Overgrown City Raymond Umvin 85 

Mutual Relief in Russia - - - - Abraham Epstein 86 

COMMUNITIES 89 

Financial Federation Fundamentals, W. J. Norton — 
How Street-car Antagonisms Breed Race Hatred — 
What About the Small Town?, T. L. Hinckley— 
Community Singing in Denmark, S. A. Mathiasen — 
Townkeeping 

INDUSTRY 95 

How the Employer Can Safeguard a Man's Job, 
John Calder — Decasualizing the "Beach" at Seattle 
— Facts for Workers — In Swiss Factories — In Brief 

A Skyscraper Jail ----- 100 

SOCIAL PRACTICE 102 

Squandering Childhood's Heritage of Health, J. 
Prentice Murphy — A Uniform Illegitimacy Law, 
Ernst Freund — The Psychiatric Attitude, Bernard 
Glueck — Child Welfare Bookkeeping — The Secret of 
His Efficiency 

HEALTH 107 

Doctor to Teacher to Child, Haven Emerson — The 
New Sun Worship — Health in City Charters — A 
Clinic that is Not Free, Gertrude Woodcock — Pre- 
vention and Cure 

EDUCATION 112 

Rural T waders Who Study Their Jobs, Adelaide 
Evans Harris — When Opinions Get Together, J. K. 
H. — Straws in the Wind 

BOOK REVIEWS 116 

English Prisons — Organizing the Community — A 
Half Century of Public Health — Russian Dissenters 
— The Philippines, Past and Present — The Ameri- 
can Vitruvius 

COMMUNICATIONS 120 

The Small-Town Worker Again — Discontent on the 
Farm — Prohibition in California — An Undesirable 
Amalgamation — Dental Hygienists 

SOCIAL STUDIES - - - - Joseph K. Hart 122 



TF there must be a jail in the city, 
*■ why not one that provides light 
and air? Hastings H. Hart points 
the way (p. 100). 

Family Welfare and Child Wel- 
fare, as the old Survey had it, harve 
been merged into the department of 
Social Practice (p. 102). How do 
you like the title? 

The George Junior Republic is 
an old story and a new one, too. 
Within the last year or two it 
has carried a step further the prin- 
ciple of self-government which it 
was formed to demonstrate (p. 82). 

"Child care" is a travesty when 
health is left out. J. Prentice Mur- 
phy (need we say that he is execu- 
tive secretary of the Children's Bu- 
reau of Philadelphia?) makes a 
startling indictment of such work 
(p. 102). 

Abraham Epstein, former director 
of the Pennsylvania Old Age Pen- 
sion Commission, and author of an 
excellent recent book on old age 
pensions entitled "Facing Old Age," 
spent several months in Russia early 
this year and studied there inti- 
mately the organization of the 
courts, of local government, and of 
the public welfare agencies under 
the general provisions of the Soviet 
constitution (p. 86). 



CONTRIBUTING 
EDITORS 

EDWARD T. DEVINE 

JANE ADDAMS 

GRAHAM TAYLOR 

WINTHROP D. LANE 

ARTHUR GLEASON 

GRAHAM R. TAYLOR 

FLORENCE KELLEY 

JOHN A. FITCH 

WILLIAM L. CHENERY 

MICHAEL M. DAVIS, JR. 

RUTH CRAWFORD 







LAID OFF 



Drawn by Joseph Stella 



MIDMONTHLY 



October 15 
1922 




Volume XLIX 
No. 2 



The Common Welfare 



UNEMPLOYMENT? "That's over," you say. 
" Who's being laid off now? " But unemployment 
comes back. The measure of civilization is not its 
capacity to shake itself and face a crisis: it is the 
ability to foresee the crisis, and prevent or mitigate it. It 
is now — this winter — that unemployment must be dealt 
with. There are signs that it is being dealt with. Some 
of them are reported in these pages. The President's Con- 
ference on Unemployment has been continuing its study 
of the underlying causes: its secretary, Edward Eyre Hunt, 
will discuss its findings in an early issue of the Survey. 
In this number John Calder, who has wrestled with the 
labor relations of a great packing house, suggests what em- 
ployers can do now. The need for experiment, which he 
stresses, will not be met by plans on paper. There is much 
to be learned by tests which are impossible under the stress 
of a winter like those we have just passed through. The 
waterfront employers and workers of Seattle have been 
making such a test [see page 96.] They are adjusting those 
demoralizing fluctuations in employment which characterize 
longshoring. Philadelphia's Building Congress has a com- 
mittee whose effort, reported on page 94, is to smooth out 
' employment curve in construction and building main- 
ince. These are fragmentary evidences of progress. It 
lore difficult, perhaps, to overcome Our common reluct- 
to look ahead than to devise plans by which, looking 
d, we can safeguard a million jobs. The twin tasks 
for all the resourcefulness of American industry, and 
clamor for immediate effort. 



th 

Na 



LL persons who were living in the years immediately 
following the great war (others may consult the papers 
lose years) will recall that numbers of " Constitutional 
les " and " Defense Societies " were organized for the 
tion of the nation against insidious foes. After a brief 
ice, most of these organizations became quiescent. But 
irit that prompted them is still to be counted upon, 
cket, Massachusetts, has demonstrated this. Accord- 
ing to the Nantucket Inquirer and Mirror a new association, 
to be known as the Sentinels of the Republic, was organized 
;in that city on September 25. 

The immediate occasion for this renewal of this type of 
organization seems to have been the sessions of the Sconset 
School of Opinion which were held near by. (See this issue, 
the Survey, p. 113.) 

A writer in the Nantucket paper seems to identify 
" t opinion " with what she calls " socialism " and to interpret 
"School of Opinion" to mean "School of Socialism." 
Deprecating the existence of those " unhealthy-minded Amer- 
icans who, under the guise of advanced thought and freedom 
iof discussion, are poisoning the sources of education and ' 
inspiration for our youth," she insists that " It is not enough 
\o have studied these conditions. Having informed our 



minds, the time is ripe for rousing the American people to a 
grave and imminent danger." 

The Sentinels of the Republic is Nantucket's answer to 
this grave and imminent danger. Those who in any com- 
munity find " advanced thought and freedom of discussion " 
making headway will doubtless want to get into communica- 
tion with this Nantucket movement. 



PROFESSOR ENGLISH, in the article on page 79, 
warns against using intelligence tests carelessly. There 
are some quarters where the warning is hardly needed. 
There is the probation officer, for instance, who was show- 
ing a visitor around a juvenile court. He displayed with 
pride the court room, the private hearing room, the inter- 
viewers' booths, the nursery, the first-aid room, the deten- 
tion house. But when he reached the psychological labora- 
tory his interest flagged. The visitor's eager questions were 
answered rather dubiously, and then the officer closed the 
discussion with a suppressed yawn. " Yes," he said, " some 
people think this psychological business is real important, 
but you know I can just look at a boy and tell whether 
or not he is onery." He was a political appointee. 



WITH the immense annual expenditure of the federal 
government and the states on practical education to 
make farming in America more productive, the leaders in 
our rural life realize more and more that large output and 
prosperity are by no means synonymous. Although there 
has been notable advance in the economic schooling of the 
farmer and in efforts to help him make his success less de- 
pendent on chance and on outside factors over which he 
has little or no control, the exodus of the young folks from 
the countryside to the cities continues because even a con- 
dition of relative prosperity, in comparison with the harder 
life of earlier generations, fails in itself to make country 
life attractive enough when it comes into competition with 
the lure of urban life. Hence an entirely new emphasis in 
much of the educational endeavor on the non-occupational 
and non-economic interests of the country dweller. Educa- 
tional topics predominate on the program of the fifth annual 
conference of the American Country Life Association to be 
held at Teachers College, New York, November 9 to II. 
President Butterfield, president of the conference, will, it 
is expected, show why the farmers of Denmark and other 
foreign countries which he has recently visited seem to 
have such a good time and seem to be wedded so much more 
closely to the soil in consequence. The educational effort 
on behalf of the farm woman, likewise, will have to be 
somewhat recast in the coming years. Too often she has 
to be thought of merely as a drudge, and the effort has been 
to make her work easier and more systematic in garden, 
dairy and kitchen. But with the larger aim in view of 

73 



74 



THE SURVEY 



making country life more attractive, it is important that 
more emphasis be laid on the cultural side of country life 
su that the young people, in their own homes and in the 
community at large, may have all the opportunities of a 
full life which now, too often erroneously, they expect to 
find in the great cities. 

Armament, Debts, and Our Duty 

WITH the danger of another European conflagration as 
a result of the deplorable events in the Near East, 
insufficient attention has been given to the encouraging prog- 
ress in the discussion of international reduction of armaments 
at the session of the League of Nations Assembly. The report 
of the Committee on Reduction of Armaments, presented 
on September 26 by Lord Robert Cecil, is a note- 
worthy document. It recommends that the European powers 
which compose the membership of the league, with the ex- 
ception of the newly formed states, and of Spain and Bel- 
gium, reduce their respective total expenditures for military, 
naval and air forces to the amounts spent in 191 3. It also 
includes recommendations for an extension of naval agree- 
ment reached at the Washington Conference and for inter- 
national conferences to consider steps by which the interna- 
tional traffic in arms and munitions might? be stopped. 

The discussion of these and other proposals was practical 
and to the point. Perhaps most promising was the readiness 
of some of the nations represented to enter into regional 
agreements with their neighbors concerning reduction of 
arms while decisions as to all-inclusive agreements between 
all the members of the league are pending. Lord Robert 
Cecil maintained his reputation as a fearless advocate of pro- 
gressive disarmament. In opening the debate, he said : 

The enormous sums and the stupendous efforts spent by the 
world on armaments is nothing else than the price of international 
suspicions. We had enormous help from the results of the Wash- 
ington Conference. These would have been far greater had there 
been set up a permanent organization to supervise the execution of 
its decisions. 

In the meantime, the last few weeks have seen a growth 
of public opinion in this country in favor of a second Wash- 
ington Conference, to be called by our own government, to 
lay before the world a program of reduction of armament by 
binding agreement in which the financial power of the 
United States as the largest creditor nation would be thrown 
into the scale. In Congress, Mr. Britten on September 16 
submitted a resolution which was referred to the Committee 
on Foreign Affairs, requesting the President to follow up in 
a practical way a promise made by him earlier in the month 
to offer "at the proper time" a plan for the "adjustment 
of the vital questions affecting world peace and industrial 
tranquillity." The National Council for Reduction of Arm- 
aments likewise puts economic considerations first in the 
topics which it would like to see brought up, with concrete 
proposals on the part of the United States government, at a 
second Washington conference and suggests the following 
six points: 

Reduction of German reparations to between four and ten billion; 

Adjustment of all intergovernmental debts in the light of all the 
facts; 

Reduction of all armaments; 

Balancing of budgets, including our own; 

Establishment of a gold basis for European currencies; 

Lowering of impassable trade barriers. 

This looks like a pretty tall order for Secretary Hughes; 
but the deadlock in the European economic negotiations, so 
far as any really big effect on international commerce and 
industrial production is concerned, is such that American 
interests are vitally concerned and a long continued depres- 
sion is inevitable unless America intervenes drastically. This 
point of view was strongly urged at the hankers' conference 
in New York last week. That conference had the largest 
attendance on record — over ten thousand — because the 




FOR PEACE AND PLENTY 

Swiss newspapers hate been carrying advertisements like this and 
the one on the opposite page. The chocolate manufacturer who thus 
keeps his wares and his ideals simultaneously before the public may 
be more naive than those who work elsewhere for disarmament 
but he speaks for millions the world over 

guardians of American capital the country over were per 
plexed about the present situation and hoped to find wisdon 
in common council. "Governments must learn to live with 
in their incomes," was one piece of advice reiterated b; 
many financiers who had studied the European situation- 
and our own. The question of a reduction of German re 
parations, Thomas W. Lamont and others pointed out, ha 
become secondary in immediate importance to the questio 
of how to regulate the interallied debts. They did not suf 
gest that the United States, because of her position as tr 
outstanding creditor, act as a bully in an effort to mal 
other nations conform to her policy; but, as Mr. Lamot 
said: 

Europe's greatest loss in the war was not one of things but o 
of men. The death of millions of young men of genius upon whr 
the world depends for its inspiration, and the upset of the soci 
structure, are the great tragedy of the war for Europe. It is t 
duty of America to contribute in material ways to such spiritu 
repair. 

Reginald McKenna, former chancellor of the British 
chequer and now chairman of one of England's most impo 
ant banks, was equally emphatic. While his speech, whi 
has been quoted the world over, did not directly touch up 
the question of reduction of armaments, it was a plea 
international cooperation in place of threats that merely te 
to delay the economic stabilization of Europe. He show 
that of all the debtor nations only England was in a positi 
to pay the United States interest and sinking fund on 1 
debt, and that any attempt to enforce payment from Germ; 



October 15, 1922 



THE SURVEY 



75 



or any other debtor country " would be injurious to the inter- 
national trade of the whole world, lower wages, reduce 
profits, and be a direct cause of unemployment." He specifi- 
cally denied that Germany could, by higher taxation, increase 
its exportable surplus and thus hasten the discharge of her 
obligations. In a later speech he added that America was 
bound to discover soon, as England had in the past, that a 
policy of " splendid isolation " did not pay. He said, in part: 

In England it was a popular policy, but it was only a dream, a 
fallacy. A country which adopts that policy begins to find that it is 
being ignored, and it is unwilling to be ignored. You will find it 
so here. America has interests all over the world. Her citizens 
are everywhere. She has a big shipping industry. She has a tre- 
mendous foreign trade. All of this gives her responsibilities abroad, 
and sooner or later the United States government, refusing to be 
ignored, will take a hand in foreign affairs for her own interest 
and protection. You will find that America should participate in 
Europe for the good of all. 

On Their Way to Jail 

IN the general agitation of the question of amnesty for 
political offenders little has been said about the cases of 
those who are not yet in prison but who are on the way. 
Yet, according to the information ft rnished to the senate by 
the attorney-general on March 9, 1922, there were then 
undisposed of, the cases of thirty-four persons indicted under 
the free-speech sections of the Espionage Act — cases which 
either had not yet been tried or which were pending upon 
appeal. 

The cases of these thirty-four are essentially similar to 
those of men who have already been set at liberty through 
executive clemency. E. C. Godfrey and W. R. Rice, two 
cases from Georgia for example, are " charged with making 
disloyal remarks about the Government." E. L. Bennett 
was indicted in Florida upon a similar charge. In Minne- 
sota, Jack Carney, a labor editor, was convicted fer articles 
printed in his weekly paper, and his case is still pending on 
appeal because he has not been able to find the money to 
pay for printing the record. In New York there are four 
Espionage Act cases untried — two up state and two in the 
metropolitan district. One had to do with articles pub- 
lished in a monthly paper called Freedom and another arose 
because an up-state United States attorney thought that 
posters advertising a meeting for amnesty violated the 
Espionage Act! 

Perhaps the most extraordinary of the pending cases is 
that of Joseph Baltrusaitis of St. Louis, who was indicted 
under the Espionage Act on May 3, 1921, for handing some 
communist literature to a detective just before the Espionage 
Act was suspended. Baltrusaitis is a Lithuanian and speaks 
no English. The literature was in English and he claimed 
that he did not know its contents, but he was convicted, 
nevertheless, and his case is pending on appeal. This situ- 
ation is all the more remarkable because the operation of 
the Espionage Act had been suspended by congressional 
resolution two months prior to the indictment, and Baltru- 
saitis has the unusual distinction of having been indicted, 
tried and convicted under a statute which had ceased to be. 

These instances are typical of the pending cases of the 
political offenders who have not yet got to jail. They differ 
in no essential from many cases which have already received 
executive clemency, or from the cases of the political pris- 
oners who are still in prison. For the government to con- 
tinue to spend time and money in putting these men in jail 
reads like a chapter from Alice in Wonderland. The humor, 
however, but thinly coats a situation which is destructive of 
any faith in American liberty on the part of hundreds of 
Americans in the making. Impatience with the course pur- 
sued is spreading to more conservative circles and there 
is increasing pressure of public opinion on the adminis- 
tration to delay no longer in meeting the issue which these 
political cases — all of them— present. On the 19th of July, 



the President told a distinguished delegation that all the 
cases would be reconsidered with care within sixty days. 
Since then no public word on the subject has come from the 
White House or from the Department of Justice to indicate 
that any case has been reconsidered — except that of one man 
who was released. The United States of America is now 
two years behnd the slowest of the European nations in 
releasing prisoners of this class. 

Ellis Island Stuck Fast 

THERE is much to be thankful for in the fact that Sun- 
day concerts for New York politicians, sensational 
headlines for the "A. P." and Christian Endeavor speeches 
across the country about " Lo, the Poor Immigrant," have 
been consigned to the ancient history of Ellis Island. Com- 
missioner Tod is an able administrator. He knows the 
life of his island domain, by day and by night. His orders 
are issued with precision, born doubtless of his naval experi- 
ence, and they result in action. 

No longer do bewildered relatives ask in vain at the in- 
formation desk for immigrants long since deported. True, 
the number of visitors is limited, but preference is given to 
those from out of town, and the witnesses are called and 
checked by a system of passes which has punctured many 
previous opportunities for graft. The treasury transmits 
money promptly. Records begin to approach up-to-dateness. 
The possibility of appeal from the decision of "exclusion" is 
regularly explained in the alien's own tongue at the first 
hearing, and all attorneys in such cases must be registered 
and may not charge more than $25. 

Ability to administer is unquestionably the first requisite 
in a successful immigration commissioner at the port of New 
York. However, there is needed in addition a keen percep- 




76 



THE SURVEY 



October 15, 192: 



tion of the social and individual needs of human beings, and 
such resourcefulness and persistence as will evolve, out of an 
antiquated and architecturally unfit building, the material 
surroundings for the decent daily reception of a thousand or 
more prospective American citizens. 

Appreciating the difficulty that any commissioner would 
have in initiating a new order of procedure, Commissioner 
General Husband last year appointed a federal advisory 
commission, of which Fred C. Croxton is chairman, to study 
the situation together with the commissioners of the various 
ports and to recommend a plan to insure the welfare of im- 
migrants. The recommendations of this commission for 
Ellis Island were published in the Survey for January 14. 
Many of them involved considerable expenditure. Social 
workers interested in conditions on Ellis Island urged the 
appropriation committees at Washington to make added ap- 
propriations for Ellis Island in the 1922 budget of the De- 
partment of Labor. It was the graphic presentation of the 
actual conditions by Mr. Husband and Mr. Croxton, how- 
ever, that led to the special appropriation of $100,000 for 
the remodelling and renovating of the island. This amount 
was in addition to $15,000 appropriated for the installation 
of a heating system on the hospital island and $23,000 for 
the improvement of the plumbing. 

The use of this special fund was planned in great detail by 
the advisory commission, whose members had spent nights 
on the island in order to know exactly what the conditions 
were at all hours. Their recommendations, which had the 
approval of Commissioner Tod, were presented to the two 
hundred social workers making up the Division on the Im- 
migrant at the June meeting of the National Conference of 
Social Work. Great hope was pinned to these plans and 
their immediate initiation in view of the fact that the new 
quota began on July 1 and there was desperate need for 
change. 

July brought 25,822 immigrants, August 24,469, and Sep- 
tember over 30,000 — but the situation at Ellis Island as 
regards physical conditions is unchanged in spite of the solici- 
tude of Congress. 

On September 24, the number of detained aliens was 1800. 
Those held for more serious charges were sitting despondent- 
ly in the old "S. I." room, described as the "black hole of 
Calcutta" because of its lack of ventilation and its over- 
crowding. Those immigrants who were held temporarily 
were wandering restlessly up and down the old "T. D." 
room, a gloomy shut-in court, as their only opportunity for 
an airing in the sultry September weather. Meanwhile the 
ticket agents of the railroad companies and the representa- 
tives of the steamship companies continued to occupy their 
spacious quarters which boast many windows and access to 
the lawn. The plans of the commission for shifts in deten- 
tion quarters whereby larger and more airy quarters would 
be available for the detained immigrants are still ignored. 

All radical changes, of course, take time. Doubtless it is 
more difficult to negotiate with concessionaires than with 
bewildered immigrants. The social workers interested in 
the progress of events at Ellis Island do well to appreciate 
improvements even when they come singly and slowly; but 
the thought of $100,000 apparently lying untouched during 
the months when the tide of immigration is at its highest is 
hard to reconcile with the desire for a more effective and in- 
telligent administration of our largest port of entry. 

Intolerance in Oregon 

OREGON vies with Texas and Oklahoma as the state 
in which the Ku Klux nuisance comes nearest being 
an actual menace. In Oregon as in other states there is a 
temptation to over-simplification in describing the Ku Klux 
Klan. It is not merely a childish outburst of anti-Jewish, 
anti-Catholic and anti-foreign bigotry. If it were nothing 



but a Freudian escape for suppressed hatreds of this kind it 
would have disappeared like a bad dream in the sunshine^ 
and invigorating atmosphere of this healthy and sane com- 
monwealth. The masks and gibberish, the appeals to in- 
stinctive hostility to the unfamiliar, the play on stereotyped 
racial and religious prejudices, are all there and they are 
disturbing evidence of the limits to what education can do 
even for a selected and naturally intelligent people. 

Oregon is predominantly white, native, protestant and 
typically American. Its early settlers came from the south 
as well as from the north. It has no serious race problem 
and no reason for acute industrial conflict. Its people are 
lumbermen, farmers, fruitgrowers, and business men. The 
workers live mainly in their own town homes or on their 
own farms and ranches. It is a healthy, homogeneous pop- 
ulation, with a low death rate and little illiteracy. Portland 
is a more representative city than San Francisco, Los Angeles, 
or Seattle. Her roses, her rivers and her heights are unique ; 
but her citizens are of the best blood, if there are any dif- 
ferences, and her political and social institutions are as 
progressive and as favorable to the development of the best 
character as those of any other state. 

Why, then, should a Ku Klux candidate for Governor 
have come within five hundred votes of carrying the Repub- 
lican primaries? Why are there likely to be many of its 
candidates in the legislature? Above all, why are the people 
required to vote on a measure which will at one stroke abolish 
all private schools — whether religious or secular — and re- 
quire all children of school age to attend the public schools, 
with an ambiguous exception which is supposed to permit 
private individual tutoring? 

The essential fact seems to be that in our contemporaneous 
American education — both the formal education of the 
schools and the more pervasive unconscious education of the 
home, the church, and the social life as a whole — we are 
cultivating prejudice, planting seeds of intolerance and 
bigotry. We are not really encouraging either a scientific 
or a tolerant temper. We assume that children are to be- 
come Methodists or Presbyterians, Unitarians or Catholics, 
Republicans or Democrats, Prohibitionists, Anti-radicals or 
what not, and we do not really teach them how to reason or 
how to think about religious, political, economic, and social 
questions. We have an easy-going faith or assumption that 
if children learn to read and to count; if they learn certain 
historical, geographical, and scientific facts, they will some- 
how know how to act. It is a stupendous delusion. 

We reap the consequences in the phenomenon of a Ku 
Klux movement sweeping over the country and finding even 
high school and college graduates helpless before its sophis- 
tries, its lies, its appeals to our worst impulses. If those lies 
and base appeals stood alone they would, of course, get little 
response. Why do they not stand alone? They arc inter- 
woven with quite different issues. Our courts and prosecut- 
ing officials do not always cope successfully with crime, even 
flagrant and notorious law-breaking. This being the case, 
law and order movements, vigilance committees, societies for 
the suppression of vice, lynch law, are no novelties in Amer- 
ican life. The war increased the business of spying and in- 
forming beyond any previous experience. Now comes the 
Ku Klux Klan to nationalize this tendency ; to make it rel- 
atively safe by mask and mass action. Everyone who know? 
of an immune bootlegger, a home-breaker, an abortionist, a 
radical agitator ; everyone who believes that there are such 
offenders unwhipped of justice ; and every neurotic or dis- 
appointed person who nurses a personal grievance against 
society, becomes a ready mark for the Ku Klux salesman. 
What is more plausible than the program of cleaning up the 
town, running the offenders against common decency out of 
the community altogether, not merely fining them after an 
expensive trial, but putting an end once and for all to theii 
practices, and at the same time giving vent to a little pent-up 



October 15, 1922 



THE SURVEY 



// 



belligerency and unacknowledged love of deviltry in the 
ones who are thus vindicating law and order ? 

In Oregon the Ku Klux Klan has not thus taken the law 
into its own hands except in a few isolated instances. It is 
less masked, more open in its methods, than in some other 
states. It is a direct political rather than an underground 
guerilla movement. It boldly challenges support. It has its 
headquarters and avowed candidates. Its goal is the same 
as in other states — nothing less than complete political control 
of legislature, administration and courts; and it sees a chance 
of arriving at that goal without the preliminary steps nec- 
essary elsewhere. The struggle is on in the local elections, 
in the legislative contests and in the initiated amendment, 
misleadingly called compulsory education. 

The difficulty is in seeing through the complications. The 
issue is primarily one of tolerance, of freedom for education. 

The state has an undoubted right to supervise private and 
church schools, to establish standards to which they shall 
conform, even to examine teachers and see whether they are 
qualified to give the instruction which the state deems essen- 
tial. But the state should not establish a monopoly of educa- 
tion. To set up one type of school and to say that there shall 
be no other even at private expense would be to put education 
in a strait-jacket. The state has an indisputable right to tax 
all wealth and all incomes for the support of its free public 
schools; but it is not sound policy to say that all children 
must attend these schools regardless of the wishes of parents. 
The public schools do not need such coercion and would 
suffer from the absence of the stimulation of free competition. 
Variation is, of course, possible within a public school sys- 
tem, but what is needed is the utmost possible freedom of 
experiment and variation and this a monopolized, closed 
public school system would not secure. 

One extraordinary manifestation of the Ku Klux spirit 
in Oregon is the sudden fire of criticism against the effort 
of the Roman Catholic Church to promote the spiritual wel- 
fare of its own students at the state university. It will be 
recalled that a few years ago a very well and very favorably 
known priest, Rev. Edwin V. O'Hara, was transferred by 
his own desire from Portlnd to the rural county in which 
the state university is located. The rural social problem is 
admittedly pressing and serious and the decision of a com- 
petent and successful clergyman to move from what may 
have been a more congenial city pastorate to an experimental 
undertaking of this kind was greeted on all sides with en- 
thusiastic interest. 

Incidentally it has given the opportunity also to establish 
in Newman Hall a religious center for Catholic students in 
the state university. This institution is not on the campus 
but is conveniently near. There is no charge that there has 
been religious propaganda from it, or any attempt at inter- 
ference which the most sensitive critic could discover. Father 
O'Hara has not sought such privileges as the Y. M. C. A. 
or Y. W. C. A. have long enjoyed without objection. The 
natural and logical sentiment of those who believe in higher 
education by the state would seem to be one of satisfaction 
that the Catholics have accepted the policy ; that they realize 
that they cannot compete with the university by creating a 
local college or university of their own ; that they will there- 
fore cooperate by encouraging their young men and women 
to attend the state institution and will themselves furnish that 
counsel and religious atmosphere which they regard as es- 
sential, in such a way as not to interfere with the academic 
activities of its students. Instead of this we hear that there 
must be some sinister motive, some desire to displace prot- 
estant regents or instructors by Catholics, some deep con- 
spiracy reaching back, perhaps, to a subtle Italian brain or a 
Sinn Fein firebrand. 

It is absurd, of course, and it will probably be short-lived. 
Whether it is or not will disclose the amount of fundamental 
common sense, sense of humor, political sense, latent in the 
Imen and women of Oregon. The menace lies in the en- 



couragement of hatreds which should be displaced by co- 
operation, bigotry which should give way to understanding, 
reasoning by shibboleths which should give way to discrim- 
inating analysis. The menace does not lie in Rome or in 
Moscow or in Tokio; in any race, or color, or creed. It 
lies in our American complexes, our stereotypes, our tradi- 
tions, our reversions. Oregon is passing through a spasm, 
acutely revealing a general national disease, not hopeless 
but distressing. 



Smyrna 



WITH its roots far back in prehistoric times, the city 
of Thesus, of the Amazons, the Phrygians, Lydians 
and Ionians, rebuilt by Alexander the Great, renowned in 
Roman times as one of the most illustrious cities of the 
universe and, since the middle ages, the pawn of war be- 
tween Islam and Christendom, Smyrna holds an appeal to 
the imagination that is unsurpassed. Yet the fate of that 
city has remained until our days of secondary political im- 
portance for the western world to the changing aims of 
empires; and the fire that consumed a large section of it a 
few weeks ago came as the culmination of a long period of 
political and commercial neglect. 

As it happens, we are in possession of an intimate pic- 
ture of Smyrna as it existed before the fire, owing to the 
enterprise of American educators and social workers, not- 
ably the local representatives of the Y. M. C. A., who in 
spite — or perhaps because — of the most difficult imagi- 
nable tasks of social engineering applied to the city the proved 
technique of an American social survey. The results of 
this survey, completed only a year ago, give us a fair pic- 
ture of what conditions were in a city slowly recovering 
under Greek rule from centuries of neglect under Turkish 
sovereignty. "This survey," wrote S. Ralph Harlow, a 
professor at the International College of Smyrna who was 
largely responsible for carrying it out, "has brought home to 
me as nothing before the terrible moral and spiritual inertia 
of the life in Smyrna, where sin in its most subtle form 
stalks openly abroad. An open red-light district, hundreds 
of drinking places, gambling clubs and a low moral stand- 
ard "entice men everywhere to lives of sin. In this city of 
over four hundred thousand, there are no public parks, play- 
grounds, gymnasia, recreational facilities. Cheap and lurid 
cinemas form the main opportunity for amusement, except, 
possibly, the public dance halls." 

As in Constantinople [see the Survey for October 1], 
members of different nationalities lived together in their tens 
of thousands — 165,000 Turks, 155,000 Greeks, 35,000 Jews, 
25,000 Armenians, 10,000 Italians and some 10,000 other 
foreigners — with different languages, customs, standards of 
life: a conglomeration rather than a community. The world 
war, and the "pacification" that followed it, had increased 
the mutual hostility of the different nationalities; and when 
with the victory of the Moslems religious fanaticism and 
the lowest passions of a militarized eastern race broke loose, 
the thin crust of westernized culture broke down; and 
Smyrna once more, after some centuries of comparative peace, 
became the scene of limitless pillaging, lust and slaughter. 

Such documents as the Smyrna survey report enable one 
to understand better how a great social tragedy arises, though 
its causes, of course, lie deepest than the race relations and 
human cross-currents in any one city. Incidental passages 
throw light on the feeling that existed in Smyrna long be- 
fore the clash came. Here are a few quotations, taken almost 
at random from different sections of the report : 

Due to the vicissitudes of the war, the Armenian unions have 
been very slow in recovering. They have established a general 
union of the Armenian artisans representing 27 trades. . . . The 
primary purpose of this organization is nationalistic. The purpose, 
according to their constitution, is " to unite to rebuild and upbuild 
their own native country of Armenia." 

The Union and Progress party, even before the war, tried to 
organize the Turkish tradesmen into unions; but as the other 



78 



THE SURVEY 



October 1$, 1922 



nationalities were too strong as competitors, it was not found advis- 
able to continue the effort. 

The menace of uneducated men and women. . . . There is 
no central organization to hold the teachers and leaders of different 
nationalities together, no society for uniting them together socially 
for cooperation such as would create a real "Better Smyrna" feeling. 

Two chief reasons seem to stand out as the main reasons for lack 
of justice in the Turkish courts: first, the low and insufficient salaries 
paid the judges. This opened up a world of abuse of law and 
justice and encouraged bribery and backsheesh. In the second 
place, there was the contempt of the Moslem Turk for his Christian 
subjects. In a Moslem court the word of one Moslem was taken 
as worth the evidence given by three Christians. 

Prison life (under Turkish rule) was such a life as to increase 
criminal tendencies or to drive one insane. 

In Smyrna, because of its division into various nationalities, often 
separated by antagonism, there is no community recreation; in fact, 
there is little opportunity for civic consciousness or enterprise. Each 
nationality has its own holidays and festivals. 

Few, even of the educated men of the city, had any ideas at all 
of the city government. No record could be found of any election. 
. . . Parish elections, so far as was found, are always permitted 
to lapse for lack of interest on the part of the people. . . . This 
indifference on the part of the people is probably also due to the fact 
that the system of government under the Ottomans was so centralized 
that even if the public did share in the elections permitted, the power 
still rested with officials appointed by the imperial cabinet. 

Thus the disaster at Smyrna differs essentially from 
other great civic calamities, by fire, flood or conquest, to 
which the established American technique of disaster re- 
lief becomes applicable. It is reported that after the fire 
whole streets and sections seemed devoid of life until Amer- 
ican relief ships appeared in the harbor, when suddenly out 
of apparently deserted houses and ruined cellars thousands 
of Greeks and Armenians who had hidden there in fear of 
deportation into the interior would run to the quay and 
clamor to be taken off. Under the very eyes of Americans, 
powerless because of their small number and lack of in- 
structions, Christian girls were snatched from their families 
by Turkish soldiers, and hordes of helpless refugees were 
driven off into the interior, to meet death on the roadside 
or a life of torture. 

Professor Harlow, who happens to be in America at the 
present time, in a number of articles and in a speech de- 
livered the other day before a mass meeting in Boston, 
squarely held before his fellow-citizens their share in the 
responsibility for these events and for the cbnditions that led 
up to them. He said that raising money for the Christian 
victims of the conflagration and the ravage by their Turk- 
ish oppressors was not enough. America owed a debt to her 
Greek and Armenian associates in the late war; and that 
debt could be paid only by political cooperation with the 
Allies in a settlement with the Turks that would free the 
minority races under their rule from oppression and the 
constant cloud of fear. It may, of course, be said that 
Professor Harlow, James L. Barton, chairman of the Near 
East Relief, and others who have recently been in the Near 
East and witnessed some of the scenes of misery and massacre 
of which we read with amazement, almost with unbelief, 
speak with a natural warmth of feeling, and that it be- 
hooves the American people and government to proceed 
cautiously and with due consideration of many interests in- 
volved. But there are fields of activity in which they can 
move rapidly and effectively without risk of being embroiled 
in political feuds. 

To begin with, the task of relief, though difficult, is not 
an impossible one and requires the utmost cooperation on the 
part of the American government and people. The reserve 
funds in the hands of the Near East Relief and the appro- 
priation of $200,000 voted by Congress before its adjourn- 
ment are insufficient even for the work of first aid that has 
been so energetically taken in hand by H. C. Jaquith, the 
Constantinople director for the Near East Relief, and his 
associates. Effort so far has been concentrated on the evacu- 
ation of the refugees, on the removal of boys and girls from 



the Smyrna orphanages to Piraeus, on the transportation of 
food, clothing and medical supplies where they were mo.~t 
needed and replenishment of the stocks in Constantinople. 
Some fifty thousand remaining refugees in Smyrna are en- 
tirely dependent on American aid. At the same time, the 
feeling still runs so high that the cooperation given by the 
Turkish authorities and military officers is formal rather 
than actual; and even refugees with money or marketable 
possessions are unable to purchase food from their Moslem 
neighbors. 

Smyrna is, of course, only one of a number of cities that 
have suffered in similar ways. Recent cables state that as 
soon as refugees are evacuated from the port towns to places 
of safety, others arrive in their thousands from the interior 
and have to be cared for in the same way. The relief oper- 
ations, therefore, are not as yet diminishing but will for 
some time- to come tax the endurance of those engaged in 
them. At the same time, the political condition in Con- 
stantinople itself is so unstable that the sending out of large 
contingents of American relief workers is for the moment 
considered inadvisable. 



ALL this reinforces the demand, made in these pages some 
time ago and now voiced by practically all who are in 
any way connected with relief operations in the Near East, 
that the emergency activities under way be seconded by 
vigorous political action and followed by a program of re- 
construction and stabilization throughout the territory of the 
Turkish empire. It seems that America is to be represented 
in the forthcoming conference on Near Eastern affairs; and 
although Secretary Hughes expresses himself in cautious 
terms, it seems probable that our government will take a 
fuller share of the responsibilities borne by the Christian 
powers for the Christians of Asia Minor than has hitherto 
been the case. No one will want this country to enter 
blindly the plans of France or Great Britain — we do not 
even know exactly what those plans are — but America is in 
the singular position of enjoying the confidence of all the 
nations involved ; it has material resources, a proved tech- 
nique of organization, ingenuity, and determination in execu- 
tion that ought to become vital factors in the social and 
economic upbuilding of the Near East once a modus vivendi 
has been established between the contending nations. 

When Alexander came to Smyrna after it had suffered a 
century or more of pillage and fire, he laid the foundations 
for a new city that outlasted the Roman empire. He did 
this, not by means of fortifications or a strong military oc- 
cupation, but by improvements intended to raise the eco- 
nomic prosperity of the people. The task today is not so much 
more complicated than it was then. To the often selfish 
and destructive political aims of antagonistic nationalities 
and their backers, we can help to oppose the constructive 
social aims of a democracy that has learned, to some degree, 
the art of getting large populations of different race and 
color to live together peaceably without a super-government 
to hold them in check. We can, in the coming negotiations, 
lay the emphasis of American cooperation on the upbuilding 
of economic, social and educational opportunities for all 
the races that have their home in the Near East; and while 
it would be futile to hope that ancient racial feuds can easily 
be overcome, or that the character of oriental and semi- 
oriental peoples can rapidly be changed, we can help all of 
them, the Turks as well as the minority races in the Ottoman 
empire, to find themselves. By the proper stimuli it will be 
possible in the long run to substitute fellowship for rivalry 
and reasoned cooperation for hatred. 

It is not an easy task we can set ourselves if we want to 
accomplish lasting results, and it will necessarily involve 
some risk of "contamination" with European politics — but 
it is the only task which, if we assume any moral obligation 
at all, seems worth while. 



"HP- 

1 ! 



/$• America Feeble-minded? 

Zfy Horace B. English 



HERE are so many stupid people!" has been 
the burden of recent comment from every side 
since the results of the intelligence tests applied 
to the army became public property. Can 
democracy survive, let alone flourish, asks Cornelia James 
Cannon in The Atlantic, with twenty-two per cent of our 
citizens of "inferior intelligence?" H. L. Mencken in the 
Baltimore Sun, by misquoting this writer, gleefully reaches 
the astonishing conclusion that all his previous estimates of 
American stupidity were too low, since official figures prove 
that over 47 per cent of the white draft, and an even larger 
per cent of the negroes, are feeble-minded. The New York 
Times editorially quotes a state commissioner of education to 
the same effect, while Collier's optimistically points to the 53 
per cent who are not mentally deficient. But if this be all, 
we may well despair of democracy. 

A veritable swarm of mental tests has followed the 
successful application of intelligence tests in the army. 
Psychologists and pseudo-psychologists of all grades of ability 
and of none contributed to this swarm. You had only to 
I open your Sunday newspaper to find a new test to try out 
on the members of your family, or an account of the newest 
prodigy to solve all the problems. The technical journals 
of psychology were scarcely less forward. In school and 
industry there was a positive boom in intelligence tests. Of 
late this sort of thing has somewhat fallen off, but its place 
has been taken by more or less serious efforts to interpret the 
monumental data obtained from the examination of one and 
three-quarter million soldiers. 

I After all this storm and stress, has not the time arrived 
for the still, small voice? Tests weathered the period of 
irrational criticism and, not wholly unscathed, came through 
the period of hurried application. Yet if test results con- 
inue to be taken at their face value, their proponents may 
lave to cry "save us from our friends." The critics are so 
appreciative of the significance of the army tests that the 
luty of taking them to task for misleading deductions is 
leculiarly ungrateful. But neither psychology nor the social 
ciences can permanently benefit from an injudicious use of 
*he data yielded by this epoch-making experiment in human 
measurement and selection. 



What "Inferiority" Means 
The apparently large per cent of army recruits of 



in* 
erior intelligence " is simply enough explained. The aver- 
ge person, as F. P. A. points out, is considerably above the 
verage. Now for statisticians, who are matter of fact in- 
ividuals, this will not do; " average " means the attainment 
f those who are half way between the top and the bottom, 
imilarly with " superior " and " inferior." Without the 
ightest reference to absolute standards (which in the mat- 
•r of intelligence do not exist), the army psychologists sim- 
ly dubbed "inferior" that fifth (roughly) of all the 
:cruits who made the lowest score, " superior " and " very 
iperior " the uppermost fifth, and " average " the three- 
ths in between. 

As psychologists they should have known that " inferior " 
rould carry an emotional significance; perhaps for army 
pposes this meaning was desirable. At any rate, by the 
le methods a fifth of the Fellows of the British Association 
of the Immortals of the French Academy could be classed 
" inferior." So far as this particular result is concerned, 
jierefore, the army results tell us nothing save that our 
tizenry is not intellectually homogeneous, and that some 
\n are measurably more intelligent than others. This 



surely needs no demonstration by a corps of psychological 
savants nor does it justify doleful misgivings as to the work- 
ing of democracy. 

But what about the generalization that the army tests 
showed half of the population to be less than thirteen years 
in mental age ? What may we expect of voters so infantile ? 
The expression " mental age " is seductively simple; it seems 
so unambiguous. Mental age 10 seems to imply intellectual 
powers, judgment, and behavior like a ten-year-old. Now 
this is not what the tests prove and not what any competent 
psychologist from Binet onward has meant by the term. 
Mental age is merely a conventional expression indicating a 
certain rather arbitrary attainment in the tests. Such a 
rating may, indeed, be taken as determining the level of gen- 
eral intelligence of the person examined, but general intel- 
ligence is not the same thing as judgment or wisdom, though 
these interpenetrate; nor is general intelligence the sole 
factor determining behavior, though perhaps the chief. 

Let the adult reader reflect that he himself probably ceased 
to develop in that somewhat mysterious group of functions 
lumped together under the caption of general intelligence, 
when somewhere between fourteen and eighteen years of age. 
Yet it is fairly certain that he does not behave like his 
adolescent self. Psychologists may demonstrate that he has 
not developed in intelligence; but this does not preclude 
development in judgment, in wisdom, and in knowledge, both 
theoretical and practical. 

" Intelligence " and Intellectual Power 
We must sharply distinguish between intelligence, which 
refers to native capacity, and intellectual power which de- 
pends in part upon experience. 

Behavior is always the result of the reaction of experience 
upon this native capacity or intelligence. This is true of 
the idiot as of the genius. Native capacity or intelligence 
is almost entirely latent at birth and develops slowly with 























































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Intellectual J^ou/er 



INTELLIGENCE AND INTELLECTUAL POWER COMPARED 

At this graph suggests, there is a very real difference between mental 
age and intellectual power, although ivithin limits one is closely re- 
lated to the other. It is developed from a suggestion made by Bagley 
in his interesting article Educational Determinism and the I. Q. 

years; the extent of its development is relatively independent 
of the particular kinds of experience with which it interacts. 
Intellectual power, on the other hand, is strictly a function 
of two variables : the native intelligence and the number and 
quality of the experiences enjoyed. 

The intelligence of the idiot ceases to develop at or before 
the level reached by normal children of three. With such 
an equipment, development in intellectual power is painfully 

79 



80 



THE SURVEY 



October 15, 1922 



slow and strictly limited in extent. The intelligence of the 
moron continues to develop to the level reached by normal 
children of seven to thirteen years. A considerable develop- 
ment in intellectual power is possible after the maximum 
development in intelligence has been attained but the extent 
is still strictly limited. The intelligence of the average 
normal person does not develop much beyond the level of 
the higher grade morons, but present evidence sets no limit 
to the extent to which such an average person may continue 
to develop in intellectual power. William James thought 
that few such persons grew much after their twenty-fifth 
year and to the intuition of James we must give some weight ; 
but experimental evidence we have none. The superior 
person and the genius continue to develop in intelligence for 
longer periods and in intellectual power indefinitely. (James 
himself to the time of his death was evidence that not all 
persons cease to grow at twenty-five.) The accompanying 
graph fails to show the relative speed with which the de- 
velopments in both the vertical and horizontal directions take 
place; in general the speed increases as we pass from idiot 
through moron and average to superior and genius. 

Once the distinction between intelligence (which is meas- 
ured by tests) and intellectual power is grasped, we see that 
Mencken's statement that half the draft were not the in- 
tellectual equals of a thirteen year school-girl is almost a self 
reducing absurdity. 

It is as inaccurate to say that fifty per cent of all Ameri- 
can men are intellectually thirteen as that Mencken himself, 
with all his great gifts, is intellectually an adolescent eigh- 
teen ; yet it is at this point, apparently, that the superior man 
who falls short of genius ceases to gain in intelligence. 

But the contention that half of our population is feeble- 
minded is supposed to be based upon the official report to the 
Surgeon General of the army. Let us see. " If this defini- 
tion," says the official report, referring to a widely current 
but tentative definition of feeble-mindedness, " can be in- 
terpreted as meaning any adult below the mental age of 
thirteen, almost half the white draft, 47.3 per cent, would 
have been classed as morons." (See Memoirs of the 
National Academy of Sciences, xv, 789.) The little word 
" if " has been pretty consistently overlooked. Of course 
such a result as this merely reduces to absurdity the proposed 
definition of feeble-mindedness and was recognized as doing 
so even by those who had originally proposed it. It is not 
for mere psychologists, at any rate, to indict half a nation. 

How Many Are Feeble-minded? 

If the feeble-minded do not number 47 per cent, how 
many do we have? The answer is peculiarly hard to give. 
The whole question of the definition of feeble-mindedness is 
in the melting pot as never before. Hereditary mental de- 
ficiency is universally recognized as the basic fact, but the 
general tendency at present seems to be to supplement purely 
psychological considerations with sociological, to revert some- 
what to the familiar definition of the English Royal Com- 
mission which stressed the " inability to manage one's affairs 
with ordinary prudence." 

Whatever the definition of feeble-mindedness, there is 
fair agreement that its diagnosis remains an art — a matter 
of intuitive judgment, based upon a wide variety of factors, 
by a trained and qualified examiner. This it was impossible, 
for various reasons, to get under, army conditions, and we 
have consequently no secure official basis upon which to esti- 
mate the number of mentally deficient in the country. 

The discharges and rejections avowedly cover only a 
small per cent of the total. The instructions of the Provost 
Marshal General relative to rejection prior to muster pro- 
vided, in effect, for the rejection of only the imbecile and 
idiot, that is, of the second and third degrees ol feeble- 
mindedness. The result was a large mass of unteai. ^ble 
soldiers who had, after considerable time and money i.ad 
been spent on them, to be discharged. 



The writer's own experience in supervising the examina- 
tion of all low grade recruits who reached one large camp, 
confirmed by informal discussions with others who had like 
opportunity for observation, leads him to estimate that no 
less than six or seven per cent of the adults of the countrylj 
are definitely feeble-minded. Certainly no competent student I] 
would place the number at less than four per cent and few 
would place it at more than ten. 

No Moron Bloc 

The political problem raised by six or seven million 
morons in our population is not necessarily serious. They 
are too scattered to form a solid bloc and too unreliable to 
constitute very effective material for corrupt control. The 
real problem, which is social and industrial rather than politi 
cal, is met when the high grade moron leaves school at about 
sixteen. Formerly a large per cent was absorbed by agri 
culture, but the coming of machinery to the farm has pro 
gressively restricted this field of usefulness. Fortunately the 
same movement has opened a new set of occupations in the 
city. A large part of the work required by the " Iron Man " 
calls for only moron intelligence. Indeed because of its 
monotony, such work is generally best done by one of that 
level. 

As our factories are now organized, to be sure, this work 
fit only for the moron, is often tied up with some really 
responsible job and makes the irksome and irritating part 0: 
the work for a man of higher intelligence. But work re 
quiring only moron intelligence is being increasinglj 
separated from work requiring more, leaving the energie: 
of the higher grade man free for more satisfying as well a 
more valuable work. 

The problem is not entirely solved, of course, when w< 
find a suitable job for the defective. Obviously the foremat 
who supervises the work of the moron must be quite as dif 
ferent from his present-day prototype as the foreman 
today is from one of fifty years ago. But the development o 
a new type of foreman is a fundamental problem in industr 
in any case. 

A greater problem is the moron's inability to make socia 
adjustments and it is obvious enough that while special insti 
tutional care of all our five million or more morons t 
neither necessary nor wise, some form of social supervisioi 
and control will be increasingly necessary as these defective 
are more and more huddled together in cities. Thus th 
political problem raised by the feeble-minded is not in thei 
capacity as citizens and voters but as wards, if not of th 
state, at least of society. 

The Perpetual Privates 

The real problem for democracy is raised by the 22 pe 
cent of men of " D " and " D— " intelligence, the so-calle 
Inferiors. These people are not, most of them, feebh 
minded. How intelligent are they? The question is almo< 
impossible to answer for lack of adequate objective standarc 
with which to compare them. As has been pointed 01 
above, the mental age standard is profoundly misleadin 
unless technically interpreted. Almost the only answer mu: 
be in terms of what these men can do. 

Their army description may serve as an indication of the 
industrial capacity: " 'D' men are likely to be fair soldier 
but are usually slow in learning and rarely go above the ran 
of private. They are short on initiative and so require moi 
than the usual amount of supervision." 

In industry also they are the privates. They tend 
gravitate to such occupations as laborers, tailors and tailor 
assistants, blacksmiths and horseshoers, barbers, teamster 
hostlers, machine tenders, farm laborers, cobblers, gener 
miners, concrete workers, boiler-makers and cooks, and 
these occupations to the lower grades and less responsib 
positions. It must be clearly understood that by no mea 
all persons in these occupations are of " D " grade or belo; 



October 15, 1922 



THE SURVEY 



81 



On the contrary, in the army the middle score of all these 
occupations was in " C — ," with very many well above. But 
these are the occupations which absorb most of the " D " 
men. Given time to learn their trade they make skillful 
workmen, reasonably rapid and trustworthy so long as they 
are given substantially no responsibility and are not asked 
to adapt themselves rapidly to new conditions. If they lack 
initiative and push, they are not on that account less highly 
regarded or paid since these qualities are not always deemed 
necessary in lesser employees. 

The differences between " D " men and the majority of 
the " D — " and " E " men is one of degree. The latter 
require still more supervision and seldom attain high skill. 
Yet in the army only 1.75 per cent of the entire draft was 
officially regarded as unfit for regular service because of 
low mental level. Probably this is much too low; a number 
of considerations of a practical and politic sort held the 
recommendations for discharge to the lowest possible point. 
It remains true that all but a small per cent of the draft 
were regarded as possessing at least a bare possibility of some 
sort of usefulness. (See the official Memoirs, page 101.) 

This is to be compared with the reckless statement of 
Mencken in the Baltimore Sun of January 30: " . . . to 
be exact, 22 per cent were such numskulls that they were 
fit only for certain kinds of low grade service. . . . That 
is to say, twenty-two in every hundred of the white drafted 
men were so stupid that it was impossible to make effective 
combatants of them. They could not be trusted to shoot and 
they could not be trusted to run." Perhaps Mr. Mencken 
should leave statistics to less entertaining and more literal 
minds. 

How Intelligent Should a Voter Be? 

But what of political action ? How much political acumen 
can we expect from the 22 per cent in the lowest range and 
from the 15 per cent in the next higher group? Without 
further evidence it is impossible to say. Concerning two 
vital factors we are still in the dark. It was pointed out 
above that a person's capacity for judgment, depending as it 
l does partly upon experience, may continue to develop after 
1 the final mental level has been reached, much as an individual 
may increase in strength and muscular coordination after 
he has " got his growth." This is certainly true of superior 
persons and to a lesser degree of average persons. But if the 
mental growth be arrested at a very low level — say at mental 
age seven or eight — the intelligence factors necessary for the 
utilization of the materials of experience are lacking and no 
important development in judgment is possible. So far as 
the writer is aware no study has been made to determine the 
mental level essential to such progress in judgment with the 
passage of the years. As an estimate, a mental age level of 
at least ten years would seem essential, but we need more 
than guesses. While the problem is here stated untech- 
nically, its precise formulation and experimental solution do 
not seem inherently difficult. 

The second factor on which we need more information is 
only secondarily of psychological nature. How much intelli- 
gence does it take to be a voter? Must one be able to ex- 
pound the Monroe Doctrine, understand the advantages of 
the Single Tax or master the intricacies of Schedule M in 
the tariff bill? Something like this seems to have been the 
assumption of Jeffersonian democracy ; few people hold today 
to the doctrine of the " omnicompetent citizen " in its origi- 
nal purity. Yet to talk so blithely of political judgment 
J^ithout defining our terms is not very profitable. Certainly 
le cannot challenge the political capacity of persons at any 
ven level of intelligence until this question is answered. 
On the other hand, once we determine what type of 
oblems a voter should show ability to solve as a minimum 
quirement for the ballot, the determination of the mental 
■vel necessary is comparatively simple. The time may well 
rome when a voter's mental test will take the place of the 



so-called literacy tests now used in many states. It would be 
fairly easy to devise such a test which would be simple and 
uniform in its application, coach-proof, and mechanically and 
quickly graded. But until this is done, psychological test 
results, however numerous or certain, form an inadequate 
basis for calling democracy into question. 



The Fork in the Road 

A True Story 

JESSE was fifteen and Jerry was ten when the story 
begins. They lived in a dirty little shack in a slum 
corner of a shabby little village in one of the southeast 
counties of the State of Caritania. Oh, yes I you can have 
a slum in a village just as easily as in a big city if you 
will. Their father was a moron and their mother little 
better. She worked herself to death making other people's 
clothes clean, so she never had time to wash her Own. 
When she died, Dad gave up trying and thenceforth spent 
all his pitifully small wages for booze, instead of only most 
of it. So Jesse and Jerry were always dirty and usually 
hungry. 

One day they stole the shank of a cooked ham and some 
rolls from the corner grocery and had a feast; but the 
marshal caught them at it and brought them before the 
mayor, who committed Jesse to the reform school and sent 
Jerry to the orphans' home. 

The reform school then had a bad reputation and lived 
down to it. So when Jesse, after learning to wash dishes 
and carne chairs, got out, his next experience was a year 
in the state prison for larceny. When the year was up he 
kept out of jail nearly a week before he was caught for 
a second term. When I made his acquaintance in prison, 
he was serving his fifth sentence. He was always in 
trouble, worked in the brush shop and could never do his 
" task," so every week or two he had a few days in " the 
solitary." When the legislative committee made its bien- 
nial investigation, Jesse was always a witness with a tale 
of woe. Nobody cared about him, nobody ever found out 
the fact that he had inherited his father's feeble mind, that 
he was just smart enough to get into trouble, but never 
smart enough to keep out of it. It was not anybody's 
business. Everybody's business was to catch him, which 
was easy, and to punish him, which was easier. He closed 
his last prison term by dying of T. B. in the prison hos- 
pital. Nobody has to catch him or punish him any more. 

Now Jerry was just as feebleminded as Jesse, and after 
a year or two the orphans' home people found it out and 
sent him to the state school for his kind. There they had 
a queer way of measuring their pupils, both their bodies 
and their minds. Twelve-year-old Jerry's mind measured 
only six. But the school was used to six-year minds in 
twelve-year bodies and it tried to teach him only what a 
six-year-old could learn. The "three R's " were years 
beyond his capacity, but he learned to be clean and orderly 
and industrious and happy. When he was eighteen he 
went to the colony farm and drove a team. He could plow 
and harrow and even use the one-horse cultivator pretty 
well. One day he was harrowing a field when an auto 
horn scared his team, and they ran away, dragging Jerry 
and the overturned harrow half way across the field. He 
stuck to the lines and pulled them down, but in the struggle 
he broke a bone in his hand. It hurt, but he went on har- 
rowing. At noon he unhitched, drove his team to the barn, 
watered and fed them and got his own dinner. When 
the bell rang he hitched up and went back to the field. 
At four o'clock he reported to the head farmer: "Mr. 
Reichelderfer, I've got that field done harrowed and I 
broke my hand." He was quickly sent to the doctor at 
the " big house," his hand swollen to thrice its normal 
size. I saw him coming up the road in the buggy and 
asked the matter. When he told me I said, " Why Jerry, 
you foolish boy, why did you not quit when you hurt your- 
self?" He replied, "Mr. Jones, I wanted to get that field 
done harrowed." 

Jerry is still earning his living on the colony farm. He 
is now over thirty and he hopes to live there always. 
What's the moral ? Well, perhaps that there is a right 
way and many wrong ways of dealing with defective de- 
linquents. Which way do you prefer? A. J. 



The Jail Inside Yourself 

By William R. George 

FOUNDER AND SOCIAL DOCTOR, THE GEORGE JUNIOR REPUBLIC ASSOCIATION, INC. 



ur 



COMMIT you to the social sanitarium for treat- 
ment," said the judge solemnly. He was a lad of 
eighteen years, stern yet kindly in manner, as be- 
fitted one who wore the figurative ermine and was 
diagnosing the " social ills " of his fellow citizens. The cul- 
prit before him showed only a faint trace of surprise at the 
strange sentence that was being passed upon him. The 
occasion was a meeting of the self-government court in the 
little commonwealth at Freeville, N. Y., known as the 
George Junior Republic. " You will remain in the sani- 
tarium," continued the judge, " until you are ' cured ' of 
your ' social ills.' Doctors skilled in telling what is wrong 
with fellows like you — social doctors we call them — will de- 
cide when you can return. Meanwhile, you will be expected 
to do two things: to support yourself by manual labor and 
to make restitution to the person whose property you took." 
This is the procedure that has taken the place of sending 
boys and girls to prison in the George Junior Republic. It 
has been in effect for six years. During that time one 
hundred and eleven boys and twenty-four girls have been 
sentenced to the "social sanitarium." Until a year ago 
no one had come back for a second dose of the treatment 
given there. Now there have been four "recidivists, ' 
repeaters. This is a record infinitely better than 



or 



that of the typical prison system in the world at 
large, where probably more than 60 per cent of the people 
imprisoned have served more than one term. The desirability 
of the social sanitarium has been proved beyond question to 
us. The writer first worked out the idea theoretically in 
1899, his observation of customary prisons and prison 
methods leading to his conclusions. He has advocated the 
adoption of the plan by the state and believes that it would 
be an improvement over the present penal system. Some 
day the state will see its advantages. Meanwhile the dem- 
onstration at Freeville will continue. 

The Social Doctor 

The plan, in outline, is simple enough. The social sani- 
tarium is built upon the idea that people who are " ill " so- 
cially should be cured of thefr troubles just as people who 
are ill physically are cured. If you are sick, a physician 
listens to your heart-beat, counts your pulse, puts a fever 
thermometer between your lips, notes your respiration and 
asks pointed questions about your diet. So, too, if you are 
ill socially, a professional practitioner should come to your 
rescue. To be ill socially merely means that the friction be- 
tween you and your environment is so serious that society for 
its own good has to take note of the fact; in other words, 
that you are what is ordinarily termed " delinquent." There 
should be a profession of " social doctors," men and women 
who can make searching examinations of the causes of bad 
adjustment of the individual to his surroundings and who, 
when satisfied with their diagnosis, have both the experience 
and the inventive faculty needed to bring about a cure. 

As planned, the social sanitarium would consist of a series 
of four or five enclosures, guarded, each one comprising an 
area of several hundred acres and all lying side by side like 
the blocks of a city street. In the first instance social patients 
or " delinquents " would enter the first enclosure, sent there 
by the proper state authorities after being diagnosed by social 
doctors. If they did not respond to the treatment given there 
and committed further depredations, they would be sent by 
their fellow-citizens of the first enclosure into the second ; if 

82 



still they did not respond, they would be sent by the citizen; 
of the second into the third, and so on. The last enclosure 
would probably contain only the incurables and custodia 
cases. 

If, on the other hand, the patient responded and showed by 
his behavior that he was fit to live in the outside world again, 
he would be released by the state and social doctors from the 
first enclosure without having to go to any of the others. Re- 
lease from each enclosure would be into the one next nearest 
society to it, so that a person who had reached the third en- 
closure would work his way back through the second and 
first; in each instance he would have to be accepted by the 
people of that enclosure. The responsibilities of self-govern- 
ment, self-support and other beneficial activities would be 
placed squarely up to the people in all these enclosures, ex- 
cept the last. 

It is this plan that has been in operation at the George 
Junior Republic since 1915. Before that, recalcitrants and 
violators of law in the little community had been sent to 
prison within the Republic, a prison system existing because 
it was one of the principles of the Republic to accept the estab- 
lished customs of the state in its own operation. Since the 
citizens maintain the right, however, to depart from custo- 
mary institutions, and to make laws of their own so long as 
these do not violate the constitutions of state and federal gov- 
ernment, they were privileged to vary their penal methods 
when they saw fit. For several years I had tried to get them 
to adopt the idea of the social sanitarium, but they were toe 
conservative to desire it! 

So long as the prison system was in effect, the little com- 
monwealth had used all of the machinery of probation 
suspended sentences, fixed periods of detention, parole and 
other devices used by society at large; its penal system had 
probably accomplished more in the way of actual readjust- 
ment of individuals than is accomplished by prisons on the 
outside. This was because in the Republic the incarcerated 
were imprisoned by their peers, who had themselves " done 
time " and who were capable of an understanding and dis- 
crimination that they could not otherwise have gained. But 
the fellows who had to pass through this system had none 
of the opportunities for self-government that the community 
as a whole possessed. 

The adoption of the plan by the boys and girls was more 
of a personal favor to me, I think, than the result of any 
conviction that it would be a success. Its establishment 
caused no jolt in the life of the Republic. Offenders con- 
tinued to be tried as usual, though the judge, instead of say- 
ing to the person found guilty, " I sentence you to the Re- 
formatory for six months," would say, " I commit you to the 
Social Sanitarium for social treatment." 

The Patients Decide 

The citizens made me social doctor. I was to use my 
experience and professional knowledge in deciding when rtj 
individual should be released from the first enclosure to t 
community at large, but release from every other enclosui; 
remained entirely in the hands of the social patients in • 
enclosure that received him. 

The enclosures at the Republic are theoretical; they 
psychological. Because of the small population it would ii 
cumbersome and expensive to have physical enclosurbl 
Patients have always been aware, however, of their numeW 
cal groups, and the plan has worked quite as well as ref i 



Mil 

1 



October 15, 192a 



THE SURVEY 



83 



( enclosures would. Young people sentenced to enclosures 
■ have mingled with the other citizens of the Republic during 
the day, but they have slept apart at night, using the jail. A 
guard has always been near at hand to see that the demarka- 
tions were observed and that the residents of the different en- 
closures did not get too far out of sight. He is, indeed,, a 
sort of " travelling enclosure," and has been very successful. 
How have citizens responded to the treatment given in the 
social sanitarium? The best answer is found in typical in- 
stances. Donald A. arrived at the Republic about three years 
ago. His parents were rich. The year before they had sent 
him to a boarding school, where he had kept up the practice 
of " raising Cain " formed at home. Indeed, his dismissal re- 
sulted in part from an interference by him with certain estab- 
lished rights of the " other fellow," and a far-sighted judge 
joined with the " other fellow " and the parents in giving 
Donald A. a chance to learn some of the lessons of the Re- 
public. 

The prospects there seemed to be highly pleasing to Don- 
ald. One thing, however, marred the pleasure of his out- 
look. He found that he would have to work. Moreover, 
he would have to work with his hands. This was horrible, 
an abomination to him. He came from a section of the uni- 
verse where to work with one's hands was equivalent to 
serfdom, a kind of clod-like existence, as it were. 

"I am a gentleman," Donald exclaimed. " Gentlemen 
never work." It came to pass, therefore, that he decided to 
establish a new rule at the colony, a rule that only those 
should be required to work who had not the courage and 
ingenuity to avoid working — a rule, by the way, that others 
had tried to establish before him. Let us record at once that 
his efforts were futile. Hunger made its insistent demands 
and his boyish desire for comforts would not be appeased. 
To console both of these giants without descending to honest 
labor, Donald again invaded the rights of the " other fel- 
low " and stole. One gloomy day he found himself standing 
before the judge of the Republic court. Words concerning 
his fate were being pronounced. 

Then it was that the words spoken at the beginning were 
heard. Donald A. entered the first enclosure of the sani- 
tarium. Though theoretical, this enclosure was like a wall 
of steel to Donald A. and the other socially ill young people 
he found in it. There was no visible restraint, but the resi- 
dents felt themselves, as we shall see, in a psychological 
stockade that was perhaps more real to them than one of 
boards and palings would have been. 

On the day that Donald A. faced the judge, Tony stood by 
his side. Tony was to meet with a sentence to the social sani- 
tarium also; he, too, had been too friendly with other peo- 
ple's property. Tony hailed from surroundings quite dif- 
ferent from those of Donald A. He used the language of the 
street. He was roughly dressed and had scars on bis head, 
handed to him, he said, by " de gang wat his bunch wuz at 
war wid." Donald A. felt somewhat humiliated to be found 
on common grounds with one so manifestly socially unequal 
as Tony, and Tony afterward confessed to feeling a sense of 
degradation at having to stand up beside a dude. 

A Sentence with Punch 

Both boys were handed over to the tender mercies of their 
socially ill fellow citizens in the sanitarium, and they were 
not hailed with enthusiasm by these gentry. Their com- 
ing seemed to cast a shadow of apprehension over the whole 
enclosure. Leading officials met them, and the president, a 
serious .looking chap from New York city, said : 

" Let me tell youse guys, you hain't struck no cinch when 
you landed in dis enclosure. If dat judge had put youse in 
jail, you'd a known when you could have liberty to go where 
your blamed pleased, but dis way of doin' business what they • 
have, youse don't know when youse can travel around again 
wherever youse please, as youse yoused to do — perhaps never. 
One of the worst parts about dis place is dat it isn't just up 



to youse to keep yourself straight to get out, but youse have 
got to keep every udder guy straight before youse can get out 
yourself, and dat sure is some job, wid all de chances to do 
tings dat hain't quite on de level. Sure, if youse are crooked, 
dere's one good ting about it— Rothburn here, he's de judge; 
he'll make short work of you and send youse to de second 
enclosure, and den we won't have to bodder wid ye any more 
until we tink you're straight enough to come back to dis first 
enclosure again, and you bet your sweet life dat you will have 
to be swell there before we give you a chance back here again. 
If we let you back before we ought to, it is another bad thing 
for us in de eyes of dem social doctors, who won't let us get 
out of the first enclosure at all until youse are so straight 
almost that youse can't bend over widout breakin'. Oh boy! 
you're sure up against the real ting, let me tell youse and de 
rest of de world." , 

Sadly Donald and Tony took up their residence amongst 
their fellows. That same night the inhabitants of the first en- 
closure held a session of court. Rothburn, a lad who, hailing 
from Boston, bore every mark of culture, his tortoise shell 
glasses enhancing the impression, presided with dignity. 
Cayden, an Irish youth, pleaded guilty to stealing a suit of 
underwear from Tom Jones, whose parents lived in Cleve- 
land. After conviction Cayden said that he didn't like to 
" snitch "but that Jones's other suit of underwear, also miss- 
ing, was in the possession of that " new guy," called Tony. 
His only reason for squealing, he explained, was that, since 
the loss was known, the social doctors wouldn't allow any- 
one to leave the first enclosure until Jones got his suit back. 
No doubt the culprit would eventually be found, but if a 
good turn could be done the rest by acquainting them with 
facts that would save them time and anxiety, Cayden was the 
boy to do it! 

The Downward Path 

Tony was immediately summoned to the bar of justice. 
Within less than a minute he was officially located in the sec- 
ond enclosure, " wherein you will remain," said the judge, 
" until your fellow citizens of this first enclosure decide in 
town meeting that you will be a sufficiently desirable citizen 
to be allowed to return." ■ 

Donald A. watched Tony's discomfiture and thanked his 
lucky stars that he was not in Tony's shoes. Slowly he be- 
gan to take in the nature of the forces that were at work all 
about him. Effect was following cause so closely that he 
was almost dizzy. 

The only way to defeat starvation without being sent to 
lower enclosures, he discovered, was to work with his hands. 
And so he worked. He sifted ashes and picked out cinders 
that could still be burned a little. 

Days passed. Improvement began to manifest itself in 
the behavior of Donald A. Many thought that he would 
soon be returned to the regular Republic life. 

Then, lo ! a tragedy occurred. Donald A. was a good pen- 
man. By some unkind fate a few dollars were necessary to 
make up the full amount needed to make restitution to the 
boy whom he had robbed. One evening he discovered that he 
could imitate the signature of Fred Rowley so well that Fred 
himself could not tell the difference. Now, Fred had money 
in the bank ; besides, he was a careless accountant. He never 
knew how much he had. Donald A. yielded to temptation 
and his new found skill. His offense was discovered and the 
judge — Judge Rothburn had been discharged from the first 
enclosure by the social doctors and Judge Curtis had taken 
his place — committed Donald A. to the second enclosure. 

There was one saving grace in the situation: Donald A. 
had learned to work with his hands. In the second enclosure 
he seemed to come to himself. After a time he was elected 
judge, and this responsibility developed him rapidly. 

One day Tony, charged with larceny, came before him. 
Donald A. committed him to the third enclosure. There 



84 



THE SURVEY 



October 15, 1922 



were only two other boys in that enclosure at that time. One 
was president and the other judge. Tony had not been in 
their company longer than two days when both were restored 
to the second enclosure through good conduct. 

This left Tony in the third enclosure alone. One day 
he stole something. His offense was discovered but no one 
had jurisdiction. What was to be done? Here was a pretty 
tangle. Tony solved the difficulty by drawing up a charge 
against himself and committing himself to the fourth en- 
closure. He acted as he knew others would have acted in 
his case if he had had any companions. 

But still not all was clear sailing. How was Tony to get 
out of the fourth enclosure with no residents in the third to 
reinstate him ? Tony made unusual efforts to deport himself 
in such a manner as to merit the esteem of all of his fellow 
citizens. He was clearly in earnest. How the matter would 
ever have been adjusted no one can tell, had not a boy in the 
second enclosure committed an offense that resulted in his 
being committed to the third. He immediately made him- 
self judge and president, and his first act was to re-admit 
Tony into the third enclosure. 

Tony was now on the high road to right living, and his 
stay in the third enclosure was short. At the end of ten days, 
he was accepted into the second, where he was promptly 
made police officer. Tony did his duty faithfully. By a 
strange coincidence, he and Donald A. were re-admitted into 
the first enclosure on the same day. For some weeks these 
two lads worked hand in hand to make the government of the 
first enclosure one without reproach. Donald held the posi- 
tion of judge and Tony that of chief-of-police.' As officials 
and as citizens they led blameless lives. 

One day it so happened that the chief social doctor went to 
Donald A. and Tony and told them that they were cured 
of their " social illness " and were discharged from the sani- 
tarium. Donald A. wept at the news. Tony yelled with 
glee. No finer citizens ever lived at the Republic than these 
two boys thereafter. Tony recently went home and Donald 
A. is the present judge of the Republic. He is preparing for 
college, and his ability now to work with both head and 
hand is the astonishment of his happy parents. The world 
will hear from him. 

How It Works 

Each enclosure has its system of self-government and 
officers. The casual visitor to the little community would 
see nothing in the appearance of patients in the social sani- 
tarium to distinguish them from regular citizens. He might 
even detect in them a greater interest in laws, in correct con- 
duct and in matters of self-government than the actually free 
citizens possess. Indeed, the principal treatment has been a 
sort of intensified self-government, instead of the absence of 
self-government that characterized the former method of 
penal incarceration. 

What was it in the influence exerted by the social sani- 
tarium that found the right spot in these boys? What 
caused their changed behavior? There is a subtle appeal 
made to the young by distrust among their own companions 
and ostracism imposed by those companions that is not made 
by similar distrust and ostracism from adults. Again, the 
very indefiniteness of the " sentence " had much to do with 
it, I think. These young people were banished until they 
were " cured." They were not sent away for fixed periods of 
time. Their return so obviously depended upon their own 
efforts. They were sent away as people are sent to a hos- 
pital, to stay until they were well. The indeterminate sen- 
tence has been much talked about and a few efforts have 
been made to establish it, but here a real indeterminate 
sentence is working. 

However, let us see what the boys themselves have to say 
about it. Their analysis of their states of mind may be more 
illuminating than ours. A young fellow who had spent ten 



mohths in the sanitarium wrote to the editor of the Survey, 
at my request, his reasons for wanting to get out of the sani- 
tarium. He said: 

When I came here from I was used to doing just as I 

pleased— played poker, smoked, drank to my heart's content and 
had one grand and glorious time. The law meant nothing to me. 
I broke it whenever I pleased. 

It was a different matter at the George Junior Republic. I 
laughed at their laws and mocked them and thought them one big 
joke. But believe me, it wasn't long before I discovered that the 
" law " had to be respected. 

It seems one couldn't even steal. I thought it a big joke to swipe 
some cookies out of the G. J. R. bakery — and can you imagine it, 
the policeman comes along and says "First enclosure of the social 
sanitarium for you, my boy," and the judge and court of the Repub- 
lic made good what he said. 

I couldn't vote in the general town meeting or hold any offices. 
I was free, but not a " citizen." I had lost all my privileges and 
had the same homesick feeling to get back with the " citizens " that 
I had when I longed for and my own people. 

Of course, I couldn't blame anybody but myself, and Gee! but I 
was mad. I sulked a while and then decided that if I had to keep 
the law I would do it just to get out of " San." The other citizens 
didn't throw it up at me, nor did they treat me any different, but I 
just felt I wasn't a part of the life, nor they of mine because I 
couldn't share their privileges. 

If they had knocked me down and treated me rough, I could have 
blamed them and hit back. No such luck. They called me " sick '" 
and wanted to " cure " me! They treated me like a sick man, talked 
to me nice and gentle, just as they give an invalid his medicine. 
I wished they would give me my punishment, as I thought I de- 
served it. When I smoked the first time, if they had given me a 
knock-out blow I would have gone at it again when I felt like it, 
and had no respect for that. But they made me think it over and 
feel and know I was doing wrong. 

Then, because I thought it fun I stole some candy, and bang! 
they put me in second enclosure. I was in deep and didn't like it. 
They called me "socially sick" and said in order to get "cured" 
I would have to stop breaking laws and be good. 

It is an awful feeling, just like a drowning man who's got to help 
himself in order to save himself. Then I got to work and " got out." 
I found that I had formed the habit of keeping the laws and obey- 
ing them and then after I had been enforcing them myself in " Sari," 
gradually I saw how good the law was for everybody and why 
they had laws and said: "The law for me hereafter! Nothing 
is worth while without it." 

So I was cured and believe me, I thought it was some job! I'm 
a better guy. 

In conclusion let me say that back of all this experience 
lies my belief that a close analogy exists between the physical 
and social organisms of society and the treatment of ills to 
which both have fallen heir. The four major forces of the 
" social body " are these: self-government, self-support, recre 
ation, and service. No individual, community or govern 
ment can claim a social life worth having without the pos 
session of each of these, with each force rising to its attendant 
responsibility. These four forces are as important to the 
existence of the social body as the heart, lungs, stomach and 
kidneys are to the physical anatomy. Their stopping means 
death. If any of these social forces is sluggish, or, going to 
the other extreme, is in a state of feverish or abnormal accel-i 
eration, there is certain to be serious social illness. A social 
doctor is needed to make a searching professional examina- 
tion, just as a physical doctor is needed for ills of the physical 
body, and when he finds the socially diseased point he should 
do his utmost to effect a cure. 

I have therefore prepared individual charts for the boys 
and girls at the George Junior Republic, showing their 
progress from day to day in each of these four major social 
requirements. These charts are made up by their teachers 
and others who come into close touch with them. The boy? 
and girls study their own charts and see where effort has to 
be applied. I believe that we are working out something 
very valuable here in the way of a personal index to behavior. 
These charts are of great value to the social doctor and 
in the work of the social sanitarium. A few influential men I 
and women are now watching the results of our experiment I 
with the thought of seeking its extension if it should prove 
workable. 




THE UNCROWDED CITY WOULD HAVE SUBURBS LIKE THIS (DESIGN BY RAYMOND UNWIN) 

The Overgrown City 

By Raymond Unvoin 



AT no other period, probably, 
have large towns offered so 
many or so great opportu- 
nities for work, prosperity 
and amusement, so wide a range of 
knowledge and culture, or so elabor- 
ate a mechanism for magnifying hu- 
man powers and ministering to 
human needs. But instead of being 
occupied by an organized community 
capable of operating these powers 
and sharing these opportunities, they 
are filled by a disorganized rabble, 
all too intent on their individual 
struggles to spare much thought for 
their city, too confused to be able to 
organize themselves, and too numer- 
ous to be easily controlled. This 
clearly is not the city community nor the good life of our 
ideals! There is something here too seriously wrong to be 
met by wider streets, by more boulevards, by increased park 
lands or better zoning regulations. 

True, the city plan is concerned with streets and park- 
ways, zones and building blocks; and there be some who 
think that city planning consists in playing with such things 
and weaving them into pretty patterns on a sheet of paper! 
! The paper and the pattern have their place, all in good 
time; but our conception of city planning goes far beyond 
these. We must begin and build up our city from the in- 
dividual and his life. It is not enough that we offer great 
opportunities for the few, we must secure a place for every- 
one. 

The fact is that our cities have outgrown their organiza- 
tion. We have been so proud of the increase in the size 
of the crowd, that we have forgotten to care for the individ- 
ual citizens who compose it. We have completely failed to 
realize that the size of modern towns and the increasing 
complexity of civilized life, particularly when controlled by 
democratic forms of government, make a greater and greater 
demand on all the citizens, and that unless that demand is 



RAYMOND UNWIN, as the 
foremost British authority on 
city planning, has been brought to 
this country by the Committee on 
Plan of New York and its Environs, 
which, in close association with the 
Russell Sage Foundation, has under- 
taken a long-range task described in 
the Survey for May 20, 1922. Mr. 
Unwin spent the week of October 2 
in New York for consultation re- 
garding this plan. This is the 
gist of the message which he brings 
to city-planners in the United States. 



met our elaborate urbanized civiliza- 
tion must break down. These un- 
wieldy masses of men which we have 
accumulated in our great towns, not 
understanding the highly artificial 
and complex organization on which 
their daily life depends, will be help- 
less in any emergency, and at the 
mercy of any panic-stricken group. 

In city building nothing is gained 
by crowding. In the great towns 
every man must have room to live, 
room to work, room to play; with- 
out that he cannot do a citizen's duty. 
This is the first requisite of our new 
city plan, first for health, first for 
efficiency, first for pleasure, first for 
beauty. Secure this and all else be- 
comes possible; grasp at all else without this, and failure 
must follow. 

Civic organization, like that of the army, like all other 
in fact, must be based on a definite group life. The primary 
groups should be of such a size that the members can have 
some knowledge and some understanding of one another. 
These groups in turn must be organized around some defi- 
nite center where they or their chosen representatives can 
meet to promote a still larger group life, and a wider under- 
standing of communal affais. These larger groups, wards 
or parishes perhaps we may call them, must be grouped into 
boroughs, suburbs or satellite towns, enjoying a considerable 
degree of autonomy in all matters which mainly concern 
themselves and assuming responsibility for their own local 
life, their commissiariat, their culture and their recreation. 
The federation of these will constitute the city and will pro- 
vide the council of control for all the greater matters which 
concern the whole community. If this is to be the character 
of city life and organizations this must dictate the form of 
the city plan. 

This must mean a complete break with your traditional 
method of draught-board city planning; if indeed that de- 

85 



86 



THE SURVEY 



October 15, 1922 



serves to be called city planning at all which consists in se- 
lecting the smallest unit of the town, the building block, and 
repeating it indefinitely, regardless of the nature of the ground 
or the purpose for which it is wanted. If plan at all, it is 
that which approaches as nearly to chaos as any plan well 
can, for if not quite without form and void, at any rate it is 
without parts and proportion! All the streets begin at no- 
where in particular, and generally seem to end in somewhere 
equally unimportant. If in this maze of monotonous rep- 
etition, whose ordered reetangularity is its one dignifying 
feature, you do create some spot of outstanding importance, 
you can hardly approach it from anywhere without going 
round two sides of a right angle; while if in desperation you 
try to cut a diagonal way direct to an important spot the 
ragged and jagged street facades thus created are the despair 
of architect and city planner alike. 

THE matter is stressed because it is fundamental to my 
conception of a city plan. I believe such a plant to be 
concerned with the town as a whole, its form and the distri- 
bution of its parts; and not only with the whole town but 
with its environment, with the proper allocation of the sur- 
rounding lands to those purposes for which each section is best 
adapted, and in the fulfilling of which each can make the 
greatest contribution to the economic prosperity, the health, 
wealth and happiness of the expanding city. This you will 
see involves a clear recognition of the absolute right of the 
growing city community to see that the land around, over 
which it must expand, shall be used, and if need be re- 
served for use, for those purposes which will best conduce 
to the good of the whole city. 

You have already realized something of all this in rela- 
tion to better class residential property, and your zoning 
regulations usually give effective protection to this — but ap- 
parently to nothing else; for the remaining zones, after the 
exclusive residential one, seem to consist of progressive re- 
laxations, resulting in an increasing degree of mixed use 
and consequent confusion. This system is not enough for 
city planning as we conceive it. It is surely as important 
to secure valuable industrial and commercial areas as it is 
to protect high class residential districts from injury by the 
intrusion of incongruous buildings. 



We propose to establish zoning on somewhat different 
lines, establishing first a predominant character and main 
use for each area, industrial, commercial or residential; al- 
lowing freely all buildings which are quite consistent with 
the predominant use, but excluding those inconsistent, ex- 
cept with the permission of the city planning authority, and 
subject to conditions. Usually these would require a plan 
for the area which is ripe for immediate development, locat- 
ing in detail, and defining the minor zones for buildings of 
incongruous character which may nevertheless be required 
to minister to the needs of those which constitute the main 
character of the area. Schools, shops, and places of amuse- 
ment n a residential area, or dwelling, restaurants, markets 
in an industrial district may be given as examples. Our 
zoning, like our town planning, will in fact be carried out 
in stages, the broad distribution and reservations, the main 
lines of development and communication being dealt with 
in the first stage; the more detailed location and complete 
planning being dealt with at a subsequent stage, in sections, 
as the land becomes ripe for use. 

I attach great importance to the stages of planning. If 
an attempt is made to city plan at one stage, either the area 
dealt with must be reduced below what is required for com- 
prehensive planning, or the amount of ground covered must 
be too great to allow anything but stereotyped and wholesale 
plannig of the details. Either alternative is fatal to good 
results. 

Only after reaching some conclusion on the fundamental 
matters, on the kind of community life we should provide 
for, and the kind of city we should make to house that life; 
after surveying the territory, studying its contours, charac- 
ter and opportunities; after deciding where our community 
should live, around how many and which centers it should 
be grouped, whether in suburbs or satellite towns, where it 
should work, where it should study and where play; after 
thinking out generally the main distribution of the parts and 
the main lines of intercommunication from center to center, 
from living places to work places and play places, whether by 
railroad or water; after studying the needs for public build- 
ings, schools, playgrounds and for the main and all the sub- 
sidiary centers — then at length we reach the stage when we 
can begin the design and transfer our scheme to paper. 



Mutual Relief in Russia 

By Abraham Epstein 



THE newer trend in the policies of the Soviet gov- 
ernment relates not only to foreign and commer- 
cial affairs but also to interior affairs of purely 
Russian concern. The lessons of experience have 
begun to reform and to revitalize social services which the 
government could not accomplish from its seat at Moscow. 
Above all, the natural forces that make for social welfare, the 
organs of local government, have been re-enlisted in the 
combat of misery and disease. Indeed, few government de- 
partments illustrate more clearly the Russian tragedy, the 
gap between theoretical ideals and realistic achievements, 
than the changing panorama in the People's Commissariat 
for Social Welfare. An examination of the aims of the 
department in 191 8, when it was filled with hopes and en- 
thusiasm, and its program of work today, when it is grap- 
pling with what it then considered palliative and bourgeois 
measures, is enlightening from the point of view of the 
newer tendencies and indicative of the present state of 
despondency and impoverishment. 

It was to be expected that a communist government would 



adopt a complete program of social relief. Social provision 
and insurance essentially involve the principles of cooper- 
ation and mutual assistance which are primary elements of 
socialism. It is therefore not surprising that revolutionary 
Russia in its glowing and hopeful days — when decrees and 
programs were believed to have magic power over natural and 
evolutionary processes — should have accepted the principle of 
taking care of all citizens in distress. The October, 191 7, 
revolution enunciated the doctrine that assistance and social 
maintenance were to be considered neither charity nor a 
gift, but constituted the right of every producing person, 
and that it was the function and duty of the state to care for 
all citizens who, for one reason or another, were unable to 
work and had no means of support. 

The social welfare department, established in 191 8, was 
not only a creation of the revolution, to be compared with 
nothing in past Russian history, but was based upon new 
principles. It was the most comprehensive department of 
its kind in the world. The czar had adopted but a minor 
few of the social insurance and pension schemes generally 



October 15, 1922 



THE SURVEY 



87 



in operation in practically all other European countries. The 
millions of distressed in Russia were reduced to abject 
poverty. 

I. The Original Program 

THE first decrees of the new Commissariat for Social 
Welfare declared the right of all workers and officials 
to receive assistance during illness, temporary or permanent 
disability, or unemployment, pensions in case of invalidity, 
old age, as well as death and burial benefits, and of women to 
receive aid during pregnancy and confinement. All expenses 
were to be borne by the government. The usual procedure 
of calculating risks and balancing premiums was deemed 
unnecessary because in theory everything produced which 
could not be consumed by the individuals themselves was 
taken away by the government under the compulsory tax 
requisitions. 

The history of the Commissariat for Social Welfare is 
crowded with a multitude of changes, combinations, divisions 
and a good deal of general reorganization. Indeed, the 
changes have been so numerous that it is difficult to recognize 
in the present structure even the shell of its predecessors. 
During the first period, the institutional work done for 
children was especially noteworthy. On the first of Janu- 
ary, 1919, there were in thirty-six provinces 1,279 homes 
with 75,574 children, and on the first of July, 1919, there 
were under the direction of this section 1,924 homes with 
124,627 children. 

The poverty was vastly greater, however, than any 
human effort could cope with. Many of these institutions 
had to shut their doors in the face of increasing distress. 
Before I left, in May, I met a very active communist who 
could not place his two little, -undernourished girls in a 
summer home even for a few weeks, following the death of 
their mother from tuberculosis. 

There is also in the commissariat a section for invalids, 
which was created to take care of those invalided in the war, 
to establish hospitals, vocational training schools and assist 
in rehabilitation for other forms of work. A variety of 
work shops and homes for invalids were established. The 
division for general relief has as its task the relief of those 
incapable of work and it endeavors to provide assistance 
in cases of temporary distress caused by natural and social 
misfortunes such as fire, famine, or pogroms. 

On the first of July, 1921, according to the report of the 
department, 2,997,349 families of Red soldiers were helped 
by the Social Welfare Department throughout the republic. 
These constituted a little more than 75 per cent of all the 
Red army soldier families; and figuring on the average of 
three persons per family, it means that about 9,000,000 
persons were helped. 

The function of the pensions division was to provide for 
all persons who had lost their capacity for work, or had be- 
come dependent because of other misfortunes. According to 
figures supplied by sixteen provinces, there were, on the first 
of July, 1 92 1, about 8.98 pensioners per 1,000 persons. As- 
suming that these figures hold true generally the department 
estimated that, computing the population of Russia, not 
including Ukraine, at 86,319,000 (as supplied by the Cen- 
tral Statistical Bureau in 1921) there were in Russia at that 
time 775,000 invalided persons receiving pensions. The 
amount of the pension last summer was 3,000 rubles per 
month — just about the price of a pound of black bread at 
that time. This spring it amounted to 500,000 rubles, which 
would have bought from 5 to 10 pounds of bread. 

Although an attempt was made in 191 8 to introduce the 
principle of insurance contributions for the peasants, it was 
never carried out. The theory was that all persons capable 
of work owed their services to the state and the peasants' 
production above their own needs were taken by the govern- 
ment for the benefit of all. For this, the government, in 
return, compensated them by taking care of them during the 



times of incapacity and general need. Thus, for eliminating 
the fear of the " black day," the government deprived them 
of the privilege of individual thrift. 

The government paid all expenses from its own funds, 
which naturally, in face of the limited resources and the 
ruined condition of the country, remained mostly on paper. 
In practice, relief was received only by the city populations 
and the families of the Red army soldiers; and even these 
groups could hardly be given enough to satisfy them with 
most of the essentials. In principle, temporary incapacity 
and unemployment were to be assisted to the extent of full 
wages — an amount not paid in any other country. The 
actual payments made, and the rations given out, it is ad- 
mitted by all government officials, were insignificant and 
rarely sufficient to maintain life. There were millions 
of cripples as a result of seven years of the most bitter war- 
fare and struggle; there were hundreds of thousands of de- 
pendent widows and orphaned children; there were all sorts 
of epidemics and diseases; and then came the intense famine 
which affected millions. Innumerable fires and pogroms 
were raging in many parts of the country throughout the 
three years of civil war, and are still going on in some dis- 
tricts. 

To provide relief to all these elements with the 
ruined transport and industrial situation of the country was, 
of course, a task that no government, communist or bour- 
geois, could have accomplished. 

II. The New Policy 

THE adoption of the new economic policy and the intro- 
duction of state capitalism necessitated a complete change 
in the structure and policy of the commissariat. New means 
for social relief, outside the government funds, had to be 
found, for the latter had to be greatly curtailed. Govern- 
ment factories could no longer be operated on a deficit basis, 
once private production was permitted to exist side by side 
with them. The compulsory requisition of the peasant's 
product was now replaced by a definite proportional produce 
tax. Instead of owing all his products to the government, 
the peasant now gives only a certain percentage and keeps 
all the rest to himself. Again, many of the workers were 
transferred' from government industries to cooperatives, 
leased, concessioned and private employers, and were compen- 
sated in wages for their work. The government could there- 
fore no longer be expected to provide for all social relief 
from its own funds. Government industry had to be freed 
from the support of the incapacitated and inefficient 
elements. 

In the reorganization of the commissariat and the intro- 
duction of new principles it was also necessary to examine 
the previous policy of considering all social classes alike, 
which had resulted in many strange and curious things. 
Thus, the commissariat had attempted once to insure the 
peasants against sickness and unemployment, and refused to 
insure them against fire, cattle epidemics and the like. This 
resulted, in a number of places, in the organization of funds 
by the peasants themselves in connection with their churches. 

Once it was realized that other sources than the govern- 
ment's must be sought for the relief of dependent persons, 
three methods were open to the commissariat: the creation 
of charitable and philanthropic organizations on the basis 
of voluntary contributions under government supervision; 
voluntary insurance systems under government supervision, 
or obligatory mutual relief for the peasants and compulsory 
social insurance for the workers. The third of these meth- 
ods was adopted. 

It was embodied in the now famous decree issued by the 
Council of People's Commissars on May 14, 192 1. This 
decree ordered the organization of public committees for 
mutual relief in connection with every village and county 
soviet. Among the duties of these committees are the organ- 
ization and distribution of mutual relief in case of bad crops, 



88 



THE SURVEY 



October 15, 1922 



floods, fires, robberies, epidemics and all other natural and 
social catastrophes which may befall an individual, a village, 
or several communities. They are to accomplish this by 
means of an internal tax and through the distribution of 
goods given them by the government for that purpose. 
They are also to organize assistance in the form of labor, to 
see to the needs of the orphans, widows and the sick in the 
village as well as to take care of the needs of families of 
soldiers in the Red army. The committees are to cooperate 
with all the government social welfare agencies and protect 
the property and household rights of those taken care of. 

In order to create a fund for this form of relief, the decree 
declared that all articles confiscated in the due process 
of law, as well as all other property without a claimant, 
should go to this fund. In addition, the Food Commissariat 
was directed to work out in conjunction with the Commis- 
sariat for Social Welfare measures for setting aside a certain 
percentage of all the food collected for this fund. The 
committees thus keep account of those who are in need, de- 
termine upon the necessary amounts and means of help and 
have charge of the distribution. 

The instructions issued by the Commissariat for Social 
Welfare in regard to the work of the committees urge that 
the committees endeavor to keep themselves nearer to the 
masses, to include all the elements of the village population 
and not confine assistance to the poorer peasants to call fre- 
quent meetings and to have the people themselves decide 
most of the questions. They are urged to devote special 
attention to the needs of families of Red soldiers, to en- 
deavor to secure mostly products for their funds rather than 
money, and to make the work as simple as possible. 

The village committees for mutual relief are given the 
right (1) to levy voluntary, or compulsory, contributions 
upon all citizens in the village; (2) to make collections, 
and to deduct a certain percentage of all the produce ex- 
changed; (3) to distribute the food stuffs and other articles 
assigned by the government; (4) to organize mutual labor 
help and to establish, with the approval of the commissariat, 
such institutions and welfare agencies in their midst as 
they may deem necessary. The contributions imposed 
are to be not large and burdensome but such as can 
be made without difficulty. It is urged, furthermore, 
not to impose such contributions in the village until 
they are necessary for the purpose of relief. Thus, when 
fire has destroyed the house of a poor peasant, or his only 
horse has died, the committee can call a meeting and de- 
termine the amount of contributions to be assessed. Persons 
who cannot afford to make contributions may be exempted. 
All persons receiving aid from the committee may be called 
by the latter to give other public aid in order to help the poor 
citizens. Labor help consists in the ploughing and harvest- 
ing of fields in the case of a poor peasant who has no horse, 
or is ill, is absent from home, or in any other cases of need. 
The methods of rendering labor help may take such forms 
as " Sundaying," or paying for the work done. The com- 
mittee also sees that all the social welfare regulations in the 
village are fully carried out and guards against the exploita- 
tion of children, and especially of orphans. 

The mutual relief committees play a significant role in 
the famine-stricken region where it is so essential to have 
the cooperation of the local community and to see that the 
relief brought in from the outside is properly distributed. 
The department feels that the new experiment has proved 
very successful so far, and that the peasants, once the prin- 
ciple of mutual relief is clearly explained to them, accept it 
gladly. Ultimately, it is hoped to establish the entire work 
upon the mutual insurance principle. 

In considering the new methods and measures to be 
adopted for relieving the manifold needs of those who work 
for hire, the department had the benefit of the rich experi- 
ence of European countries with social insurance, as well 



as its own experience with workers' relief during the four 
years since the revolution. The problem in the case of the 
wage-workers is obviously different from that of the peasants, 
and the method of approach must necessarily differ. Ex- 
perience has also shown that such measures are most sound 
and effective, as the masses of the workers themselves take 
the initiative and are given a larger interest and participation 
in the work. For even during the revolution the sick-bene- 
fit organizations in Russia, which were managed by the 
workers themselves, were far closer to the latter than was 
the Commissariat for Social Welfare. In the reorganization 
of the work it was therefore essential to secure the coopera- 
tion of the working masses themselves. This was already 
suggested in the decree of May 14, 1921, which urged 
the attraction into this work of the labor protection com- 
mittees in the different shops and factories, made up of work- 
ers, which have existed ever since the revolution. 

Analogous in importance, therefore, to this decree, which 
created the village public committees for mutual help to 
take care of the needs of the peasants, is the decree of Novem- 
ber 15, 1 92 1, issued by the Council of People's Commis- 
sars, which established social insurance for those who work 
for others. This decree established in principle all the 
fundamental demands of the workers' social insurance pro- 
grams in Europe; namely, the putting of all cost of insurance 
upon the employers without contributions from the workers, 
the extension of the social insurance principle to all cases of 
need and incapacity, the maintenance of the normal standard 
of life during temporary incapacity and unemployment as 
well as an average standard during permanent disability. 
Under this decree social insurance is made obligatory for all 
persons who labor for hire whether in government, public, 
cooperative, leased or private undertakings, in all cases of 
tempofary and permanent incapacity, con finement, unem- 
ployment as well as in the case of death of the head of the 
family. 

FOR the first few months only more important phases, 
such as insurance against invalidity, unemployment and 
death, were emphasized. The amount of contributions de- 
pends upon the number of workers and the hazardous char- 
acter of the particular industry. All establishments and voca- 
tions are divided into eight classes according to their risk, 
lawyers having been placed in the first group and railroad 
workers in the eighth. All contributions are made by the 
employer whether the latter is an individual, cooperative or 
the government. Deductions from wages are not permitted. 
Rates of contributions are determined by the Department 
of Social Welfare with the approval of the Central Asso- 
ciations of the Trade Unions. 

The Commissariat for Social Welfare is in charge of the 
collection and distribution of these funds, and issues all the 
regulations. The committees for labor protection and social 
welfare, which are made up of the workers' representatives 
in every shop and factory, are required to check up the books 
of the establishments under obligation to insure. They are 
to see that the payments are made, that assistance is ren- 
dered in time and that no deceptions are performed. It is 
through these committees that it is hoped to keep the in- 
surance movement in direct touch with the masses. 

The movement is as yet on its first lap, and it is difficult 
to make predictions about Russian policies. On the whole, 
the workers are satisfied with the scheme, for as long as 
they are not required to make contributions, there are ob- 
viously more chances of receiving some relief now than 
was possible from a government which with the best inten- 
tions had nothing to give. Employers, of course, complain 
that the contributions are too heavy and burdensome. " It 
is impossible to revive the broken-down industrial life of the 
country with such burdens," they contend. A few small 
employers have been obliged to shut down their undertakings. 



COMMUNITIES 



Financial Federations— I. Fundamentals 



TEN years ago two American cities, Denver and 
Elmira, New York, maintained financial federa- 
tions of social agencies. The next year Cleve- 
land joined the other two. South Bend, Day- 
ton and Erie, Pa., immediately followed and by June, 1922, 
the American Association for Community Organization had 
listed over one hundred communi- 
ties already using a federation pro- 
gram, fifty others getting ready to 
start one in the near future and 
an uncounted number inquiring 
about it. 

This modern movement to- 
wards federation was a natural 
sequel to the large increase of 
philanthropic and social service 
agencies in the late nineties and 
'the early years of the twen- 
tieth century. Coming rap- 
idly one after another, these 
organizations generated an in- 
creasingly intense competition 

for maintenance in a very limited circle of supporters. The 
logical results were a growing difficulty in securing adequate 
backing for the expanding work of the organizations; ex- 
cessive cost in securing any backing; and restiveness, con- 
fusion and annoyance on the part of the donors, pressure 
from these dissatisfied donors has played no small part in 
the development of the movement towards financial 
federations. 

The progressive Chamber of Commerce of Cleveland be- 
gan to search for a remedy for these troubles as early at 
1906. Martin A. Marks, a manufacturer and philan- 
thropist, was the chairman of the committee in charge of 
the inquiry. He had before him the experiences of Liver- 
pool, England; Denver; Elmira and the Jewish federation! 
in this country. Partly, no doubt, because he was himself 
a Jew closely affiliated with the charities of his people and 
partly because the Jewish federations were the only ones 
which had shown adequate success up to that time, Mr. 
Marks' committee finally evolved 
a plan of federation that more 



FIVE FUNDAMENTALS 

1. Immunity from solicitation 

2. Centralized continuous educa- 
tional publicity 

3. Budgetary control 

4. The joint campaign 

5. Cooperation and coordination 



nearly resembled the Jewish fed- 
erations than anything else. It 
was put into effect in Cleveland in 

1913. 

In the first year or two, this 
federation raised from $300,000 
to $400,000 and the constituent 
agencies were compelled to raise 
approximately the same amount 
for themselves. The accelerating 
power of centralized finance is 
illustrated by comparing this with 
the results of the 1921 campaign 
in Cleveland in which more than 
$3,000,000 was raised, practically 
all of it by the federated group. 

The federated plan, as re- 
born in Cleveland, was copied 
widely and the movement has 
since spread rapidly. Its dom- 
inant idea, from the earli- 
est experiments in Liverpool 



To Follow 

THIS is the first of a series of five 
articles in which the secretary of the 
Detroit Community Fund sums up the re- 
sults of ten years' experimentation in the 
practice of federated finance. In the sue- 1 
ceeding numbers of the Midmonthly, 
Mr. Norton will answer outstanding ques- 
tions about federations under four headings: 
Organization Problems 
Standards for Admission 
National Agencies 
Capital Funds 
Readers of the Survey will recall a general 
exposition of the federation movement by 
Sherman C. Kingsley (Jan. 15, 1921), and a 
series of critical studies of the plan by 
Edward T. Devine, contributing editor of 
the Survey (May 14, May 28, June 18, 
July 16, 1921; Jan. 21, Feb. 4, 1922). 



and Denver to the present, is centralized collection and dis- 
tribution of popular current expense funds. Since the 
Cleveland renaissance five major principles have been writ- 
ten into the plan, which taken together account for the 
success it has today. 

Cleveland contributed two of these: the immunity rule 
in soliciting and centralized con- 
tinuous educational publicity. The 
immunity rule is a guarantee to 
givers that if they give through 
the federation, they will not be 
solicited by any of the constituent 
agencies of the federation for cur- 
rent expenses during the period of 
the gift. This rule has been bit- 
terly attacked by opponents of the 
federated plan but it remains as a 
strong vertebra in the backbone of 
the movement. It has sometimes 
been interpreted to mean that 
givers will not be requested 
to give more than once during 
the year under any circumstances. As a matter of fact 
in the well-conducted federation it will work this way 
most of the time. Occasionally, however, some true emer- 
gency will arise in which the federation itself may ask its 
givers for additional money. The immunity rule is neces- 
sary because it alone corrects one of the great faults of the 
old system, which forced the federation plan into existence; 
namely, continuous and annoying solicitation of con- 
tributions. 

Centralized, continuous, educational publicity, the second 
idea contributed by the early Cleveland organization, was 
developed by Whiting Williams, the first secretary of 
that federation. Mr. Williams had scarcely assumed hi» 
task before he realized what any federation secretary must 
realize, that permanent support, increasing gifts, and in- 
creasing numbers of givers, depend in no small degree upon 
an intelligent educational program that is built on the theory 
of perpetual motion. It should run throughout the year. 

The Cincinnati federation, en- 
tering upon central financing in 
1915, contributed the third and 
fourth major ideas that go to make 
up the present movement: budget- 
ary control and the campaign 
method of raising money. 

Budgetary control means that 
the participating agencies in the 
funds of the federation submit, in 
advance and in complete detail, 
their anticipated expenditures and 
revenues for a year; that they 
agree with the federation what 
these are to be; that their books 
are open for inspection by the 
federation at any time; and that 
they will not exceed the amount 
agreed upon without the consent 
of the federation. 

This federation plank is not 
as arbitrary as it seems. It 
has worked to the advantage 
of the constituent agencies, 

89 



90 



THE SURVEY 



October 15, 1922 1 




GETTING IT INTO FOCUS 

The service of the finanncial federation to the individual contributor is well suggested by this car- 
toon by " Gert" of the Grand Rapids Press for the Welfare Union of that city. Immunity from 
continual solicitation, says Mr. Norton, is the first fundamental of joint financing 

and it is essential to the existence of the federation. As a 
matter of fact, the budgets are usually worked out in a fine 
spirit of cooperation and the decisions are almost always 
reached in a friendly, harmonious manner. Usually also, 
there is the possibility of great flexibility about the budgets, 
because as the year progresses many agencies use less money 
than they anticipated, while a few need to use more; and 
a budget is subject to readjustment within the available 
funds of the federation from month to month. 

Most federations at the start find their agencies carrying 
heavy debts and spending more than they take in. It is 
necessary, therefore, to produce at once more money than 
they previously had. To meet this pressure against them 
for increased funds, practically all federations now use the 
campaign method of raising money. A federation campaign 
is frequently confused with an old-fashioned whirlwind 
campaign. As a matter of fact, the only resemblance be- 
tween the two is that each sets aside a single week or 
ten days for its public effort and each resorts to heavy pub- 
licity at that time. In all other respects there is a wide dif- 
ference. The federation campaign is simply the application 
of modern organized salesmanship, planned and developed 
throughout the year and culminating in a single week. Its 
chief virtue as a method of financing charity is three-fold. 
First, it enables social service to command for a short time 
the effective services of thousands of volunteer salesmen, 
thereby multiplying enormously the number of soliciting 
hours previously devoted to charity. Second, it enables so- 
cial service to organize these soliciting hours economically 
so that tens of thousands of persons are asked to give who 
could not possibly be reached by another method. And 
third, it creates more wide-spread friendly interest in phil- 
anthropy, by far, than any other scheme devised. 

The fifth major principle cooperation and coordination of 
social work, is not peculiar to federation. It has been prac- 
ticed with success by non-financial councils of social agencies 
and by communities which have no specialized coordinating 
agency. Nevertheless, to my mind experience shows fed- 
eration to be the best instrument through which effective 



cooperation may be worked. \ 
Its aim is order-out of chaos, \ 
economy of operation, effi- 
ciency of operation. The 
federation generates cooper- 
ation, through functional 
grouping of agencies, 
through combination of agen- 
cies, through statistical in- 
quiries and by other means. 
Possibly a sixth major 
principle is the idea of de- 
signated gifts. Designation 
of a subscription in favor of 
a specified agency or agencies 
is not as generally applied 
as the five preceding planks 
of federation. Although it is 
granted as a giver's right al- 
most everywhere if the giver 
chooses to exercise that 
right, nevertheless there are 
many places where it is not 
actually practiced. As the 
movement progresses, certain 
forms of designation such as 
the creation of special trust 
funds for special purposes 
will probably develop to pro- 
tect the mass of agencies from 
unpopular movements with- 
in the federation. 
In addition to these principles of federation practice, we 
find the federation world moving on to new ventures in 
united action, such as centralized accounting, emphasized in 
Detroit; centralized purchasing, emphasized in Louisville, 
Cincinnati, Detroit and Cleveland; and the development of 
research machinery as a guide to city planning in social 
work. 

The achievements which federated finance may claim in 
the ten years of its modern renaissance are more adequate 
social service, more efficient social service, more economical 
social service, more and wider financial support for social 
service, more democracy in social service and more friend- 
ship for social service by the people at large. 

Street-car Antagonisms that 
Breed Race Hatred 

LONG journeys to and from their places of employ- 
ment have for many years been a hardship suffered 
by factory workers in Chicago. The report of the Chicago 
Commission on Race Relations (see the Survey Graphic 
for October) shows that conditions recognized as an in- 
convenience but tolerated as so much else in our ill-un- 
designed city development may become a prime cause of a 
great human tragedy. Negroes in that city, congested in a 
comparatively small area which is also harboring the worst 
slums and dens of crime and ill repute, is mainly concen- 
trated upon twelve lines which traverse the Negrc resi- 
dential areas and connect them with the manufacturing dis- 
tricts — many of these in outlying suburbs. On some of 
the most crowded street car lines, as that on State Street, 
Negro passengers often are in a majority. Contacts in 
transportation, the report points out, differ from those in 
school and workshop and on the playground in that they 
are not supervised; that, when the car is crowded, they 
involve physical contact; and that, when the travelers of 
the one race are largely of the office working class while 
those of the other are mainly laborers, complaints of lack 



October 15, 1922 



THE SURVEY 



91 



of cleanliness on the one side or of snobbishness on the other 
may easily lead to argument and dispute. 

So long as public conveyances are not separated into 
class departments which of course would be preposterous, 
occasional friction of this kind is unavoidable; but there 
was no serious trouble on the Chicago trasportation lines 
until the large migration of Negroes from the South in- 
creased these contacts and made them more and more un- 
pleasant. A careful reading of the report suggests that 
if a large proportion of the newcomers had been provided 
with homes within walking distance of their places of em- 
ployment, the other factors making for a growing resent- 
ment against their "intrusion" would not have of them- 
selves produced that acute animosity which actually re- 
sulted. As the map here reproduced shows, the colored 
employes at a typical group of plants live more distant 
from them than the white ones ; the effect obviously is that 
in going to work, if there is any congestion, they will be in 
possession of the seats while the white employes, many of 
them women, have to stand up. Negro laborers recently 
arrived from the cotton fields of the South, the report hints, 
are not always acquainted with the customary courtesies in 
the transit of our northern cities. 

The commission recommends certain improvements in the 
handling of street car traffic, some of which seem already 
to have been introduced ; but it is obvious that a more far- 
reaching remedy is needed if the mutual exasperation be- 
tween whites and Negroes owing to their sharing of the 
public means of transit is to be done away with. The main 



findings of the commission on the subject of housing have 
already been given. It expressly warns against any at- 
tempt to solve the problem by segregation or by threats, and 
propaganda to prevent Negroes from living in certain areas 
that would have the same effect- After the rush to the 
cities under the war-time influence of high wages, we have 
come to a period of slower industrial growth — a period par- 
ticularly advantageous for reducing congestion by the only 
permanently successful method: the building of homes of a 
character and in neighborhoods to suit the purse and con- 
venience of their prospective occupiers. 

What About the Small Town? 

AS the civic and social life of the nation becomes more 
and more identified with the experience and develop- 
ment of our cities of 100,000 population or more, the de- 
velopment — even the very existence — of the smaller com- 
munities recedes from the national consciousness. It seems to 
be assumed that until a town reaches the 100,000 mark it 
has, to all intents and purposes, no civic or social life worth 
considering. 

The inadequacy of this view is evident when we consider 
the rapid growth of American communities and the constant 
interchange of population between city and town, town and 
country, countryside and metropolis. A town of 25,000 today 
may be a city of 50-, even 100,000 tomorrow (witness Akron, 
Ohio); the small trader of Oshkosh, Wisconsin, may, 
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ONE CLUE TO CHICAGO'8 RACE RIOTS 

Taking the Negro and white employes of one plant— the Argo plant of the Corn Products Refining Company— as typical 
of general conditions, this chart shows some of the causes underlying race riots in Chicago. The Negroes live huddled 
together in unsavory slums (the black dots show the homes of Negro employes, 504 in Chicago and 19 outside; the open 
circles the homes of white employes, 588 in Chicago and 1329 outside). The Negroes travel long distances to work on cars 
crowded by whites (the longest ride for white employes is 32 minutes; for Negro employes 67 minutes, with two transfers) 



92 



THE SURVEY 



October 15, 1922 



inside a few years; the prosperous broker, wearied by the 
strain of New York life, may become a citizen of Norfolk, 
Connecticut, within the space of a few months. Each transi- 
tion from rural to urban conditions, and vice versa, carries 
with it a transplanting of civic and social ideals and — as 
the smaller communities are by far the most numerous and 
the general trend is from the smaller to the larger unit of 
population — it is clear that what affects the life of the vil- 
lage and the small town does actually have an influence upon 
the development of the urban center. 

In discussing the small community of, say, from 25,000 to 
50,000, it is important to recognize first of all that we are 
dealing with a community in transition — perhaps in the 
most violent stage of the transition from individual to co- 
operative effort. Until a place attains about 25,000 the 
phase of individual effort is still paramount. It is still pos- 
sible to act with more or less disregard of community con- 
sciousness; the "potential" of business and public life is low, 
and obstructive or belligerent tactics, while they may irri- 
tate and provoke hostility, do not seriously interfere with 
the community machinery. To a certain extent the individ- 
ualist may have his way. But let the size be increased to 
double or treble this figure and the resistance of even a 
single citizen to the clearly expressed wishes of the majority 
causes an acute dislocation of function that soon results in 
positive harm. 

THIS may explain why the small town is par excellence 
the home of the eccentric or self-willed citizen; there is 
not enough cumulative indignation aroused by his refusal to 
pay taxes, to obey ordinances or to cede rights of way to force 
the issue. When such a stand affects the comfort or the 
legitimate desires of a closely packed neighborhood the as- 
sertion of the community will does not tarry long. 

In this scene of sharp change in modes of public conduct 
and of public thought it is natural that both the advocate of 
change and the constitutional " stand-patter " should strug- 
gle for social and political control. It is small wonder that 
small town " fights " are as a rule more bitterly conducted 
than conflicts of opinion in large cities. There is more at 
stake, both for the " pro's " and the " con's " — not only 
the particular issue but the whole underlying philosophy of 
community conduct. A " progressive " victory means, in all 
likelihood, more taxes, more tearing up of ancient land- 
marks, more of the " newer element " through the provision 
of additional jobs. And as a " conservative " town differs 
from a " progressive " one in nothing more than in its at- 
titude toward the expenditure of public funds for public 
improvements, no great amount of imagination is needed to 
picture the nature of the typical small town battle for ex- 
pansion. 

Public administration in the smaller community suffers, 
first, from the persistence of the national party spirit, 
sedulously cultivated by the state organizations; second, 
from the personal relationships and antipathies which are in- 
evitable where a comparatively small number of people 
have for a long time lived in close business and social con- 
tact. Public causes are much more apt to fail from reasons 
connected with one or the other of these factors than be- 
cause of any intrinsic unpopularity. 

As for the efficiency of the public service, the inability to 
define strictly local issues, or at least to dissociate them from 
national, state, or personal factors, acts as a hindrance. Yet 
in this connection our small cities and towns have improved 
greatly within recent years, owing to their emulation of 
larger cities that have been forced to " clean house," install 
municipal research agencies, adopt commission or city man- 
ager forms of government, etc. It is still hard to im- 
press the small town official with the desirability of im- 
proved administrative methods, when the laxity with which 
the average small town business man conducts his affairs is 



considered; yet this is being done to a considerable extent. 

For many years the small community was the happy hunt- 
ing ground of the most unprincipled forces in the amuse- 
ment and recreational field. That this is less true today is 
due, first, to the general raising of standards throughout the 
nation at large; the greater single influence, however, has 
been the advent of prohibition. One unfamiliar with small- 
town amusements a decade ago cannot conceive of the former 
complete interdependence in these communities of the liquor 
and recreation interests. Emancipated to a large extent 
from this bondage, the cleaner instincts have taken heart and, 
except for occasional lapses, there is now little to choose 
between the offerings in small towns and those in our cities. 
(It need not be added that there is immense opportunity for 
improvement in both jurisdictions.) 

What shall be said of the underlying civic and social 
" complex " of small communities, about which so much 
good ink has recently been spilled? Are there any essential 
differences, psychologically, between large and small groups 
of population? If such differences do exist and are preju- 
dicial to the best development of American community life, 
how are they to be counteracted? 

On the basis of a common inheritance and a common ex- 
perience of the problems of race assimilation it must be ad- 
mitted that, individually considered, the citizenship of a small 
community is not essentially different from that of a metrop- 
olis. The same kinds of people live in both types of places 
and they are occupied in much the same way. There are vastly 
greater ranges between the extremes of ability, wealth and 
cultural opportunity, of course, where population has had 
time to accumulate ; but the inherent characteristics of indi- 
viduals remain much the same. In other words, whatever 
differences there are proceed from altered conditions of en- 
vironment. And as conditions of environment cannot easily 
be changed, the problem of the small community seems to re- 
solve itself into the establishment in its consciousness of those 
elements which make for enlightenment and the displace- 
ment of any elements which, transplanted to a more discrim- 
inating soil appear to ally themselves with anti-social forces. 

It would be comparatively easy to compile from current 
American literature a catalogue of the civic and social short- 
comings of small towns. So many of these alleged defects, 
however, are simply human failings — which happen to be- 
come more noticeable because unrelieved by the urban back- 
ground — that a much more restricted list will suffice here. 
From a civic and social standpoint, the more evident failings 
seem to be inertia, superficiality, a low civic and social " po- 
tential," over-emphasis of the personal element and a gen- 
eral tendency to consume civic and social energies in unco- 
ordinated effort. Many communities of urban proportions 
could be accused of similar faults: the question is largely 
one of " degree of guilt." 

TO combat the sins of inertia and low "potential," in- 
sistent, stimulating leadership is needed; the average 
American community responds eagerly to such leadership — 
indeed, is so eager for it that there is constant danger of its 
being "oversold" in this respect. Superficiality demands only 
that reliable information be available to those of the citizen- 
ship who know how to make use of it ; the library, chamber 
of commerce, women's clubs and the church clubs can supply 
this deficiency. Personality in small-town affairs is potent 
and can be modified only by persistent emphasis upon com- 
munity rather than personal factors. Organization of the 
civic and social forces is the obvious remedy for the cus- 
tomary scattering of social energy and the small-group habit. 
By taking some such steps as outlined it is clear that 
the small town as a civic and social problem soon disap- 
pears. Here is a field which awaits only the proper expendi- 
ture of labor to produce a hundred fold. For, when all is 
said, the obstacles to the acquisition of an enlightened com- 



October 15, 1 922 



THE SURVEY 



93 



munity consciousness by our clean, healthy and for the most 
part attractive smaller towns are as nothing to those that 
have been overcome in our great urban centers. In the in- 
terest of a more responsive, more homogeneous national cul- 
ture, an increased activity in small-community self-emanci- 
pation is desirable. T. L. Hinckley 

Community Singing in Denmark 

COMMUNITY singing is a national habit in Denmark. 
At every meeting or conference, from that of the lead- 
ers of the nation down to that of a group of farmers, songs 
are sung. I have yet, however, to see a single leader go 
through the stunts which seem necessary when Americans 
sing. In fact, they do not even beat time. Nor are they 
compelled to wait for the arrival of a pianist or to drag a 
piano out to their open-air meetings. That problem is solved 
by not using a piano. The one essential seems to be song 
pamphlets or, more often, books with the words of as many 
as six hundred songs. The lecturer or reader or chairman 
of the occasion selects a song and begins to sing, and inside 
of three notes has the united backing of every voice present. 
Sometimes the chairman asks a friend in the hall to " lead 
forth." I presume it is because he has learned that he can- 
not be sure of the pitch and so turns to some one more de- 
pendable. Very often the speaker or leader, after picking 
out a song appropriate to his subject, will announce that 
number and merely say to the audience: "Will you begin 
it? " Some one starts the song and every one sings. 

The singing has a great spiritual value which has not es- 
caped the notice of the many Danish lecturers. It draws 
the people together and unites them with the lecturer so that 
an intimate contact is set up before he begins to speak. 

It is remarkable how song is used on every occasion in 
Denmark. A group of sturdy young fellows in their com- 
munity gymnastic class will always begin the hour by march- 
ing around the gym singing to a stirring tune something 
about the duty of keeping fit and strong and healthy. They 
fall into step and conclude the class with another song. The 
other day I attended the yearly conference of representatives 
from all the different phases of the consumers' and pro- 
ducers' cooperative organizations of Denmark. A special 
pamphlet of songs had been printed for the meetings. Most 
of the men were famous gray-haired veterans of many bit- 
ter economical battles. This business community, repre- 
senting millions in capital, which now has its own great 
head bank in Copenhagen, had much to discuss but never 
lost the opportunity for a song. The beauty, power and 
unity of their singing were not disturbed by leader or piano. 
It was pure community singing. The spirit of the confer- 
ence was expressed in their folk songs. 

I was the guest at a meeting in a cross-roads community 
house in southern Jutland where they were celebrating the 
day when they voted to return to Denmark after half a cen- 
tury of oppression under German rule. (Germany took 
southern Jutland from Denmark in 1864. Under the treaty 
of Versailles the people in these provinces were able to vote 
themselves back to Denmark through a plebiscite held in 
1919.) Many short speeches were made recalling the hope- 
less years under the German rule or the joy when they 
marched to the polls to vote for their return to the mother 
country. Each speaker picked out a song or two, and 
through song they expressed their feeling. Most typical 
was the tale of a fine old man whose son was forced to fight 
for the Germans against those who were struggling to give 
his people freedom, and who was killed. He had not the 
comfort that our gold-star parents have that his son died 
for a great cause. But he had old, comforting folk song to 
fall back upon. The fine folk philosophy of that song as it 
was rendered in unison expressed the feeling of the people 



better than anything that could have been said. We sang 
over twenty songs. This is typical of the extent to which 
community singing is used at the many gatherings held in 
the hundreds of community houses in Denmark. 

The Danes, so they say themselves, are not a strongly 
musical people. There was very little singing during the 
most of the Nineteenth Century. The high development 
of community singing, especially in rural Denmark, is there- 
fore all the more remarkable. Community singing has been 
systematically and deliberately developed. The song 
pamphlet most commonly used is a book of seven hundred 
and sixty-six pages, and a size that can easily be slipped into 
the pocket. It contains the words of six hundred and sev- 
enty-one songs. At the end of each is the name of the poet 
who has written it. At the beginning are either the words 
" original melody " and the name of the composer or the 
first line of the melody which is used. The songs may be 
grouped as follows: 

Morning songs 43 

Hymns and spiritual songs 118 

Home and school 25 

Customs of the People and Vernacular 26 

Bible-history 48 

Historical 148 

Denmark and Iceland 35 

Norway 12 

Sweden and Finland 5 

Scandinavia North 15 

Geographical 21 

National folk songs 21 

Evening songs 37 

Miscellaneous 117 

This song book, now in its ninth edition, has repeatedly 
been revised by the association which represents the remark- 
able adult educational movement in Denmark. 

Not only is community singing a regular morning event, 
but every lecture and class period is begun with an appro- 
priate song. As Harold Balsler says in Den Danske Folke- 
hoejskole: 

There is a natural connection between the education of the people 
and singing, which from the first has been bound up with it, answer- 
ing to the connection that always exists between the spiritual 
awakening of a people and its poetry. When a people awakes from 
slumber, it shows its new life in poetry — in the same way that the 
song of the birds goes up every time the sun again brings the spring 
and looses the powers of the frozen earth. 

THIS binding together of song and poetry is probably the 
secret of the great development of community singing in 
Denmark. When the movement began in the middle of the 
last century, the purpose seems to have been to interpret and 
express in poetry the work and struggle of human life, the 
joys and the sorrows, the ideals and longings and the noble- 
ness inherent in man. The great mass of people were given 
the chance to express through simple and often beautiful folk 
tunes their fight for justice and freedom, the beauty and 
spiritual life of the fatherland, the values in which people 
can meet and unite in spite of all that separates men. This 
daring to appeal to the best in people has been splendidly 
justified. Community singing in Denmark reflects the best 
community feeling rather than the vaudeville stage or an 
over-sweet and vitiating sentimentality. 

The present development of community singing in Den- 
mark is toward an enrichment of the music itself. Many of 
the earlier songs were kept alive through the appeal of the 
poetry rather than the music. Practically all of the pres- 
ent Danish composers, however, have contributed songs not 
only of lasting music value, but appropriate for community 
singing. 

Thomas Aagaard, whom I visited, is composing almost 
solely works of this character. He has moved away from 
the great musical center out among the people, and there has 
composed a number of fine rhythmic folk melodies to old 
folk poetry. They are taken up rapidly by the people 



94 



THE SURVEY 



October 15, 1922 



throughout the country. His cantatas, written for various 
community gatherings, and many years of leadership of a 
community orchestra which has admirably performed the 
greatest symphonies, belong to another phase of community 
music. 

In the folk colleges there are* usually experts who train 
those who are interested to sing the newer songs or revive 
or correct the singing of the old. There is, of course, also 
part singing which is characteristic of singing associations 
everywhere. Besides training in the part songs for those 
especially interested there are classes in community songs for 
all attending the college. This training of hundreds of 
youths every year keeps the spirit of community singing 
alive and growing toward the thought of the Danish poet : 

Outpouring, all the folk on earth 
In full, free tones together 

S. A. Mathiasen, 



Townkeeping 



FROM conferences extending over the last two years a 
permanent Building Congress has resulted in Phila- 
delphia, representative of all the various groups that compose 
the building industry in that city. The object of the organ- 
ization is 

to enable the building and construction industry to promote the 
general welfare by discovering, through scientific surveys, the needs 
of the public and of the industry; by finding and recommending 
ways and means of satisfying those needs ; by defining group func- 
tions and harmonizing group activities through the formulation of 
codes of ethics and of practice for the industry, and by other means 
agreeable to and in the interest of the public and the industry and 
conformable to law. 

Among the committees so far appointed to promote these 
ends are: one on vocational guidance and apprenticeship 
which will cooperate with city and state and with various 
private institutions in affording the fullest opportunities of 
trade training for young men in the building crafts; one on 
seasonal unemployment and one on coordinating new con- 
struction with maintenance work. The last named is for the 
purpose of carrying out, on the basis of a survey, the pro- 
posal often made that a great part of the necessary repairs 
to the buildings of a city can and should be so timed as to 
afford employment at times when the demand for new con- 
struction work is slack. Owing to the persistent adherence 
to a high ideal by D. Knickerbacker Boyd, who was elected 
president of the conference, the building industry of Phila- 
delphia thus is setting up a shining example of socialized 
practice for other American communities. 

FIVE types of community church are described by David 
R. Piper in a handbook of the community church move- 
ment in the United States recently published by the Com- 
munity Churchman Company, Excelsior Springs, Mo. He 
is trying to answer by reference to community churches actu- 
ally in being the question: What is a community church? 
Altogether he finds 831 institutions in the United States that 
answer his broad definition. Massachusetts has 90 of them, 
Pennsylvania only 10; Illinois 43 and Ohio 59, but the neigh- 
boring Wisconsin only 13. With all their variations, they 
have in common " two fundamental features . . . that 
they substitute the community for the sect as their primary 
basis of organization, and service for dogma as their basis 
of unity or principle of. cohesion." Whether on such a basis 
these churches really help in building up a sense of com- 
munity and strengthen the religious life of the community 
are questions which the compiler does not attempt to answer. 

IN issuing a standard state zoning enabling act under 
which municipalities can adopt zoning regulations, the 
Division of Building and Housing in the United States De- 
partment of Commerce has added another useful item to 



its helpful literature. So large has been the growth of 
zoning regulations in recent years that many citizens have 
exceeded the powers granted them under any existing state 
legislation and that they face the setting aside of their ordi- 
nances by court decisions. Hence the need for enabling 
legislation has become an urgent one. 

CONURBATIONS is the latest ugly word coined by 
British sociologists to give definiteness to their termin- 
ology. It denotes those aggregates of towns and cities which, 
for the purposes of planned city development, constitute 
units. A map accompanying an article on this subject by 
C. B. Fawcett, of the University of Leeds, in a recent issue 
of the Sociological Review shows six such aggregates with a 
population of over a million, six more with populations ex- 
ceeding 300,000 and a great many smaller ones. It is not 
generally realized, says Mr. Fawcett, how large a propor- 
tion of our population lives in large cities when by this we 
mean actual rather than administrative urban areas. He 
finds that no less than sixteen out of Britain's forty-three 
million people are concentrated in seven large conurbations. 




WHERE SMOKE CLOUDS MEET 

Six great urbanized areas, or conurbations, are shown on this map. 
London is one of the simplest, because Greater London is already 
a recognized entity. Others are Manchester, Birmingham, West 
Yorkshire (including Leeds and Bradford), Glasgow, Liverpool and 
Tyneside (focussing in Newcastle). In this country the Russell 
Sage Foundation is working on a plan for what u now, or will be, 
the New York conurbation. It has a radius of fifty miles 




How the Employer Can Safeguard a Man's Job 



WHAT can employers do practically to minimize 
unemployment, first at the plant, second in the 
district and third in the industry? 
In brief, this question involves the recogni- 
tion that without a surplus of labor, industry would be 
stalemated and expansion and enterprise checked. If every- 
body were steadily employed everywhere it would be of lit- 
tle use to plan for progress. For this would call for more 
labor immediately and to obtain it would involve the stop- 
page or reduction of existing and serviceable industry some- 
where else. 

Hence, the first thing to note and 
reckon with is that each industry 
needs a surplus of labor. Capi- 
talism is well aware of this and it 
should face the consequences. 

The second is that the surplus, 
for the social good, should be kept 
as small as possible. 

The third is that the necessary 
surplus of labor in any industry 
should be carried at the expense of 
the industry. 

To accomplish these ends fully 
the management of industry and 
business must take the following 
steps : 

It must ascertain the nature and 
measure the extent of the cyclical 
and seasonal fluctuations in the de- 
mand for its products that influence 
the normal surplus labor supply. 

It must make a better selection 
and adaptation to its needs of the 
labor which offers itself, through 
employment policies and tests and training. These should 
utilize all that applied science now offers. Such steps are 
calculated to reduce the payroll to a number who can 
reasonably expect a steady job with occasional extension at 
a pinch. 

It must concern itself as to how on a reasonable economic 
basis the plant, the district and the industry can carry its 
necessary but occasionally idle people. This involves secur- 
ing and establishing private or commercial insurance schemes 
and studying a wealth of facts and figures about what now 
goes on in avoidable labor turn-over and in extravagant, 
unnecessary seasonal hiring and firing. 

The fact is that the state and the nation cannot get a 
grip of any kind on the unemployment problem until the 
capitalist has first discharged his obligation and responsi- 
bilities in the premises. When that is done the residual 
problem for federal or state action will not be a serious 
one in a rapidly expanding civilization like ours. 

The " steady job " which we have shown to be the pri- 
mary endeavor of the workman — first in his thought and 
in his esteem — is too little in the mind of management. 
Though there are honorable exceptions of long standing, 
the closing down by fiat, not only of plants, but of entire 
villages and towns wholly dependent upon such plants, has 
been the cause of much bitterness amongst labor, and 
justly so. 

"Economic determinism" is no sufficient reply from 
inconsiderate capitalism. Considerate capitalism on the other 
hand will usually find half a loaf when a whole one is not 
available, and the fact of its solicitude and endeavors will 



JOHN CALDER suggests here cer- 
%J tain concrete ways in which the em- 
ployer can safeguard the worker's job. 
His forthcoming book, Capital's Duty 
to the Wage-Earner, from which this is 
an extract, makes use of his experience in 
handling all the labor matters and indus- 
trial relations of Swift and Company, 
with its 5,000 executives and 50,000 
wage earners. The article which follows 
Mr. Colder s is a striking example of the 
sound, experimental approach to the 
problem of unemployment for which he 
pleads. It tells the story of Seattle's 
success — through cooperation between 
men and management — in decasualizing 
the most casual of industries. It was pre- 
pared by the Seattle Waterfront Joint 
Executive Committee (who will gladly 
answer questions) in reply to Longshore 
in the Survey Graphic, February 1922. 



count for much more in industrial relations than the measure 
of relief obtained by them. 

There is a certain sense of easy security natural to employ- 
ers when there is a decided surplus of help. But the best 
possible practice for labor and capital alike to support, is to 
employ the minimum of competent or teachable people at all 
times, to train them thoroughly, to hold on to them at con- 
siderable inconvenience through good and bad times, to ex- 
tend their effort to their profit at an occasional spurt of 
business — without straining them; and to avoid supplement- 
ing them, if possible, by casual la- 
borers. Men habitually employed 
as casuals often become unemploy- 
able. It is far better to have them 
fo'rced by scarcity of casual oppor- 
tunities to qualify somewhere for 
better work, for the existence of a 
surplus of good labor causes a de- 
mand for it, and through the en- 
terprise awakened the number of 
steady jobs is increased. 

But there is also the " unemploy- 
ment within employment " to reckon 
with. While all industries are af- 
fected by the cyclical changes in de- 
mand in our country, a number have 
serious seasonal fluctuations inherent 
in the nature of the industry, and 
affecting the earnings of those who 
continue on the payroll. Here there 
is a chance for management to strive 
for greater versatility on the work- 
er's part, more adaptability to suc- 
cessful transfer and substitution. 
All possible means of a practi- 
cal nature should be used by the mployer to " acrry on " 
with the well-taught people he already has and to deploy 
these strategically when they are no longer needed to 
maneuver in close order. He can only take this course 
when he knows far more about them individually than does 
the average management and its aides today. 

An example of what may be done can be found in the 
packing industry. Ten years ago, in 19 12, Swift & Com- 
pany recognized the great desirability of steady earnings in 
an industry whose supply of raw material constantly fluc- 
tuated. The daily operation of its thirty packing plants 
is notably dependent upon primary conditions not within 
the control of the company, its managers or employes. 

The company then introduced a minimum wage for all 
on the payroll at the beginning of any week, equal to forty 
hours of pay in any normal week, regardless of whether live- 
stock receipts had made it possible to work for that number 
of hours in the week. This has continued ever since and the 
practice was afterwards adopted by its large compet- 
itors. Three advantages were secured thereby: the worker 
knew what he would get regardless of weather, rail- 
road delays or the whim of the farmer, which all affect re- 
ceipts of stock; the employer, because of the heavy penalty 
he had imposed on himself when forty hours' work was not 
possible, was careful to avoid reckless hiring of incompetent 
people and so raised the standard of his help ; and the indus- 
try took steps to influence the distant shippers and the rail- 
roads to regularize their deliveries over the week instead of 
crowding them into two or three days. A study of condi- 
tions in any industry, it is believed, will reveal some features 

95 



96 



THE SURVEY 



October 15, 1922 



What Any Factory Can Do for the 
Unemployed Worker 

A plan calculated to reduce unemployment to a minimum 
and to carry those temporarily laid off without a serious drain 
upon the company's resources and without undermining the 
self-dependence of the employe. This plan provides for no 
contribution from the worker. 

ELIGIBILITY 

All regular workers with the continuous service specified 
who have been laid off on account of reduction of help. 
The qualifying service may be six months, one year, or more 
as decided after the "plan on paper" has been worked long 
enough to provide experience as to cost. 

BENEFITS 

1. 40 per cent of average weekly earnings. 

2. 10 per cent additional for dependent wife. 

3. 5 per cent additional for each child under 16 or at 
school. 

4. 65 per cent of earnings the maximum and not to exceed 
$15.00 per week. 

5. Exceptions: When other members of family are working 
benefit will be difference between total family earnings 
and maximum. When wife is working husband is classed 
as single man. 

DURATION 

One week's benefit is paid for each two months' service 
with a maximum duration of benefit of two months, no benefit 
paid for first week of unemployment. 

DISQUALIFICATIONS 

No worker receives benefit who 

1. Voluntarily leaves the service of the company. 

2. Is discharged for any causes recognized by the Employes' 
Representative Assembly. 

3. Does not keep periodically registered with the company. 

4. Does not use best endeavors to find employment. 

5. Does not accept suitable position when offered in the plant. 

6. Leaves his work on account of a trade dispute which it 
before the Assembly. 



adversely affecting labor and tending towards irregular em- 
ployment which can be minimized, if not removed. When 
this has been done, the employer is in a favorable position to 
consider whether on a contributory or on a non-contributory 
basis he can afford to " carry " for a definitely limited period 
any of his force who in spite of all precautions may be 
temporarily unemployed. In so doing he can experimentally 
establish rules of qualification for benefit which will enable 
him to accumulate experience. 

Some concerns have ventured into unemployment insurance 
of a fashion without experience. They have simply laid 
aside a sum of money for expenditure in any year on unem- 
ployed people, under certain restrictions as to amount and 
duration, and when the fund was exhausted, relief of this 
kind ceased till the next year. But for a practical and perma- 
nent scheme, analysis of experience under defined conditions 
and actuarial calculations based thereon must be undertaken. 
Only thus can safety and stability be insured. 

The best and most permanent results are likely to come 
from procedure like the following: 

1. Attempt at plants and at distribution centers of the product 
to straighten out the supply and demand curves. 

2. Secure high efficiency and lowest numbers of help and of 
supervisors. 

3. Insure the best administration of the hiring, selection, place- 
ment, discharge, suspension of employes and inspection of labor 
turn-over. 

4. Adopt a well-considered unemployment insurance plan in 
"principle" and work it diligently "on paper" for a year, or two 
if necessary, to get data under all conditions of business. Limitation 
of privilege should be calculated to conserve the worker's self-respect 
and the cost of the privilege should be such as to keep the manage- 
ment on its toes to prevent unemployment. 

5. The results of this " plan on paper " worked diligently and 
conscientiously will enable a concern to adopt with confidence some 
permanent plan and to interest the workers in its possibilities. 



Only after capital and management have recognized and 
studied what can and cannot be done by them about unem- 
ployment and have adequately cared for their share of the 
task of preventing it, or of minimizing the distress caused by 
it, can we find out with some accuracy how much residual 
unemployment there is, why it is and what government can 
do in the premises. 

American unemployment benefit plans will avoid the ad- 
mittedly demoralizing features of the English " dole " sys- 
tem with its three contributories — employer, employe and 
government, if they concentrate upon the individual concern 
meanwhile, rather than upon the industry, the state or nation, 
and organize on a basis which puts a premium upon sound 
labor practices and high operating efficiency. 

It is true that here official unionism will again withhold its 
blessing and claim that complete detachment of employe and 
employer is the end to be sought, but we believe that in all 
industrial relations the way will be found through free exper- 
imentation of capital and labor undominated by doctrinaires 
on either side. 

It is better to proceed cautiously and to find what is best 
from practice. The only way to begin is to begin. We need 
experience. We have plenty of theory and despite assertions 
to the contrary, America is not ready for legislation on this 
subject. Where the industrial relations and administration 
are of the best the concern may well elect to carry itself the 
irreducible minimum of surplus labor necessary to 
its operations. John Calder. 



Decasualizing the "Beach" at 
Seattle 

LONGS HORING is perhaps the most casual of indus- 
tries. In addition to the general unemployment from 
which industries suffer during depression, and the seasonal 
unemployment of shipping, longshoring suffers from extreme 
fluctuation of employment, daily and hourly, which places it 
in a class by itself. The waterfront is often thought of as 
the last resort of the "down-and-outer." 

" Casual work makes casual workers " — the adage seems 
to apply particularly to waterfront work. Experience has 
taught longshoremen and waterfront employers to believe 
there is no way of avoiding an extreme fluctuation in labor 
demand ; the public takes it for granted there is none. The 
Seattle waterfront employers and employes are endeavoring 
to demonstrate that there is. Seven hundred and fifty long- 
shoremen, including truckers (or dockers, as they are known 
elsewhere) and twenty-seven steamship, stevedore and dock 
companies in Seattle have cooperated to prove that this 
fluctuation can be overcome. In an experiment which covers 
a period of fifteen months they have decasualized the 
" beach." 

Seattle, in common with most waterfronts, was flooded 
with workers, many of them " floaters." The work was 
and is extremely irregular. A survey in the fall of 1920 
disclosed the need of two basic policies which have become the 
central points of the employment system: "no unnecessary 
men " and " equalized earnings." 

The first need was to eliminate the surplus men. To 
determine the point at which the principle of " no unneces- 
sary men " should be applied was extremely difficult; it may 
never be done exactly, but it has been done approximately. 
In September 1920, 1,420 longshoremen were registered as 
eligible workers; by August 1921 this number was reduced 
to 612. The machinery for this reduction was developed 
out of a Joint Organization Plan based on the recom- 
mendations of President Wilson's Second Industrial Con- 
ference. Briefly, the constitution and rules of this organ- 
ization provide for a joint executive committee of fifteen 



October 15, 1922 



THE 



men elected by secret ballot and fifteen representatives of 
employers, and for three joint standing committees, each 
of four men and four representatives of employers. Of 
these standing committees, the joint employment com- 
mittee is in charge of all matters relating to employment 
and conduct of the dispatching hall; the joint standard 
practice committee handles operative problems and ques- 
tions of hours and wages; and the joint safety committee 
devises methods of reducing risk and preventing accidents. 
There is also a central council of the men in an advisory 
capacity. 

The task of decasualization fell to the joint employment 
committee, which, using the existing central registration 
system, adapted the simple device of preventing the return 
of the floater who had drifted away from the waterfront. 
This left available the steady men, mostly men of family. 
The surplus was further 1 educed by eliminations based on 
deliberate examination into every man's qualifications; in- 
cluding length of service on the " beach," family status 
and skill. The men who were retained had a claim on the 
industry and were competent. 

Of the steady body of skilled longshoremen remaining 
after the elimination, two-thirds are married, four-fifths 
are citizens, some 25 per cent own their own homes, a 
majority have telephones and the number who cannot write 
is negligible. The net result is that, contrary to the popular 
impression of longshoremen, the men in this port arc useful 
citizens, skilled workmen and potentially a safeguard to the 
city instead of an economic menace. 

So much for the policy of " no unnecessary men." The 
companion principle is " equalized earnings." It is char- 
acteristic of water front work that a favored few make 
very high wages; the main body of the men earn a moderate 
amount and a considerable group on the fringe must supple- 
ment their meagre earnings to exist. This is an unwhole- 
some condition for any industry; in Seattle it challenged the 
Joint Organization to cooperative effort, which resulted in a 
plan to equalize earnings which came to be called the " Gang 
System " and it has now been in operation about a year. 

Longshoremen, like other men, want a sure job and 
steady earnings. Also a majority of men want equalized 
earnings. There are, of course, some " job-hogs," also some 
men who do not want to work regularly. On the other 
hand, employers need to have available day and night enough 
experienced longshoremen to discharge and load ships with 
dispatch, and the great problem is to provide a labor reserve 
sufficient to meet the extreme fluctuations already noted 
without creating a surplus. 

UNDER the new system, which seems to meet this situa- 
tion more adequately than any other, two kinds of perm- 
anent gangs were formed ; Company Gangs, those selected by 
and working for a single company, getting first call on such 
company's work; and Hall Gangs, those formed by the joint 
employment committee and held in reserve at the central 
dispatching hall available to meet the needs of all com- 
panies. Each company selects as its own as many gangs as 
it can assure reasonably steady work; after that all com- 
panies use the same reserve of gangs to meet their peak needs. 

Orders for work on the many ships and docks on the 
waterfront are placed through a central dispatching hall. 
Before placing such orders, the several stevedore and dock 
companies have collected information, beginning with wire- 
less reports of ships' arrivals, as to stowage plans, kind and 
quantity of cargo, its distribution by hatches, ship's gear, time 
and place of docking and the consequent number of long- 
shoremen needed. Men are ordered and dispatched by 
gangs, made up always of the same men, and on the basis of 
low earnings gang first. 

The system has been in effect long enough to disclose its 
strength and weakness. Demonstrated advantages are these : 



SURVEY 97 

1. Each man has a sure, steady job in his gang, from which 
he is " fired " only for cause. 

2. Earnings of gang men are equalized. 

3- It is easier to arrange for enough men, without surplus, 
by gangs than by individuals. 

4. Responsibility for satisfactory work is better fixed in 
the gang than in the individual. 

5. There is a regular supply of skilled men available for 
work, and obligated to take it as it comes. 

The weaknesses developed are apparently in operation 
rather than inherent in the system. To correct them requires 
further cooperation between men and management, which is 
steadily developing. The outstanding weakness is that some 
gang men abuse their security of job by deliberately slowing 
down and in other ways failing to cooperate. An interest- 
ing and unexpected development is the disciplining of such 
men by the gang, frequently by "canning" them. 

"VV^HILE the gang system is of major importance, it is 
only one of the advantages made possible through the 
Joint Organization Plan. Space does not permit more 
than a mere listing of other interesting achievements: 

1. Men are not required to waste their time awaiting a 
job; the dispatching hall notifies them in advance. 

2. The dispatching hall is becoming the central pay station 
at a saving of time and convenience to the men. 

3. The development of statistical information has based 
decisions on fact and reason instead of opinion and 
emotion. 

4. Employers and employes, through regular and frequent 
contact in committees, develop a mutual respect and 
forbearance. 

5. Pilferage is reduced. 

6. More important than the foregoing — men's earnings 
have increased. 

This particular development of decasualization resulted 
from the elimination of the unnecessary men, the compila- 
tion of figures showing each man's actual earnings and the 
equalization of earnings through the aid of these figures. It 
is unlikely that there is any other port in the world where 
such definite information is obtainable. Most wage dis- 
putes center around the hourly rate; on the Seattle water- 
front that has become of less importance than the monthly 
earnings. 

The comparative results before and since the adoption of 
the Joint Organization Plan are surprising. The average 
monthly earnings records show: 

Longshoremen Truckers 

January, 1921 $ 58.14 $ 39.94 

April, 1921 108.40 74.90 

July, 1921 148.00 119.85 

October, 1921 137.02 115.46 

January, 1922 142.30 87.00 

February, 1922 137.50 88.54 

March, 1922 134.71 91.43 

April, 1922 142.31 

May, 1922 133.11 

June, 1922 141.24 

The latest figures are not yet compiled. In the case of 
the Hall Gangs the average monthly earnings per man from 
May 1 92 1 to date closely approximate $150. 

Good will and understanding, orderly and efficient oper- 
ation, improved conditions of work, a stabilized industry, 
can be traced to the Joint Organization and decasualization. 
The effort is young; it has proceeded far enough to show 
large possibilities for the future. They will depend upon 
the continued effort and intelligent interest of men and 
management. 

— A Statement Prepared and Authorized by 
the Joint Executive Committee of Longshore- 
men and Truckers and Waterfront Employers 



98 



THE SURVEY 



October 15, 1922 



Facts for Workers 



THIS is the title given by the Labor Bureau, Inc., to a 
new monthly review of "business, industry and general 
economic conditions from the point of view of organized 
labor." Here we have another step in putting the work of 
experts, comparable to those employed by employers' asso- 
ciations and individual corporations, at the service of 
organized labor. It is said that some sixty odd labor papers 
subscribed in advance of the first issue — that of October. 

This issue consists of something like forty multigraphed 
pages, perhaps one third of which are statistical, notably a 
tabulation of wage increases during July and August by 
occupation and location. The general approach of the ser- 
vice is set forth in an introductory statement on Strikes and 
Economics, and as an exhibit of the temper and method 
which characterize the new frontage of organized labor, it is 
significant : 

The open shop drive and the wage cutting campaign have now 
received their final defeat. It is safe to say that there will now be 
no further wage reductions on any large scale for some time to 
come, and that there will be no further attempts to stampede em- 
ployers into the open shop. That chapter in the history of American 
Labor is closed. 

The defeat of the great anti-union drive was brought about by a 
combination of economic circumstance and aggressive labor union 
action which was impossible for the employers to withstand. The 
history of the past few years throws the spot light on the interplay 
of industrial conditions and the success or failure of union policy 
and tactics. 

For the past four or five months economic forces entirely beyond 
the control of either capital or labor have increasingly favored labor. 

Along in March and April business began to pick up. With the 
increase in production came a decrease in unemployment. During 
the winter there was a universal labor surplus. Now there is 
actually a labor shortage in many sections and trades. That means 
competition between employers for labor, which means higher 
wages and, in turn, no army of the unemployed with which to 
break a strike. Along with increasing production and general 
recovery in business has also come an increasing necessity to keep 
the wheels of industry moving. 

The mere blind play of economic circumstance had, last Spring, 
perceptibly showed up the anti-union drive. But it was the three 
great strikes of the past summer that have dealt the final blow. 
The miners, the textile workers and the railroad shopmen have been 
the shock troops of American Labor. They have turned the battle 
against unionism from a partial victory to a final and complete 
defeat. 

Entirely apart from the gains or losses of individual unions in 
the three big strikes their cumulative effect on the policy of em- 
ployers throughout the country has been incalculable. They have 
emphasized and dramatized the strengthened position of labor as 
a mile of statistics could never do. They have retarded the return 
to business prosperity sufficiently to intensify the necessity for max- 
imum production. They have stiffened the morale of organized 
labor in every industry and trade. They have made the desires of 
the workers and the demands of their unions leading factors in 
the business and financial world. 

But even in their success each of the three big strikes has largely 
been determined by economic conditions. The strength of the coal 
miners' resistance was measured by the size of the coal reserve 
supply on April 1st, by the number of unfilled orders in the steol 
mills, by the universal demand for increasing factory production, 
and by delays in the New York subways. It was the bumper 
harvest and fruit crop which started the rail-strike settlements going 
and the large number of unemployed in the great industrial centers 
of the East that has enabled the die-hard roads to hold out as they 
have. The slump in the textile business brought on the textile 
strike. Returning activity in the industry and competition with 
mills operating where wages were not cut is helping the mill 
workers to win. 

The counsel to be offered by the new publication is fur- 
ther indicated by three paragraphs which give the nib of 
three succeeding sections: 

The Future for Labor — Economic conditions are now ripe for 
an aggressive advance by organized labor. For the past two years 
the employing interests have taken every advantage of economic 
conditions both to beat down the workers' standard of living and 
to disrupt their organizations. Now all this is at an end. Those 
very economic forces which the employers used against labor can 
now be used by labor against the employers. The opportunity is 



at hand for labor to regain the ground it lost and to advance to 
new positions on the front of human betterment. 

The Trend of Wages— During the last two months the down- 
ward movement of wages, which set in with the beginning of the 
business depression in early 1921 and which was aided and abetted 
by the anti-union drive of the employing interests, has now definitely 
ceased and an upward movement begun. All recent reports on 
changes in wage scales show that increases are now the order of 
the day. During the past month, in fact, cases of wage cuts have 
almost completely ceased and a rapidly growing number of increases 
have been recorded. 

Employment Conditions— The pendulum of employment has 
swung with astonishing rapidity from surplus to shortage. During 
the severe unemployment of last winter anyone who predicted a 
severe labor shortage this summer would have been laughed at. 
And yet that is precisely what has occurred. It has occurred, more- 
over, in spite of the fact that industry is not yet back to normal 
production after the severe depression of last year. Many trades 
have not yet reached the 1913 level of activity and yet, even in 
these lines, jobs are hunting men. 

In Swiss Factories 

AN interesting application to peace-time problems of ex- 
perience gained during the war is the industrial wel- 
fare work of Volksdienst, a national organization in Swit- 
zerland, originally started in 191 4 to provide canteen serv- 
ice and recreation for the large army established in that 
year to guard the frontiers of the republic. With a maxi- 
mum of nearly two hundred " soldiers' rooms " in 191 7, the 
society had not only schooled a trained personnel but had 
learned how to provide most economically for the needs 
of large numbers of men. In connection with this activity, 
the necessity of meeting the domestic and individual dif- 
ficulties of soldiers brought with it a further extension of 
the work into the field of family welfare, which again 
widened the experience of the workers. 

When the need for such work decreased — even before 
demobilization — the growing food difficulties of the coun- 
try, which affected more especially the industrial workers 
in the cities, induced the society gradually to shift its ac- 
tivity from the military to the industrial field. Inquiries 
from many employers had shown that they would welcome 
not only advice how best to meet the food needs of their 
employes but that they would be willing to let the society 
introduce its own methods and its own personnel into their 
plants. 

As a result, a new department for the promotion of in- 
dustrial welfare, starting with the establishment of factory 
kitchens and eating rooms and gradually branching out into 
other forms of service, was created in 191 7. The method 
and spirit of this work are similar to those of the indus- 
trial department of the Y. M. C. A. in America, but with 
this difference, that from the beginning an effort has been 
made to place it upon an entirely neutral basis, though paid 
for by the employer. The suspicion of trade unions has 
not, of course, entirely been laid; but it is recognized by 
some of the labor leaders that the presence of social work- 
ers, primarily responsible to their own organization, in many 
cases leads to a more rapid and complete consideration of 
complaints than is possible where there are no interme- 
diaries between employes and management. 

A study trip to the United States, last year, financed by 
the national organization, has resulted in a more extensive 
knowledge of technical methods, though several of those 
who participated in the trip have expressed the opinion 
that in the care for the safety of the workers, and in other 
respects, Swiss employers have little to learn here. An- 
other journey was planned to England for this summer to 
study methods of workers' participation in management. 
An architects' bureau, established two years ago, is work- 
ing on plans for welfare buildings and advises individual 
employers, but has not as yet issued any general report. At 
present, Volksdienst maintains an organization in forty 



October 15, 1922 



THE SURVEY 



99 



plants with some one hundred and thirty or one hundred 
and forty paid workers. Some of the larger establishments, 
of course, have had services of their own for many years; 
but most of them — including some that have worked out 
their welfare services to a very high standard — cooperate 
gladly and are represented in the directorate. 

The welfare service under the auspices of the society in 
each plant is, by contract, freed from any interference on 
the part of the employer, who has the right to cancel the 
agreement at half-yearly periods. So far, owing to the 
demand for experienced workers, the best of those who 
took part in the war work, mostly women, have been in- 
stalled without extensive training in the special problems 
of industrial work; but by frequent conferences, visits of 
consultation and the issue of weekly bulletins their ef- 
ficiency is so far as possible increased. In a number of 
short courses held for them, plant superintendents and a 
few employers themselves also have taken part. A new 
department for the training and installation of social work- 
ers with juvenile industrial employes commenced operations 
last September. The central office also is maintaining a 
permanent department for the study of domestic budgets, 
and its general secretary, Dr. J. Lorenz, who is an author- 
ity on index figures for retail prices, has been consulted 
by the government and others in connection with wage 
agreements. Wage schedules on a sliding scale by agree- 
ment are so far practically unknown in Switzerland. 

National conferences have been held for the discussion 
of the training of young workers and the provision of old 
age pensions by employers — the organization taking the 
stand that any form of pension which binds the worker to 
his employer is bad in its effects and to be deprecated. 

Since the provision of food is the mainstay of the serv- 
ice rendered, the financing of this is so far simple. The 
employer is held to pay out of the gross receipts of the 
canteens the salaries and other expenses of the workers at- 
tached to his plant and 3 per cent of the annual turnover 
toward the overhead expenses of the national organization. 
But this arrangement, as much else in the method of Volks- 
dienst, is only tentative. Its leading support comes from 
the younger and more progressive employers of the coun- 
try who, it is expected, will soon recognize the need of 
giving a much larger share in the management of the wel- 
fare work to the employes themselves and, as they gain in 
confidence, will permit an extension of the service to more 
fundamental problems of labor management. It is proof 
of the effectiveness of the services rendered that a number of 
plants which for long have carried on welfare activities 
of their own have handed the management of these over 
to the national organization. 



In Brief 



INVESTIGATIONS extending over ten years are sum- 
marized in a bulky report on the Causes and Prevention 
of Accidents in the Iron and Steel Industry by Lucian W. 
Chaney, published by the United States Bureau of Labor 
Statistics. While during this period the general trend has 
been one of steady reduction both in frequency and severity 
of accidents, there are notable fluctuations which correspond 
roughly with periods of industrial depression when the rates 
were low and of activity when they were high. This sug- 
gests that efforts to regularize the output of the industry will 
have the effect of furthering the general decline. 

Of course, other factors make for variation. For instance, 
the compiler considers it probable, though not statistically 
demonstrable, " that the fact that rates did not rise so high 
in the war period as in the preceding interval of industrial 
stress in 1913 was due in part to the restrictions applied to 
the dispensing of alcoholic drinks." Moreover, there have 
been important changes in management and some in the 



racial composition of the workers. A chapter dealing with 
the human factors in causing and preventng accidents draws 
attention to the value of a foreman's bonus for accident reduc- 
tion in the case of minor accidents and to the extraordinary 
effect of a reduced labor turnover. A table comparing the 
accident frequency rates for men employed in a large steel 
plant for different lengths of time shows the amazing decline 
from 37.1 per million hours' exposure for those employed 
six months or less to 14.1 for those employed over three 
years and no accidents for those employed over fifteen years. 
Age and nationality, likewise, have a marked influence. A 
clear comparison of accident frequency in day and night shifts 
does not seem possible because of the many factors that enter 
into consideration. 

AFTER three years since the establishment of training 
courses for industrial medical personnel and others 
engaged in the improvement of health conditions among 
industrial workers, Harvard University believes that the 
greatest demand is for brief courses or groups of courses 
covering some special field in industrial hygiene, supplemented 
by longer programs of study and research leading to higher 
degrees. Since the incorporation of the division of industrial 
hygiene in the School of Public Health, in 1921, it has been 
possible to make considerable progress in that direction, and 
the courses arranged for the present school year show a 
greater variety of studies and combinations of studies than 
were available in the past. Particularly popular is the inten- 
sive course in industrial hygiene, while some of the special 
and accessory courses deal with such various subjects as 
ventilation and illumination, industrial poisons, lead poison- 
ing, vital statistics, industrial psychiatry, legal aspects of 
industrial medical practice, nutrition and industrial 
sanitation. 




HI No Compensation Liwi. 

t?S*fl Compeuilion L»w. hjl no Sttte 

—^ Fund. 

' ' Coooenulion Law. with Sutt Fond. 



workmen's compensation laws 
According to a new edition of Labor Problems and Labor Legislation 
by John B. Andrews, just issued by the American Association for 
Labor Legislation, from which the above map is reproduced, the 
first state compensation law in the United States, that of New 
Jersey, went into permanent effect in 1911. Today forty-three states 
and two territories (Hawaii and Porto Rico) have such laws on 
their statute books, their validity established by Supreme Court 
decisions. The half million employes of the government are pro- 
tected by a model federal act. The most generous laws, those of 
Ohio and New York, award up to two-thirds of wages; about a 
dozen laws cover occupational diseases; some of the acts require 
employers to insure their risk; but in many states both the provisions 
and the administration of compensation laws are as yet hedged in 
with all sorts of limiting conditions 




A Skysc 



T 


o 


Li _ 





Proposed by Hastings H. Hart 

NO metropolitan city of the United States has 
yet succeeded in constructing a satisfactory jail 
for the detention of prisoners awaiting trial. The 
problem came sharply into focus with the Cook 
County Jail Survey, reviewed in the Survey for 
August 15 and September 15, 1922, but it must be 
faced by other large cities. With the Chicago sit- 



AGREEING fully with the 
recommendation of George 
W. Kirchwey and Winthrop D. 
Lane that separate provision must 
be made outside the county jail 
for the younger men, for women, 
insane prisoners and witnesses, 
and that it is desirable to locate 
the central jail for older male 
prisoners — the irreducible mini- 
mum — on a larger tract of ground 
in a less congested district, Dr. 
Hart proposed the skyscraper as 
an alternative if economic reasons 
or the convenience of having the 
jail in immediate proximity to the 
Criminal Court led the county to 
decide to build a new jail and 
court building on the present cen- 
tral site in the heart of the Loop. 




aper Jail 

9 Solve a Metropolitan Problem 

uation especially in mind, the president of the 
American Prison Association has suggested the nov- 
el application of typical city architecture (already 
used so successfully in the Municipal Building of 
New York) to jail purposes. The elevation and 
floor plans here shown are from the designs of 
Francis Y. Joannes and Maxwell Hyde, architects. 



■. 





■ : i 






THE HOSPITAL FLOOR 



THE building illustrated 
would house the Criminal 
Courts in its first four stories. 
From the fifth up the floors would 
be used for jail purposes, with a 
separate elevator system. Six 
hundred prisoners in cells and 
fifty-six more in hospital could be 
accommodated, and since adminis- 
trative offices are on the fifth floor 
stories could be added without re- 
carranging the existing plant. The 
sixth floor is used for clinics and 
a hospital, the ninth for an audi- 
torium, four schoolrooms and four 
small shops, and the roof-garden 
for outdoor exercise. Every cell has 
has an outside window four by 
four feet, and all parts of the 
building are admirably lighted. 



SOCIAL PRACTICE 



Squandering Childhood's Heritage of Health 



A QUARTER of a million children receive some 
form of foster care in the United States at any 
given time. Twice that number receive such care 
each year. Easy substitutes for mother love, father 
love and family interests will never be found in any com- 
munity, but health — real fundamental health — can be given 
to all these children as their heritage. 

To find for that vast army of little ones who for a great 
many reasons are moved from their own homes and placed 
in the care of public and private children's agencies, a way 
of life that brings vitality and robustness, and then to see 
that it is made possible for them, is a staggering job. Who 
knows how much of our mental and physical energy goes 
into efforts to bring the practice of our children's agencies 
into hailing distance with our theories of what is best — or 
at least better! 

Yet the fact that these children come from every class in 
society creates an opportunity for getting results in health 
work. We are not dealing entirely with the failures of the 
utterly impoverished; we are working, also, with the son 
of a prominent clergyman, the illegitimate son of a well- 



In Child Placement Work There are a 
Thousand Opportunities to Go Wrong 

The Overseers of the Poor of a certain small town 
not far from Philadelphia on their own initiative placed 
a baby in a low grade foster home. The baby was mis- 
treated and improperly fed. A year and a half later it 
was brought to a good child welfare agency for special 
care. Its history in the poor foster home showed one 
hundred and seventy-six convulsions, due to digestive 
upsets growing out of the atrocious care it had received. 



A certain children's agency working in the east refers 
constantly to its medical services but does little toward 
carrying them out. It took an overgrown boy who 
seemed strong, and without medical examination placed 
him on a farm where shortly afterwards he dropped 
dead. It then developed that even if there had been no 
physical examination by the agency, there were acces- 
sible social records of other agencies indicating a long- 
standing impairment of the boy's heart. 



A certain children's agency does a large adoptive 
work — that is, it places many children for adoption in 
supposedly good private families. It claims to do a 
good medical job, but there are instances where this 
same agency has taken babies from feeble minded and 
syphilitic mothers and placed them for adoption without 
reasonable medical precaution or oversight. 



A middle Western state welfare department reported 
a silence rule in some county homes. Children were 
rarely allowed to romp and shout. A strict silence rule 
was enforced at meals. As soon as a child finished 
eating he was made to turn his back to the table so 
that the " slow eaters " were urged on to greater speed. 
Indigestion was frequently noted, but partly on account 
of poor medical control this abuse was long unchecked. 

The executive of a very large child-placing agency 
quite frankly reported to the worker of another organ- 
ization that he had discontinued the practice of general 
physical examinations for all children coming to the 
society for the reason that the examination brought so 
many physical needs to the surface as to make it diffi- 
cult to place the children in families of the sort which 
his agency was using! 



102 



known physician, the illegitimate daughter of a highly re- 
spectable family, the mentally retarded son of an alert and 
prosperous business man, the problem child of a man who, 
though controlling the lives of many employes, cannot con- 
trol nor direct the energies and interests of his own boy. 
We are entrusted with the care of children who are deeply 
loved, planned for and sacrificed for by their parents. They 
are children whose future possibilities represent outstanding 
interests to these parents. Hence, if mishaps come to these 
very children of love and promise while in our care, the 
mental and spiritual consequences to parent and child alike 
may be, and often are, incalculably serious. 

We talk a great deal about mass action, democratic control, 
but the world moves along step by step under the leadership 
of a few individuals — never very many at a given time — who 
possess the rare qualities of constructive, imaginative, creative 
thinking. We profit by their pioneering. These same indi- 
viduals come out of the mass of children of a given genera- 
tion. They come to full intellectual and spiritual fruition 
sometimes in spite of every obstacle, but more likely in the 
absence of serious obstacles. A study of biographies shows 
that great men and great women usually grow and flourish 
under favorable environments, with good health in childhood 
as an important factor in the make-up of these environments. 
Because this quality of leadership is so rare and may be found 
in any group or class it is vital that we never waste it through 
bad care. 

When we consider to what extent the foundations of men- 
tal and physical health are laid during the first few years of 
a child's life, how superimportant is the physical care given 
up to the time of adolescence, how close is the relationship 
between physical health and mental vigor, between physical 
health and conduct, between physical health and vocational 
efficiency and economic independence, we are justified in 
looking closely into the results obtained by those who stand 
before the community as the special guardians of children. 
And what do we find? 

Philadelphia and Pennsylvania have an unusually large 
number of child welfare agencies. They care for approxi- 
mately 50,000 children each year. The standards to which 
they hold themselves vary from very good to very poor. 
Some of the poorest are in Philadelphia. Reports and other 
public statements of these agencies refer frequently to what 
they are doing for the protection of the health of their wards, 
but these statements, often most explicit, are seldom checked 
up. An examination of the health service performed by these 
specialized children's agencies as a whole strikingly illus- 
trates the separation between theories and practices in even 
such an obvious matter as health. It shows, too, how bliss- 
fully unconcerned a group of responsible citizens can be 
regarding the ultimate consequence of their acts. 

In one of the largest cities in the country, an inquiry into 
the care given to many thousands of its needy children sup- 
ported in various private institutions at public expense was 
made some years ago. Though all of these institutions car- 
ried the names of physicians in their reports, the actual 
health work done by approximately half was so poor as to 
lead to severe condemnation by an investigating committee. 
Superficial examinations revealing little besides figures for 
reports, little in the way of thorough-going medical work 
reaching into the daily lives of the children characterized a 
large part of the medical procedure. The doctors were in 
part criticized for many of the conditions found, but in only 
a few instances had they been given any real control over 
health work. It was rarely preventive or constructive in 



October 15, 1922 



THE SURVEY 



103 



character. Institutions were reported where from one year 
to the other the children rarely had a properly balanced meal, 
where for months at a time they would be moving from one 
quarantine to another. Skin diseases of various sorts were 
rampant. Very frequently a child would be returned to its 
own people in worse condition than when received. Children 
were assigned to tasks out of all proportion to their physical 
strength. Little was done to correct or remove physical 
handicaps which when once crystallized meant almost per- 
manent dependency for the child. 

In a certain large city there are many child welfare 
agencies, but in addition to these a great system of foster 
care has been built up for children 
passing through the juvenile 
court. These children are placed 
in families under the direct super- 
vision of the court, and at an an- 
nual cost of about $290 for the 
board of each child. About a 
year and a half ago this court had 
more than seven hundred children 
placed in seventy foster families. 
This was an average of ten child- 
ren to a family — families which, 
on the whole, were in no wise 
equipped to do the special and in- 
volved child-caring work which 
the situation required. These 
children were not getting the 
medical oversight which their 
needs demanded and were in con- 
stant danger of being more 
harmed than benefitted. The sit- 
uation is now changed. The num- 
ber of children per family has 
been greatly reduced and, accord- 
ing to the recent report, is nearer 
an average of two per family, and 
the medical care provided is very 
much more complete. The origi- 
nal situation, which carried with 

it real suffering and low standards for the children, could 
have been very largely, if not completely, corrected if there 
had been adequate medical oversight. 

In another city, until very recently, children to the num- 
ber of two thousand a year passed through a cooperative 
medical clinic and shelter. But in spite of a wealth of 
medical resources in the community, it was found that prac- 
tically every child received was subjected to and suffered 
from a long list of physical dangers. There was misfeed- 
ing, underfeeding, overcrowding, improper clothing, improper 
sleeping facilities, exposure to various infections, inadequate 
and insufficient control as to personal hygiene, so that child 
after child, year after year — over a period of six or seven 
years — had registered against him in the name of charity a 
list of ills from which he faced a difficult, if not impossible, 
escape or recovery. 

Why was this allowed to go on? The private agencies 
involved in this cooperative work instanced in their reports 
the fact that they were doing effective medical work, yet by 
no possible stretch of the imagination could this be honestly 
claimed. Much that was attempted socially for the children 
was neutralized or nullified because the health work was 
inadequate or bad. The responsibility for this situation 
rested almost entirely with the directors and officers of the 
participating agencies. Real medical control had never 
been voted to the physicians whose services were being used 
and they were powerless, or thought they were, when it 
came to enforcing a change. A public official responsible for 
some supervision over the work of these agencies, when 
questioned as to why there had been no protest from her 
office, remarked that the social influence and attitude of the 




Anna BcMrmer 



directors of the agencies was such as to make criticism too 
unpleasant a task to be attempted. 

In child placement work there are a thousand opportuni- 
ties to go wrong, as the following instances illustrate: 

A children's institution in a certain state placed a deli- 
cate, brilliant, refined girl of fifteen in a family where hard 
physical labor was the daily routine. The child had never 
been fitted to work with her hands, but had been endowed 
with a rare mind. She could easily have been trained to 
direct the hands of many other people. Largely because 
medical work for the child was slighted by the social agency 
in question, the girl's whole future has been blighted. Now 

she will have to return again and 
again to different social agencies 
for help for long years to come. 

Eastern papers have recently 
given much space to the work of 
a very large children's agency 
which has used a neighboring 
state with poorer school stand- 
ards for the placement of many 
of its children. Without the pro- 
tection of careful physical exam- 
inations or treatment, or good so- 
cial inquiries, boys of ten and 
twelve, many of them physically 
and mentally unfit, have been sent 
to farms in the neighboring state 
for long and hard work, often far 
in excess of their childish energies. 
A certain children's agency 
does much work for unmarried 
mothers. Until recently it never 
stressed the wisdom of the moth- 
ers' nursing their babies during 
the first six or seven months of 
infancy. It placed mothers with 
children for service in families 
without taking adequate precau- 
tion for the treatment of those 
suffering from a specific disease. 
It did not always see that the non-breast-fed babies were 
given pure milk and that enough time was given to the 
mothers properly to care for their babies. 

Another agency cares for many babies. It repeatedly 
sends its little wards away from the city in which it has its 
office, and where there are extensive medical resources of the 
first rank, into remote cities and towns where medical stand- 
ards are of the poorest. And this is done in the name of a 
child welfare job under " careful " medical oversight. 

One Eastern institution cared for forty boys ranging 
from eight to eighteen years of age. They were fed a 
hearty meal at supper-time and then with few exceptions 
were put to bed at seven o'clock. There was much result- 
ing 1 sleeplessness and still more perverse sex immoralities 
occurring night after night. The import of this manner of 
living was never commented upon, referred to, or under- 
stood by those responsible for the institution at the time. 

One children's institution with many anemic inmates trains 
in " good manners " by making its children stand whenever 
strangers enter the room. This rule is enforced even in the 
dining room, so that while the children are bowing to direc- 
tors and strangers their food gets cold and unpalatable. 

One children's agency was troubled with many cases of 
enuresis. Its matron " discovered " that sound spanking, 
frequently administered, was the best cure. No attempt was 
made to learn the physical causes back of the habit or the 
relation between the treatment given and many forms of 
nervousness among the children. 

We have not in all Pennsylvania, nor in many states, for 
that matter, a good law covering the foster-home care of 
(Continued on page 126) 



104 



THE SURVEY 



October 15, 1922 



A Uniform Illegitimacy Law 

THE parents of a child born out of wedlock owe it the 
necessary maintenance, education and support. On 
that proposition is based the draft of a uniform law for 
the support of such children which, incorporating several 
new and important principles, has run the gamut of two 
annual meetings of the National Conference of Commis- 
sioners on Uniform State Laws and has now been finally 
recommended to state legislatures. 

The law adopted at San Francisco this year was a re- 
vised draft of the measure which had first been presented 
at the Cincinnati meeting in 1921. That purported to be 
a complete code of the law concerning children born out of 
wedlock, regulating status rights as well as the obligation 
of support. It contained among other status provisions one 
borrowed from the law of several states, to the effect that 
children of null and void marriages (bigamous marriages, 
marriages of first cousins, etc.) shall be deemed legitimate. 
The provision was offered in the expectation that it would 
be accepted almost as a matter of course, since it legalizes 
what is a de facto condition in practically every case, and 
remedies a grievous injustice in isolated instances. Unex- 
pectedly, the provision encountered determined, even im- 
passioned, opposition, as undermining one of the pillars of 
our social order. 

On reflection, the Committee decided to drop not only 
this particular section, but the entire article dealing with 
status rights as well. Not that it would have been impos- 
sible to gain ultimately the adhesion of the Conference; but 
the sentiment that was revealed was taken as a timely and 
symptomatic warning. If influential members of the Con- 
ference felt so strongly that traditional rules of the marriage 
law should not be disturbed, the same attitude was sure to 
appear later on in state legislatures with the possible effect 
of wrecking the entire measure in a number of states. It 
seemed wiser to concentrate all efforts upon provisions that 
responded to urgent social demands, and. that would stand a 
fair chance of adoption in the states. 

The measure presented in San Francisco, which was 
approved and recommended, is therefore a support measure 
pure and simple, leaving other provisions of state laws con- 
cerning children born out of wedlock (legitimation by sub- 
sequent marriage, rights of inheritance between mother and 
child, etc.) entirely untouched. It is to be hoped that this 
sacrifice was not made in vain. 

BEFORE the law was formulated its principal features 
had been presented to and discussed by representative or- 
ganizations concerned with child welfare. The Federal Child- 
ren's Bureau, which had interested itself in the matter since 
1915, had called conferences in 1920 to shape a program of 
legislation. (See particularly Bureau Publications No. 42 and 
77.) While there was general accord between the child 
welfare representatives and the framers of the uniform law, 
the latter were unable to accept the suggestion that the child 
born out of wedlock be given the right to inherit from the 
father. The sentiment against the bestowal of this right is 
so strong and wide-spread that in a majority of the states 
it would probably have jeopardized the success of any 
measure incorporating it. In view of the absolute right of 
the father to disinherit his child, which nearly all of our 
states recognize, the right would, moreover, have been of 
questionable benefit, if unaccompanied by changes in the law 
of inheritance, which it would be idle even to suggest in 
connection with illegitimacy legislation. In view of these 
objections, the fact that a few recent statutes recognize the 
right counts for little. It is interesting to note that Missouri, 
which has never had any other provision for the support of 
illegitimate children, introduced the right of inheritance in 
1 92 1 ; and Missouri was one of the few states whose dele- 



gates voted against the approval of the uniform law by the 
Conference. 

The uniform law starts out, as I have said, with the 
proposition that the parents owe the child born out of wed- 
lock necessary maintenance, education and support. There 
is no such common law duty, nor do American statutes 
proclaim the father's duty in this general form. Not only 
should the innovation be welcome as a matter of principle, 
but it leads to practical consequences in the way of recovery 
of expenditures, a number of which are specified in the law. 
An action to recover expenses may not, however, be used by 
strangers to raise the issue of paternity where paternity has 
not been previously established or acknowledged. As a 
second new important principle, the law makes the obliga- 
tion of the father enforceable against his estate, having regard 
to the rights of surviving widow and children. Under pres- 
ent laws, the obligation dies with the father. 

In regulating the judicial proceedings brought against 
the father to compel support, the proposed law follows on 
the whole the old established legislative practice, and retains 
in particular the coercive or " quasi-criminal " features of 
bastardy laws which have been found indispensable in deal- 
ing with the irresponsible type of person which the father is 
apt to be. There are some minor improvements, such as 
the power of the court to substitute with the consent of the 
complainant a summons for a warrant as the first process 
against the defendant, but most of the provisions found in 
this part of the law are of merely technical interest. 

A DISTINCT advance upon the present law is to be 
found in the provision for the judgment to be given. No 
minimum or maximum amount of alimony is fixed, and the 
judgment is to be for annual amounts, equal or varying, hav- 
ing regard to the father's obligation, as the court may direct, 
until the child reaches the age of sixteen years. In order to 
meet the danger of inadequate settlements out of court, it is 
provided that a compromise shall be binding upon mother and 
child only when adequate provision is fully secured by pay- 
ment or otherwise, and when approved by a court having jur- 
isdiction in this class of proceedings. Normally, of course, the 
approval of the court will be conclusive of the adequacy of 
the provision. 

Payment may be required to be made to a trustee for the 
mother. This provision is borrowed from the English law, 
and has obvious advantages. It may also have the less 
obvious effect of permitting the court to keep the execution 
of its judgment under control where the mother resides out 
of the jurisdiction— a matter to be discussed later in this 
article. 

In accordance with the quasi-criminal character of the 
proceeding, failure to pay or give security may result in 
commitment to jail, this method of coercion having been held 
not to be within the constitutional prohibition of imprison- 
ment for debt. However, the main value of the power of 
commitment will be found in the provision for probation, 
which in several states has been used as an effective instru- 
ment to obtain payment from the father. Until the judg- 
ment is entirely satisfied, the court retains jurisdiction of the 
proceeding. 

Concurrent with the civil remedy placed at the disposal 
of the mother are several provisions permitting the father 
to be dealt with through the machinery of the criminal law. 
These are new and require a word of explanation. A num- 
ber of states make their non-support and desertion laws 
applicable to illegitimate children. In principle this is 
wrong, for the non-payment of alimony is an offense wholly 
different in grade and character from the abandonment of 
the lawful and acknowledged family. Even if the latter can 
justly be treated as a felony, the former cannot. The pro- 
posed uniform law distinguishes between cases of non-support 
{Continued on page 127) 



October 15, 1922 



THE SURVEY 



105 



The Psychiatric Attitude 

"\X7HAT have psychiatry and psychology to offer as aids 
* * in the field of delinquency ? 

If by the field of delinquency is meant the traditional en- 
terprise for the administration of the criminal law, I am 
afraid these sciences can be of very little aid. Psychology, 
as the science of mind and human behavior, and psychiatry, 
which literally means mind-healing, are tools for different 
purposes than those reflected in the processes of the crim- 
inal law. If we are honest with ourselves, we must say 
that these processes have refused in the past to have any- 
thing to do with questions of " understanding " and " heal- 
ing." The criminal problem is not kept alive by the occa- 
sional offence of a first offender, but by an ever-increasing 
element in our population who seem to have accepted crim- 
inal behavior as a life career. It is these individuals who 
may have had repeated contact with the established ma- 
chinery of the law who attest to the utter failure of these 
processes to affect materially the problem of crime. 

But if by the field of delinquency we mean those social- 
service enterprises which have been made possible in spite 
of certain aspects of criminal procedure, these sciences of 
human behavior can make themselves felt very decidedly 
in connection with the administration of the problem of 
crime. Delinquency, when viewed in an impartial and 
unbiased fashion, is quite understandable as a problem in 
human behavior. As such, the workers in this field can at 
once avail themselves of a fairly well organized and depend- 
able technique for the understanding and direction of human 
behavior. 

■\X7HAT in brief does this technique consist of? In the 
* v first place, and perhaps most important of all, is of 
course, the thing which we recognize as the psychological and 
psychiatric attitude toward a problem. 

It is not ordinarily difficult for the physician and social 
worker to acquire this attitude. The very contact with a 
problem in human behavior by the physician or social worker 
already implies an intent of understanding and service. 
Such difficulty as he may have in keeping himself free 
alike from the " holier-than-thou " attitude and a moraliz- 
ing self-indulgence, or a search for an original sin of one 
pattern or another as an explanation of the trouble, is apt 
to be a difficulty of inexperience rather than one of wrong 
intent. More extensive intimate contact with problems of 
life, and the greater self-knowledge which this ordinarily 
brings to the healthy-minded worker, are bound to remove 
one after another of the inherent obstacles to the cultiva- 
tion of a proper attitude for understanding and service, if 
only the worker is able to keep clearly before his mind the 
central purpose of his performance. 

Without the necessity of accepting wholly the principle 
of a thorough-going determinism in human behavior, the 
worker in this field must certainly cultivate, as part of a 
healthy attitude, the scientific conviction that nothing in 
human behavior happens quite fortuitously and out of a 
clear sky; that the only way in which one can discover and 
evaluate causes is to approach a question free from precon- 
ceptions. One will then find that commonly there is opera- 
tive in the behavior of the delinquent a multiplicity of 
causes. It is necessary to stress this point because of the 
plaint one encounters so frequently among representatives 
of law-enforcement agencies that psychology and psychiatry 
fail to explain the entire situation or to solve forthwith an 
existing problem. 

Aside from the fact that these sciences have never claimed 
an omniscience or omnipotence in these matters, everyone 
acquainted with these subjects appreciates their present limi- 
tations. But this is true of them, that more than any 
other approach to the problem of delinquency, they aim 



to base their conclusions upon an evaluation of all the 
factors in the case, biologic, psychologic, social, economic 
and pathologic. 

The instances are relatively rare where the entire expla- 
nation for a criminal act is to be found in clinical issues. 
Here and there one encounters an offender whose criminal 
act is based solely upon an impulse or deliberation of a dis- 
eased mind. In the great majority of instances, even where 
a significant element of abnormality enters into the situa- 
tion, as for instance, in the case of the defective-delinquent, 
numerous other factors of a non-clinical nature combine to 
produce the criminal act. 

ANOTHER element which enters into defining the proper 
attitude on the part of the physician and social worker 
relates to the more general problems of mental abnormality 
and disease. There was a time, and the situation is reflected 
in some quarters even today, when the contributions of psy- 
chology and psychiatry to criminology were conceived to 
be limited to the task of defining whether a given delin- 
quent was feebleminded or insane. The object in calling 
in the services of the psychiatrist was to settle the question 
of accountability or responsibility. 

Now, in actual practice, psychiatry has come to define its 
task to be that of understanding and treatment of human 
behavior. The issues of disease or defectiveness are only 
some of the issues it meets, and as soon as such issues become 
established in connection with a problem of delinquency, 
they become problems in medicine and should be dealt with 
mainly, if not exclusively, from a medical standpoint. 

What then are the aims and the true scope of psychiatry ? 
We can answer this question no better than by seeing what 
kinds of facts psychiatry deals with. 

In the first place, there are those elements of human 
nature which relate to man's inherited dispositions to action 
and behavior and which reflect the history of his descent. 
Not only must these innate dispositions, which are expres- 
sive of man's " biologic destiny " to self-preservation and 
race perpetuation, be taken account of as factors which 
shape human nature, but the laws to which they are subject 
must be discovered and observed. 

One important law in this connection is the law that in 
the enterprise of guiding and shaping human nature for a 
more socialized performance, nothing in this native equip- 
ment can be quite eradicated. What is possible is a re-dis- 
tribution and re-direction of the energy and interest that is 
bound up with these innate tendencies. It is the violation 
of this natural law which renders futile those efforts in 
educational and correctional procedure which purpose to 
" eradicate " the badness, to drive out the " devil " from 
human nature. It is only the kind of devils that can be 
born and bred in the soul of man that seem to be messing 
up things in human society. A much greater promise of 
success lies in the direction of a redistribution of energy and 
interest, when even a thoroughly bad and " devilish " 
youngster may turn out to be a good and respected citizen. 
The change does not come through driving the devil out, 
but through harnessing the devilish energies to good pur- 
poses. 

HP HE next subject with which psychiatry concerns itself is 
A "the acquired or learned equipment of man." The human 
machine is not only equipped to act and adapt itself to con- 
ditions of life automatically or reflexly, as for instance 
when we wink the eye to avoid an intruding object, or 
unthinkingly perform the countless automatic acts of our 
daily behavior. To a much greater degree than is the case 
of other living beings, man can both inhibit or postpone 
action. He is conscious of his ability to recall and antici- 
pate troubles, to profit by experience and to avoid difficul- 
ties by some kind of purposeful action. But much of this 
ability, which renders man, as one author has put it, a time- 



106 



THE SURVEY 



October 15, 1922 



binder as well as space-binder, depends upon his capacity 
to learn and profit from experience. 

How important this ability is can readily be seen when 
we keep in mind what happens to the individual who 
through some disease or injury to the brain before or at 
birth is deprived of this capacity to learn. The low-grade 
idiot cannot even learn the simplest processes that are neces- 
sary for the nourishing of the body. He cannot learn to 
take the breast, he cannot learn to distinguish between 
objects which are and those which are not suitable for inges- 
tion, and if left to himself would come to grief in a number 
of ways which the normally endowed child soon learns to 
avoid. 

But it is not commonly recognized to what extent and 
in what a variety of ways man's instinctive disposition de- 
termines the kind of experiences he is likely to expose him- 
self to, and this indirectly, at least, determines the nature 
of his acquired equipment. 

The individual in whose native organization there has 
taken place an undue accentuation or underdevelopment of 
a certain trend is apt to be disposed because of this either 
to shun or to especially seek out certain life experiences, 
and thus his acquired equipment is apt to be shaped in 
accordance with these innate dispositions. Without such a 
conception, it would be difficult to account for the real dif- 
ferences in traits and life pursuits between races and peoples, 
as well as between certain pathologically disposed indi- 
viduals, like the true epileptic, for instance, and the normal 
human being. 

PSYCHIATRY next concerns itself with those circum- 
stances of life which are common to all individuals and 
which must be estimated at their true value in order to under- 
stand a particular one. Every member of the human race goes 
through a period of helplessness and dependency upon the 
adults who surround him, from which he must ultimately 
gain a more or less thorough emancipation if he is to carry 
out adequately and happily his biologic and individual 
destinies. Many of the maladjustments met with in life 
are due to a greater or less degree of persistence in adults 
of this infantile dependence. 

Every individual at some time or other has to face the 
question of " self-esteem " and that of the esteem which his 
fellows have of him. There is no individual, unless it be 
those who because of disease of personality have withdrawn 
all interest in reality, who is not engaged to a greater or 
less degree with this problem of self-esteem. Here again 
one of the most common manifestations in human malad- 
justment is either a tendency to an undue self-abasement 
or the reverse picture of a drive towards an undue maxima- 
tion of the self. 

Every member of the human race, unless he be patho- 
logically constituted, busies himself more or less throughout 
his adult life at least, with the problem of mating. I need 
not go into the details at this point concerning the role 
which this problem plays in human maladjustment. These 
are some of the common circumstances of life with which 
psychiatry has to concern itself. 

The attention of the psychiatrist is also claimed by those 
critical epochs in the development of the individual which 
commonly call for unusual adaptive capacity. It is inter- 
esting and important to know what facilities mankind has 
developed for meeting these life emergencies. There are 
the acute periods of puberty and adolescence, of aging and 
decline, of the deep sorrow and bereavements which are 
the inevitable lot of every human being, apart from those 
individual experiences in the nature of physical or mental 
insults which demand unusual capacity for adjustment. 

Then psychiatry studies the failures of adjustment. It 
aims to discover how and why certain people fail in the 
process of human adaptation. It endeavors to determine 



the place of heredity, injur}', infection, exhaustion and 
fatigue of a more chronic nature, emotional insults, bad 
habits and deleterious life experiences in man's failure prop- 
erly to adjust himself to the demands of life. 

Finally, psychiatry is concerned with the technique of 
human readjustment and with those positive principles of a 
hygiene of the mind that might be utilized as preventives 
of failures in human adaptation and as means towards a 
more effective conscious control of the human machine. 

Need we define more specifically what aid to criminology 
might be derived from the application of a science which 
has these interests and objectives? If psychiatry is not mak- 
ing itself more effective in connection with the problem of 
crime it is due both to limited opportunity and imperfect 
technique. But it knows its objectives, and it is up to 
those who believe in the introduction of a " social service " 
point of view into the field of delinquency to see to it that 
this point of view embraces the aims and technique of 
psychiatry. Bernard Glueck, M.D. 

Director, Bureau of Children's Guidance, conducted by 
the New York School of Social Work 

Child Welfare Bookkeeping 

CHILD WELFARE work has been extended to cover 
an almost unbelievably wide field. Extension, how- 
ever, does not necessarily mean efficiency. It may mean 
divided effort where concentrated effort would be more effec- 
tive. It may mean that new and popular aspects of the 
work are over-emphasized while equally important ones are 
ignored. It may mean over-specialization, or that dif- 
ferent organizations with similar areas overlap in their 
work. What people receive the greatest benefit from the 
work as it is conducted at present, and with whom is it 
least successful? What are the strong, what the weak 
points ? 

These are some of the questions which the Committee of 
Public Health of the New York Academy of Medicine 
hopes to answer when its present survey of child welfare 
work in New York is completed. This committee is made 
up of thirty of the most eminent medical men in the city. 
It has delegated itself to be a bookkeeper of the resources 
and work of child welfare organizations, and its survey will 
take nine months or a year of scientific research. Dr. Lew- 
inski-Corwin, the director of the committee, will employ in 
this enterprise a staff of physicians, social workers, sani- 
tarians, statisticians and field workers. 

The Secret of His Efficiency 

HASTINGS H. HART, of the Russell Sage Foundation, 
is a shining example of a man who has grown gray in 
work of a most technical character without losing either his 
sense of simple, human values or his use of vigorous, unprofes- 
sionalized English. In a recent report on the Home for 
Boys at Covington, Va., he refers to a factor in institutional 
efficiency which is often overlooked. Speaking of the super- 
intendent, who ranks with the best in the field, he says: 
How does he keep it up? Well, he loves his work; he is enlisted 
in it heart and soul. Then he realizes that he is working at a con- 
structive job. It is human work, making real men and good 
citizens out of the waste material of society. Perhaps the chief secret 
of his endurance and his success is that he has a wife who, though 
not on the pay-roll, is yet on the job. She can run a cottage or take 
charge of the kitchen and dining-room. Indeed she has more than 
once acted as superintendent in her husband's absence. She does 
much of the buying, and she works with a squad of boys in beautify- 
ing the grounds. She is a helpmate for her husband, an inspiration, 
a dynamo, a balance wheel. She regulates his diet, nurses his head- 
aches, cheers his blues, makes him laugh, sends him fishing, plays 
the diplomat with the employes ^nd visitors. She renders the home 
a thousand dollars' worth of service each year as a free gift with 
the utmost joy and cheerfulness. 



HEALTH 



Doctor to Teacher to Child 



THE State Teachers College of San Francisco is to 
be credited with the first organized attempt to 
train the teacher to take her part as a new and 
powerful recruit for team play with the several 
other professions now engaged in the project of health devel- 
opment and disease prevention. 

In the practice of preventive medicine the physician stands 
chronologically first and still chiefly provides the informa- 
tion and principles upon which most health education de- 
pends; then comes the visiting nurse, not only tending the 
sick but instructing the well in the laws of health; the vet- 
erinarian, the dentist and the pharmacist, each serving in his 
special sphere, protecting and teaching; and lastily the med- 
ical social worker, that new indispensable professional col- 
league of the doctor, and the nurse, whose efforts she brings 
to a fair completeness. To these we must add the teacher, 
who already is our first line of defense against defects and 
diseases of those children of many households where to be up 
and about is the only test of health. 

We hear much of health literature and public health edu- 
cation — terms often used for what is really publicity, propa- 
ganda, or advertising and radically different from education 
in thoroughness, in intellectual honesty and in final results. 

Fundamentally, health cannot be taught to all the people 
all the time. Few are the groups accessible for education 
in health. The sick can be approached through the feelings 
of fear and hope — fear of a continuation of invalidism and 
hope in the promise of health. Wage earners may often be 
taught the specific hazards of their occupations in the interest 
of continued self-support. But parents, and more particu- 
larly mothers, are always teachable in matters bearing on the 




"yer needin be so stuck up because yer got yer tonsils cut out!" 
" To children, health may be made a present accomplishment and 
a desirable goal." Gene Carr's drawing, originally a "metropolitan 
movie" in the New York World, and now reprinted in a whole 
book of Kid Kartoons (Century Co.) illustrates an asset which child 
health workers have not been slow to utilize 



safety of their children. Children can be taught anything 
which appears to them to affect themselves and their play- 
mates, and to them health may be made a present accom- 
plishment and a desirable goal because of the joy they have 
in it. 

Yet here, as so often in preventive medicine, we tend to 
use the machinery of diagnosis and treatment as if it were as 
suitable also for prevention and education. The teaching 
of health and its protection must begin with childhood and 
bp carried out where other subjects are taught, and it should 
be presented by those who are trained in the approach to 
children's minds, the school teachers. 

At least this was the conclusion of a committee of three, 
who, at the request of Frederic Burk, principal of San 
Francisco State Teachers College, arranged a course in 
health education which was held at the college during the 
summer session, from June 26 to August 4. The members 
of the committee were Dr. Ray Lyman Wilbur, president of 
Stanford University, and president-elect of the American 
Medical Association; Dr. W. M. Dickie, secretary of the 
California State Board of Health ; and Dr. William Palmer 
Lucas, professor of pediatrics, University of California 
Medical School. 

THE course was planned to present the general educa- 
tional value of health and preventive medicine, and to 
give specific descriptions of preventable diseases, as well as 
to describe the means used for their control by public and 
private health agencies — all to be built upon an understand- 
ing of biology and physiology. Each session was an hour 
and a half long, the first period of fifty minutes or one hour 
being devoted to a brief presentation of the topic, and the 
rest of the time to class discussion to bring out all the bear- 
ings of the lesson upon personal relations and public interests 
and policies in and out of school, for children and adults. 
Thirty-three sessions were held and the topics were presented 
by as many individuals, while the continuity of discussion 
and the relative importance of each subject were preserved 
by the leadership of Dr. Lucas and the writer, who attended 
each session for this purpose. The attendance varied from 
fifty to one hundred, chiefly women teachers in the elemen- 
tary schools, public health nurses and others engaged in 
district social work in and about San Francisco. 

There will be incorporated in the organization of the 
Teachers College during the current academic year, as a 
result of this experimental course, a department of health, 
to include biology, physiology, physical education, psychol- 
ogy and health protection. 

As a joint attempt to box the compass of health protection, 
to outline the field which the medical forces of our time are 
cultivating, the content of these summer sessions and a 
description of what they covered and how they were carried 
out may be of interest to those in other centers. 

A few of the lectures were given by the writer. The 
others were by teachers, research students, or administra- 
tors, all particularly well trained and conversant with their 
special topics and leaders in their professions locally, so that 
they addressed the class with the authority and prestige of 
well recognized accomplishment. An advantage of this mul- 
tiple unit lecture system was thought to be the impression it 
should impart to the class that the field of preventive medi- 
cine is far beyond a one-man job and touches widely the vari- 
ous sciences, involving the whole community in its range and 
offering opportunities for service, personal as well as official, 
to inspire even the most modest and humble of persons. 

In the first two sessions the writer presented briefly the 

107 



108 



THE SURVEY 



October 15, 1922 



three phases of preventive medicine, as the submissive, the 
protective, and the aggressive. The great groups of prevent- 
able diseases were then developed by arranging all the sug- 
gestions of the class under suitable headings such as com- 
municable, nutritional, occupational, mental, developmental, 
and heart diseases, the protein susceptibilities, cancer, and 
habits. The main sub-groups were then indicated, their 
relative numerical importance suggested and the reasons for 
treating them as preventable given for typical instances 
under each group. 

The third and fourth lectures were presented by Pro- 
fessor E. C. Fleischner, Department of Pediatrics, Univer- 
sity of California Medical School, who dealt with the com- 
mon communicable diseases of childhood — diphtheria, scar- 
let fever, measles and whooping cough — giving in much de- 
tail the simple resources of parent and teacher in detecting 
them in their early stages and avoiding their spread. The 
promise of further considerable reduction in diphtheria by the 
use of active immunization in childhood was fully explained. 

TUBERCULOSIS was considered as an individual and a 
community problem by Dr. Philip King Brown and 
Dr. George Evans, both of San Francisco, and for many 
years active in the local, state and national campaign against 
this disease. Special pains were taken to explain the biology 
of the tubercle bacillus and the points in the natural history 
of the disease which make the protection of childhood the 
key to the situation. 

The seventh lecture was of special importance in Cali- 
fornia where the fallacious arguments of anti-vaccinationists 
have led to such disastrous extension of smallpox and to its 
increased severity, and it was appropriate that Dr. John 
Force, the associate professor of epidemiology of the Uni- 
versity of California, should present the subject. A brief 
statement of easily proved facts and a description of the 
quite distinct clinical types of the disease gave the class a 
suitable basis for forming a convinced and intelligible opin- 
ion on this topic, which has recently been thrown into the 
political arena in the coast states. 

Although the title of the eighth lecture — protozoal and 
parasitic diseases — was rather formidable, the subject was 
so temptingly presented along the broadest biological, racial 
and occupational lines that the class could readily appreciate 
the special problems of hookworn disease and amebic dysen- 
tery as they have affected subtropical and tropical civiliza- 
tions, industry and commerce, and was made to understand 
the principles of personal hygiene and sanitation upon which 
their prevention depends. 

MALARIA was discussed by Dr. George Ebright of the 
California State Board of Health. Here again appeared 
at once the broad educational value, historical, economic and 
personal, of a clear statement of the cause and means of pre- 
vention of this disease, which since 1849 has been so serious 
a cause of disability and dependence in California, as from 
still earlier times in our southeastern Atlantic and middle 
western states. 

Lecture 10, by Dr. Karl F. Meyer, acting director of 
Hooper Foundation for Medical Research, was devoted to a 
discussion of a trio of the more dramatic, but in California 
numerically less important, diseases of rabies, plague and 
tetanus, each historically crowded with records of scientific 
principles. 

The next lecture was devoted to the question of botulism 
and other forms of poisoning due to foods. In a state which 
exports 95 per cent, of the food stuffs it raises, every citizen 
is interested in any error in preservation or marketing of 
food and the clear description of the brilliant researches into 
the nature and cause of the sickness and deaths due to the use 
of contaminated canned goods, as given by Dr. Ernest Dick- 



son, associate professor of medicine at Stanford University 
School of Medicine, will not easily be forgotten. 

A full session devoted to the biological and chemical prin- 
ciples involved in immunity and infection, by Dr. Meyer, 
and another on the public health point of view, ancient and 
modern, by Dr. Force, closed the treatment of the large 
general topic of communicable disease control. 

The fourteenth lecture, dealing with cancer, was a frank 
statement by Dr. Kilgore, surgeon and consultant, of the 
present limitations in our knowledge, and of the actual 
resources for early diagnosis and removal or destruction at 
the curable state of the disease. The fact that, owing to the 
marked excess in California of people of the later decades 
of life, the cancer mortality in the state is about 25 per cent 
higher than that in most other states was enough to hold the 
attention and interest of the class in the new educational ef- 
fort against this serious problem which Dr. Kilgore meets in 
this area. 

The subject of heart diseases, their causes and means of 
prevention, was presented by the writer along lines made 
familiar by the New York and other associations for pre- 
vention and relief of heart disease. 

At the next session the courageous publicist, Chester 
Rowell, and Will French of the State Industrial Commis- 
sion dealt with the broad question of social problems and 
their relationship to public health. 

The next five lectures were devoted to nutrition, our pres- 
ent exact knowledge of its principles and the results in pre- 
ventable diseases from failure to apply what we have already 
learned. 

DR. A. F. MORGAN, associate professor of household 
science at the University of California, dealt with the 
scientific basis of nutrition in a way that should prevent her 
hearers from following every fad into which the gullible 
public is bullied by relentless and conscienceless advertising. 
Dr. Martha R. Jones, research instructor in pediatrics at the 
University of California Medical School, took up the 
deficiency diseases and explained the methods of study among 
humans and animals deprived accidentally or intentionally 
of one or another of the essential food stuffs. Scurvy, rickets, 
beriberi and pellagra were discussed. Malnutrition in chil- 
dren was presented from the medical point of view by Dr. 
Harold K. Faber, associate professor of medicine (pediatrics) 
at Stanford University Medical School, and Dr. Langley 
Porter, cliniral professor of pediatrics at the University of 
California Medical School ; from the teacher's and mal- 
nutrition-worker's point of view by Maude I. Murchie, state 
supervisor of teacher-training courses in home economics, 
Ellen M. Bartlett, supervisor of home economics in San 
Francisco public schools, and Mrs. G. N. Nigel, in charge 
of nutritional classes in public schools; and from the point 
of view of physical education, play and exercise by Chris- 
tian Brocar, director of the Department of Physical Educa- 
tion in Spokane, Washington, and Miss S. E. Hagelthorn, 
head of the Department of Physical education, San Francisco 
public schools. A special lecture was devoted to maternal 
and infant mortality and the means of prevention that have 
proved successful in various countries or in individual com- 
munities. This was given by Dr. Lucas with the conviction 
and broad knowledge of the enthusiastic specialist who 
knows that by the maternal and infant death rates our civili- 
zation and social accomplishments shall be judged. 

In the next four lectures the general topic of mental 
hygiene, particularly as it bears upon the educational life of 
the school child, was discussed from widely different view- 
points, as well as the still broader problems of preventable 
mental disease among adults. Dr. Olga Bridgman, associate 
clinical professor of abnormal psychology at the University of 
California Medical School, dealt with the superior and in- 
ferior child and the limitations in the use of intelligence tests 



October 15, 1922 



THE SURVEY 



109 



and the application of intelligence quotient percentages. Dr. 
Meta Anderson, director of Binet classes in Newark, New 
Jersey, discussed chiefly the methods of estimating feeble- 
mindedness and the use of grading methods in adapting 
school life to the capacities of the child. Louise Lombard, 
supervisor of special classes for exceptional children in San 
Francisco, told of the results of appropriate occupational 
training as given to children of retarded and low mentality. 
Professor C. E. Rugh, professor of education, University of 
California, gave a stimulating picture of the educational 
problems of adapting school teaching to children of various 
capacities and threw out many challenges and questions to 
both psychologists and psychiatrists. The subject of mental 
diseases and their prevention was finally dealt with on medi- 
cal lines by Dr. Eva C. Reid, instructor in psychiatry, and 
Dr. Harold W. Wright, assistant in psychiatry, both of the 
University of California Medical School. The speakers 
urged the value of early diagnosis and appropriate treat- 
ment as means of salvaging many minds which are now lost 
because of delay and lack of understanding, epitomizing the 
teachings so effectively undertaken by the National Com- 
mittee for Mental Hygiene. 

The subject of venereal diseases was dealt with by the 
writer in much the same way as tuberculosis, hookworm 
disease and smallpox were approached, through the biological 
and epidemiological facts, the social implications of cause 
and the medical and social resources for prevention. 

Lecture 27 was devoted to successful means of interesting 
teachers and children in health education, Mrs. M. M. Fitz- 
Gerald, principal of the John Swett School, San Francisco, 
dealing with the devices found helpful in incorporating the 
practice of personal hygiene among the children's habits, and 
Mary Preston, teacher of science at the Teachers College, 
describing the method of enlisting the interest of teachers 
in the laws of hygiene, through pride in their personal appear- 
ance and their fitness for work and play. 



THE twenty-ninth session was given to officers of the local 
and state health administrations, Dr. William Hassler, 
health commissioner of San Francisco, outlining some of the 
pressing problems and successes in disease prevention in that 
city, and Dr. Adelaide Brown of the California State Board 
of Health giving a description of the organization and serv- 
ices of health protection throughout the state. Lectures 30 
and 31 were given by two of the three directors of the Food 
Research Institute of Stanford University, Dr. Carl L. 
Alsberg presenting the principles and problems of federal 
food control and Dr. Davis showing the economic aspects of 
health as analyzed by the statistical method, and indicating 
the value of long, enduring and persistent educational 
endeavor to raise the national standard or desire for health. 
The last two sessions of the course were given over to 
sketches by the writer of the organization and functions of 
the public health services and private health agencies in the 
United States, and to a description of the necessity for 
periodic medical examinations as a means of early diagnosis 
for prevention of disease. 

Whether or not this experimental course will be followed 
by a general introduction of courses in health promotion and 
disease prevention in our teachers' colleges it is certain that 
administrative measures applied through public or private 
health agencies cannot be expected to accomplish much fur- 
ther reduction in disease and death until the general popular 
understanding of the elementary facts of biology and their 
application in the family and the school are persistently 
trained into the children by their teachers and their parents, 
and until the relation of the physician to the family is more 
that of a doctor — i. e., teacher of health — and less that of a 
doser or treater of disease. Haven Emerson. 






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Ds^Ma&ttf-iviv 



The New Sun Worship 

IT started with the great international campaign against 
tuberculosis. Then came the war and the under-feed- 
ing of millions which, in some countries of Europe, made 
the term "predisposed to tuberculosis" almost meaningless 
since more or less the whole generation of growing children, 
with conditions as they were, could be thus described. But 
the difficulties in the way of building up health by careful 
nutrition gave an immense impetus to the use of open-air 
treatment of anaemia, rickets and scrofula. Meadows laid 
out and equipped for air- and sun-baths have become almost 
as common as swimming pools in the newer public parks 
of Germany. In children's camps, maintained until re- 
cently with the support of the American Friends' Service 
Committee, sun treatment is universal. Anna Edinger, 
widow of a famous German neurologist, in writing of this 
movement, describes as follows the treatment provided by 
the school authorities at Frankfort o/M., a pioneer in the 
air-bath treatment of children fifteen years ago: 

During the school vacations, children of school age — boys and 
girls separately — are induced to attend daily from nine till noon 
to play, drill and rest on lawns railed off for their use. The 
younger children wear bathing drawers only, the older ones bathing 
suits. They are gradually inured to cool air and grilling sun to 
prevent catching colds and blistering. 

The treatment is different from that in sanatoria for sick children 
where sun baths are given according to exact medical prescription 
and from that in air bath colonies where, after a week's acclimatiza- 
tion, the children are left to their own devices except for those 
requiring special attention because of cardiac, eye, rheumatic or 
bladder troubles. 

In Frankfort, the sun-and-air-bath movement has spread from 
institutions for that purpose, which are also available for adults, 
such as exist in all the larger cities of Germany, to the parks, the 
yards of schools, kindergartens and public institutions. Because of 
the increase of rickets, arrangements have been made whereby 
infants and children under school age who cannot be conveyed far 
from home, are given sun baths in their own neighborhood. 

The effect, especially in the case of rickets, seems like a miracle, 
one of the Frankfort consultants lately declared. Little children 
who, early in the season, were carried by their mothers or older 
sisters, feeble and uninterested, run around merrily, and their bone 
deformities are improved. A remarkable result in all the children 
is that in the winter following their air bath experience, they are 
hardened; children who formerly were subject to colds are immune 
to such attacks. 

Another result, confirmed by measurements, is the expansion of 
the chests, a great factor in the prevention of tuberculosis. Freed 
from restricting clothing, the muscles have fair play. In this, of 
course, the gymnastic exercises help. 

All this is not, of course, news in America, so far as the 
effects of open air treatment are concerned. But it is re- 



110 



THE SURVEY 



October 15, 1922 



markable how, under necessity, the appreciation for it has 
increased in Europe. In Lausanne, writes Mrs. Edinger, 
physicians and teachers have called upon all parents to allow 
their children to spend their vacation on the shore of the 
lake clothed only in bathing suits. 

Artists and poets as well as health reformers and teachers 
have taken up the movement in Germany where it coincides, 
in the general spirit of emancipation from hindering tradi- 
tions, with a wave of aesthetic appreciation for the beauty 
of the human body. A little book entitled "To the Sun, 
to the Sun!" (from which the decoration here reproduced 
is taken) combines the appeal to the instinct for health 
with that to the joys of freedom. 

Reveille in North Dakota 

THE average North Dakotan will tell you that his state 
is the healthiest in the union. This may be true. But 
there isn't much in the way of evidence. Nobody knows 
how many children are born in North Dakota, how many 
persons die, or from what diseases they suffered. Birth and 
mortality records are from ten to thirty per cent deficient, 
the Survey is informed by Dr. Robert Oleson, Surgeon, 
United States Public Health Service. 

North Dakota foots the list of states in appropriations 
made by legislation for public health. The State Board of 
Health now enjoys a total of $3,450 a year. There are 636,- 
000 people in the state. 

When Chapin of Providence made his survey of state 
health departments a few years ago North Dakota stood 
thirty-fourth, with 139 points out of a possible 1,000. If the 
work of the public health laboratories, affiliated with the Uni- 
versity of North Dakota and not under control of the Board 
of Health, is eliminated, the state work ranks between forty- 
third and forty-eighth. 

But North Dakota has heard reveille. A Children's Code 
Commission has been established. The National Commit- 
tee for Mental Hygiene has been invited to make a survey. 
Dr. H. E. French, the new secretary of the State Board of 
Health, has asked the United States Public Health Service 
for help, and Dr. Oleson has been detailed for duty, with 
headquarters at Grand Forks. 

Meanwhile, even on starvation rations, the Board is func- 
tioning. One clerk, the only full-time employe, is struggling 
with vital statistics. A quarterly bulletin of information is 
published; some supplies are bought. 

Some excellent work, quite uncorrelated, is going on among 
both official and voluntary agencies. Effective service is given 
by the laboratory system under control of the University, 
with headquarters in Grand Forks. A Bureau of Venereal 
Diseases is in charge of a state officer operating from Bis- 
marck. An efficient anti-tuberculosis association, at Bismarck, 
receives a grant of $5,000 a year from the state. The Col« 
lege of Agriculture in Fargo carries on sanitary inspection of 
hotels. Public health nursing, chiefly by Red Cross person- 
nel, is supervised by a capable chief in Fargo. The confusion 
is obvious. 

The remedy is equally clear. Correlation of effort, con- 
centration of funds and amalgamation of personnel will pre- 
vent, says Dr. Oleson, much unnecessary sickness and many 
premature deaths. The Board of Health should become a 
department ; it should have a full-time executive, beyond the 
reach of politics, chosen by a new advisory council with con- 
tinuing tenure, which would replace the present constantly 
changing board of three. There should be set up, with 
trained personnel, four divisions: on vital statistics, prevent- 
able diseases, child hygiene and public health nursing, and 
sanitary engineering. 

This will cost approximately $13,500 more than is now 
being spent in a scattering way, the whole organization requir- 
ing 1.04 per cent, of all state appropriations, or $.067 per 



capita. Competent authorities estimate that two per cent of 
total state appropriations is justifiable for a public health 
department. 

Yet it will be no small task, Dr. Oleson concludes, to 
arouse North Dakota to a sharp realization of its needs. 

Health in City Charters 

CITIES vary in charter provisions for health and welfare 
as well as in street car fares and educational oppor- 
tunities. The Kansas City Public Service Institute has made 
a study of the charters of the twenty-five largest cities in the 
country to discover to what extent they permit the city 
fathers to look after the well-being of their children. Among 
other things the study revealed that the duties of the health 
department may extend from the supervision of city hospi- 
tals to the collection and disposal of garbage or may not 
include either. 

Eight of the twenty-five cities provide for a health board 
and fourteen leave their health work in the hands of one man 
who is appointed director, health officer, or commissioner. 
More and more, however, the control both of health and 
welfare departments by boards is being abandoned. 

Membership in the boards or departments is variously 
restricted. In New York, for instance, the police commis- 
sioner is automatically included; in Kansas City no member 
of the board may be a practicing physician. In ten of the 
cities the physical examination of school children and all 
health work in schools is under the supervision of the health 
department and in others it is specifically under the direc- 
tion of the Board of Education. 

In general, the city charters tend to give little detail con- 
cerning the organization and powers of health and welfare 
departments; in fact, some do not mention either health or 
welfare at all. The two departments are generally kept 
separate. The director of the health work is, in most cities, 
a physician. General hospital supervision is carried out by 
the department of welfare or, in commission governed 
cities, by the department of safety. The department of wel- 
fare usually covers charity, correction and recreation, though 
sometimes, as in Los Angeles, public charity is a county 
function, and in St. Louis parks and recreation are jointly 
controlled. Usually the welfare department has charge of 
penal and correctional institutions. Infant welfare ?nd child 
hygiene work are carried on in separate bureaus of the 
health department in most cases, but information was not 
available from all the cities surveyed. 

Almost every one of these twenty-five city charters has 
some unique provision with suggestive value for other cities. 

A Clinic That Is Not Free 

THE Manhattanville district of New York is the scene 
of a health service experiment that is exceptional. 
The outward manifestation of this demonstration consists 
of a renovated store which exhibits white curtained win- 
dows and the name, Manhattanville Health Society. Two 
days a week one can see a little group of baby carriages 
parked around the entrance, and it is natural to assume that 
some welfare organization is conducting clinics for the babies 
of the neighborhood. To the uninitiated, however, the type 
of mothers attending the clinics is surprising, for they are 
well dressed, intelligent looking and obviously of the middle 
classes — but therein lies the whole point of the project. The 
Manhattanville Health Society is an organization not of 
the poor who cannot pay for health services but of average 
people of moderate circumstances who need them just as 
much and who do not care to frequent free clinics and dis- 
pensaries. It is a cooperative undertaking which plans to 
include five thousand people in its active service on the basis 
of individual membership fees of six dollars a year. The 
project is fostered by a joint committee from the Maternity 



October 15, 1922 



THE SURVEY 



111 



Center Association, the Henry Street Visiting Nurse Service 
and the New York Diet Kitchen Association. An anony- 
mous donation of ten thousand dollars has made such an 
experiment possible, and the whole-hearted support of the 
more recently organized Citizens' Committee is putting it 
on its feet. 

Manhattanville was chosen for the project because its 
population is fairly stationary and almost exclusively of 
native stock. Statistics show that it is in every respect a 
typical middle class neighborhood, and the experiment 
launched there proposes to prove that the average community, 
either in a small town or a big city, not only needs health 
service, but can obtain it on a self-supporting basis. As one 
member said, " This society is just exactly what this neigh- 
borhood needs, for with rents and living expenses so high 
it is hard to have to pay a doctor's fee every time the baby 
has a little cold." 

Just how successful the experiment will be depends on 
the people of the district. If they want the service it is 
theirs; if not, the proposition will be offered to some other 
community. For the present the society offers the following 
services to its members: 

1. Advice and assistance in all matters pertaining to health; 

2. Visiting nurse care for sick persons of all ages; 

3. Supervision for pregnant mothers, including medical exam- 
inations and advice, clinics and classes, and nurses' visits to 
the home; 

4. Assistance at confinement (other than doctor's services), sub- 
ject to specified regulations; 

5. Health service for children under two years; conferences 
where babies will receive thorough physical examination and 
regular weighing and inspection ; instruction in proper feeding 
and general care; nurses' visits to the home; 

6. Health supervision of children from two to six years of age, 
including thorough physical examination and health classes 
for the children; advice and assistance to mothers; nurses' 
and nutrition workers' visits to the home. 

These services do not overlap those of any other nursing 
organization working in the community except the assistance 
given by visiting nurses of the Metropolitan Life Insurance 
Company to its policy holders and the work of private 
practitioners. The society neither excludes nor ignores the 
patients of either but works with both to the best of its 
ability. It offers more extensive service than the Metropoli- 
tan nurses can give, thereby supplementing their work, and 
it regards the family physician as the first to be considered 
and consulted in case of doubt. 

The work is still in its infancy, having been started in 
March, 1922. The Citizens' Committee has taken over the 
administration of the society and since May has been con- 
ducting a widespread membership campaign among the 
seventy-three thousand residents of the district which is 
gradually showing results. The paid membership now is 
150; Olive Beason Husk, the director, maintains that a 
gradual climb is more satisfactory than a sudden enthusiastic 
sweep with its ultimate descent. Instead of making use of 
bizarre methods of publicity, the committee prefers to de- 
pend upon the appreciation of present members and upon 
conservative leaflets and window cards to bring new mem- 
bers in. 

The baby and children's clinics are now well established 
and serving seventy-one babies and twenty-one children of 
pre-school age. The maternity service, just organized, is 
already caring for ten members; when the society is fully 
organized ten paid nurses and several physicians will sup- 
plement the work of the one nurse and one doctor now 
covering the field. 

There have been, of course, other experiments and efforts 
along the line of community health projects, such as the 
Framingham Demonstration and the center at Mansfield, 
Ohio; but the Manhattanville society is exceptional in that 
it offers general health service on a cooperative basis. Once 
on its feet, it will be self supporting, inaugurating a new 



phase of neighborhood cooperation which is likely to spread. 
The immediate neighborhood around the society's head- 
quarters at first either looked askance upon the place or disre- 
garded it entirely. The members are coming, strange to say, 
from the outposts of the district, but eventually, no doubt, the 
corner grocer and the tailor next door will also be mem- 
bers. In the meantime these are showing themselves true 
to human nature, for those closest to a scene of action are 
usually the last to notice what is going on. Most of the 
first members are young married women, and the society is 
proving its usefulness to many of them. One young couple 
brought their baby directly from the hospital where it had 
undergone an operation to the society headquarters for in- 
spection and displayed the attitude toward those in charge 
with which one might exhibit one's child to its grandmother. 
Through the influence of the society and its physician, the 
operation had been performed free of charge by a specialist 
of note, a fact duly appreciated by a young couple struggling 
against the present high cost of living. " That," said the 
doctor, " is just exactly where the advantage of this organ- 
ization lies. These people are fairly well educated and are 
independent; under ordinary conditions they could not 
afford to secure the big men to perform the operations, but 
through their membership in the Manhattanville Health 
Society practically any service is available. And their pride 
is saved, too, by the fact that they are paying members." 

Gertrude Woodcock. 

Prevention and Cure 

tf /"ORGANIZATION shock should not replace shell 
Vv/ shock," declared Dr. W. E. Musgrave of San Fran- 
cisco in discussiong California's present duty to the disabled 
veterans within her borders. " Most of these men are ner- 
vously, and some of them mentally, unwell," he said. "They 
will not react kindly to treatment, however efficient that is, 
accompanied by the roar of the machinery of organization." 
He therefore urged that the remobilization of hospital and 
other medical facilities in California for soldier care, pro- 
posed by the League for the Conservation of Public Health, 
be carried out as unobtrusively as possible. His remark 
complements that of the vocational rehabilitation student, an 
inmate of a metropolitan clubhouse run by a " benevolent " 
woman, who complained of her emotional facility in dealing 
with her proteges. " It ain't good for shell-shocked men 
to be wept on," he said. 

AN INTERESTING attempt to wrestle with the 
psychological problem of the tuberculosis sanitarium is 
reported by the Denver Sanitarium of the Jewish Consump- 
tives' Relief Society. There is a Patients' Mutual Aid So- 
ciety to which all the inmates are eligible, which collects a 
small membership fee, administers relief to the most desti- 
tute, runs a cooperative store, and provides through its offices 
and organization machinery an outlet for individual energy. 

THE proceeds of the Lasker Memorial Fund, given to 
the American Society for the Control of Cancer by the 
family of_ Mrs. M. Lasker in memory of her son, are to be 
used this year in the publication of a series of fourteen litho- 
graphed posters. These call attention vigorously to the need 
of early diagnosis and sound treatment. They will be dis- 
tributed to each of the society's 700 committees for exhibit, 
particularly during Cancer Week, November 12-18. 

MICHIGAN babies, profiting by a cool summer and 
the cumulative effect of educational work by state and 
local health departments, made a health record in August. 
The infant mortality rate for the month was 60.1 per 1,000 
living births, the lowest for ten years. 



EDUCATION 



Rural Leaders Who Study Their Jobs 



YOU might not have been able to distinguish the 
fifty-two rural pastors from the four thousand, 
seven hundred other students at the summer school 
of the University of Wisconsin. But they were 
there and their importance was out of all proportion to their 
numbers. They were there at the special invitation of the 
College of Agriculture and a committee of religious leaders 
of the state. They wanted the help of the university in 
gaining a better understanding of rural conditions. They 
came as acknowledged leaders seeking a broader conception 
of leadership. 

For several reasons this three-weeks conference at Wis- 
consin held a particular significance. Conferences of the 
kind have been held in other states — in Ohio, Oklahoma, 
Colorado and Washington — but they are still in the experi- 
mental stage and no one of them had so many advantages. 
The Wisconsin .conference was made possible through the 
strong support of a College of Agriculture already famous 
for its work with farmer citizens. Its speakers were the 
best that could be obtained from state and federal depart- 
ments. 

Given the advantages of location and leadership, results 
had to be gained through the response of the individual 
pastor to the appeal for enlightened leadership in the rural 
community. In this the marked difference in men had to 
be reckoned with. 

Three rural pastors — among fifty-two of various faiths — 
introduced themselves at one of the meetings held for the 
interchange of experiences. 

The first was of Holland birth. His face was a Hans 
Memling portrait — a skin like crumpled poppy leaves and 
clear blue eyes that gleamed as he talked. 

" My work is in the fruit district," he explained eagerly, 
" and I'm getting new pointers on pruning and fruit culture 
to take back to my farmers. I have three parishes, Scotch, 
Scandinavian and Dutch, but I can help them all with their 
orchards." 

Next spoke a young preacher, ruddy cheeked, fair haired, 
pleasantly aggressive. 

" I've the finest parish in the state," he boasted. " It's 
twenty miles square and often I have six services on Sunday. 
The farmers are just like other folks and like to have you 
talk over their problems with them. You can't thunder ser- 
mons at them any more." 

The third speaker had white hair and a white beard as well. 
Around his eyes there were no wrinkles caused by laughter. 

" I'm an old-fashioned Evangelical missionary," he pro- 
nounced, " and I believe in the verbal interpretation of the 
Scriptures. The Bible tells me plainly that amusements are 
sinful." 

DISSIMILAR as were these three men — and the fifty-two 
they exemplified — there were points of contact. Each 
man, whatever his public faith or private convictions, was a 
rural pastor and constantly in touch with the problems of the 
farmer. Each one needed the best possible approach to that 
farmer in order to help him solve his problems. And the 
main purpose of the conference was to provide the best 
approach. 

Examine the courses offered by the Wisconsin summer 
school if you are one who has been prophesying the decline 
of the rural church. You will be surprised to learn of the 

112 



variety and scope of the activities expected of the rural 
pastor of today. Not one subject, you will note, touches 
even remotely the problem of original sin or the authorship 
of the Book of Job. The minister's professional training in 
theology and morals lies in another field. 

Here is the daily schedule. The honor system was in use, 
but each minister was expected to attend a class each hour: 

8.00 Rural Life 

9.00 Rural Community and the 
Church 
10.00 Agricultural Economics or 

Marketing 
11.00 Administration of Country 
Churches 

Or Auto Mechanics 
Or Farm Poultry 



2.15 Assembly 

2.30 Recreational Leadership 

3.30 Organized Play and Games 

4.30 Conferences 

7.30 Lectures, Entertainments 
and Demonstrations 

Underlying and connecting all of these courses, from 
Church Administration to Farm Poultry, ran the desire of 
both university and church to give to the rural pastor an 
understanding and sympathy for the conditions under which 
he worked. State and church seemed to agree that through 
the pastor the farmer could best be led from his old position 
of isolation to a realization of the advantages which should 
be his. 

The rural pastors themselves had first to be converted to 
such a program. The idea that they were the intermediaries 
between the resources of the state and the needs of the rural 
community must have been new to many of them. As the 
conference progressed one felt how the bigness of their 
jobs grew upon these men. It must have been almost over- 
whelming to those who had thought of them hitherto in 
terms of Sunday Schools, Ladies Aids, three sermons on 
Sunday, weddings and funerals. 

Edmund de S. Brunner, Director of Social and Religious 
Surveys, New York, threw some of his nine o'clock classes 
on the Rural Community and the Church open for general 
discussion. 

ONE man told of a band (the conference had heard it 
play) which he himself led; another of a splendid com- 
munity house he had been instrumental in building; another 
of a health center where country girls were trained to be 
emergency nurses. From open country districts came reports 
of large Boy Scout and Pioneer organization, non sectarian 
of course; of country socials attracting a thousand people; of 
cooperation with county agents, home economic demon- 
strators, health officers, university extension lecturers, trav- 
elling libraries, and the like. 

Some of the stories were good naturedly challenged. 

" Do you mean to say?" came one question, " that you 
organized a band when you'd never led one before?" 

" I hadn't even played a note on any of the instruments," 
came the surprising retort. " I did it because some of the 
men in our little town wanted a band and asked me to beat 
time. After that I got hold of some text books and learned 
the technique of the different pieces. Anybody could do it 
who could read music." 

" What was the value to the community ? " asked one of 
the practical-minded. 

" Well," replied the man who was both pastor and band 
master, " our town is a backward place, pretty much out 
of the way, and it's never had a thing to be proud of — until 
this band. Now you can just see the difference. People 
talk about it and boast to any stranger, particularly since 
we've raised money enough to buy real uniforms." 



October 15, 1922 



THE SURVEY 



113 



Not every one could give results. One young preacher 
with a pale earnest face and long blond hair announced that 
what he had was problems. 

" I'm in a town of three hundred and fifty," he explained, 
" and in spite of all I can do to elevate the moral tone of the 
people there are three dances a week. One night I made a 
big effort to put on a stereopticon lecture with views from 
the university and a missionary from China to give the 
talk and, if you'll believe me, that night all the young people 
went to a dance at the school house 1 " 

Any mention of dancing was certain to provoke discus- 
sion. Not many, perhaps, shared the concern of the earnest 
young preacher over dances in the school house, but all were 
united in their alarm over the jazz dancing at the road 
house which the automobile has made so available to coun- 
try youths. And all of them, even to the stern missionary, 
must have demonstrated to themselves that denunciations 
and imprecations from the pulpit were not sufficient. 

Substantial help came from Professor E. B. Gordon, Chief 
of the Bureau of Community Development in the Extension 
Division of the university. Through him these men added to 
their new knowledge of auto-mechanics and sociology the 
conception of recreational leadership. Community music, the 
pageant and the proper observance of festivals were suggested 
as three means by which the people of the rural community 
might satisfy their normal demands for play. 

Here again the pastors themselves had first to be con- 
verted to the idea and trained in it. They were given a 
pageant to experiment with, the representation of the four 
things men live by — work, love, worship and play — taken 
from the book by Richard Cabot. The pageant was crude 
if judged by ordinary standards, but it was remarkable if 
one considers that it was worked up in the shortest possible 
time by men with little or no experience. The organized 
games might have been called crude too, for it was a little 
difficult for white hair and stiff joints to get into a ball 
game. Both games and pageant had the spirit of the idea 
which could be carried back for further development to fifty 
or more rural parishes. 

Warren H. Wilson, of the Training Committee of the 
Federal Council of Churches, gave practical advice to admin- 
istrators. He emphasized the importance of selecting the 
man best adapted by training and temperament to deal with 
the peculiar problems of any parish. 

" In one village," he said in illustration, " a pastor built 
a splendidly equipped community house. He left and his 
immediate successor refused to allow the house to be used so 
long as it contained a billiard table ! 

" Count 'em," proclaimed Dr. Wilson, " count 'em," 
when he outlined the five-fold program of Health, Econom- 
ics, Education, Recreation and Discipline, which every rural 
pastor of the present day must be ready to undertake. 

THE fact that the farmer of today is not the farmer of 
twenty or even ten years ago was stressed. The pastor 
who would make his church the force in the community that 
it once was, was told that he must understand the change in 
rural psychology and the causes of the change. 

" At one time," said Dr. Galpin, Director of Rural Life 
Studies, United States Bureau of Education, " the farmer 
was the most independent worker in the world. The city 
man might come to him and complain that his ears of corn 
were not full enough or that his milk was too thin. 

" ' Take it or leave it,' the farmer would retort. ' It's 
the way nature made it.' " 

Progressive farming has changed all that and today the 
farmer who does not conform so far as possible to the 
reasonable demands of the consumer finds that he is losing 
his market. The university that gave the Babcock test 
expects from the farmers the increased intelligence that is 
born of scientific agriculture. And it is to this new farmer 
that the pastor of today must make his appeal. 



Many of the pastors, to be sure, had already recognized 
the fact. The ruddy cheeked young preacher who declared, 
" They don't want to be thundered at any more; they want 
you to talk things over with them," recognized it. So did 
the fatherly Hollander with a face like a Memling who was 
helping his farmers prune their fruit trees by the latest 
methods. Adelaide Evans Harris. 

When Opinions Get Together 

SOLOMON was wrong. New things do happen under 
the sun, and the sun keeps right on shining. The con- 
servative has been defined (for the nth time) as "one who 
believes that nothing should ever happen the first time." 
The 'Sconset " School of Opinion " has happened for the 
first time (henceforth conservatives may attend with safety) 
and if Nature or the Universe had any grudge against it, that 
feeling was not made evident. The sunlight fell over moor 
and sea as it fell, of old, nowhere but in fairy tales of good 
children. Stories of storms came from other lands, near and 
remote. But the only rain that fell at 'Sconset during the 
first three weeks of September was the more or less gentle 
rain of opinions. 

But what a rain was that! When Frederick C. Howe 
announced in the spring of 1922 that he planned to invite an 
indefinite array of students and teachers to get together at 
'Sconset, on Nantucket Island, in September, to hold a 
"school of opinion," the rain began. It came from many 
quarters. A school of opinion! Journalists laughed at the 
idea. Conservatives scoffed, decried and, finally, con- 
sidered whether legal means should not be employed to 
prevent it. Propagandists sought to insinuate their own 
subtle, but definite, controls over it. Teachers were not 
certain they could, or should, attend. Students asked their 
parents if they could go, and in many cases were none too 
gently informed that such a school was no place for a respect- 
able student, with his way in the world to make, to think of 
going. 

None the less, more than two hundred students and teach- 
ers, near-students and innocent by-standers attended. The lec- 
ture hall was crowded to its capacity at practically all 
lectures and discussions. " The lecturing was brilliant be- 
yond my expectations," said Mr. Howe. There was some 
difficulty experienced in telling lecturers and students apart — 
largely because there was little real difference. Groups of 
" hikers " usually had some well-known man or woman in 
their number, and the school thus became peripatetic. 

Vigorous discussions encroached, more and more, upon the 
time allotted to lecturers as the days went by. Students 
refused to accept the role of passive listeners. They in- 
sisted upon having a share in the making of opinions. All in 
all, it was an intensely healthful experience for both students 
and lecturers. 

Hence, contrary to most expectations, the school did not 
degenerate into an orgy of opinions. Most of those who 
attended felt themselves in the midst of a brilliant clash of 
opinions; and few who were there could honestly say, after- 
wards, that they came out no wiser than when in they went. 
To confess any such result was to confess definite insen- 
sitivity to intellectual stimulations of a serious sort. 

Biology dominated the first week. Professor Edward G. 
Conklin practically hypnotized his audiences with his 
demonstrations of biological determinism in human society. 
Students and teachers, alike, walked as in a dream almost, 
after listening to him. The illusion was not destroyed until 
a business man and student from Wilmington, Delaware, 
definitely challenged the finality of this determinism, toward 
the end of the week. Then we came out of our dream. 

Critical social psyciu," gy dominated the second week. 
Everett Dean Martin, of the People's Institute, New York, 

/ 



114 



THE SURVEY 



October 15, 1922 



divided the sheep from the goats (which was which is not 
here implied) with his suggestions that radicals should let 
the light of criticism play over their aims as well as over 
their means of working for those aims. After listening to 
this, we forgot all about dreams. We were awake. We 
took sides. We held conferences, morning, noon and night. 
We protested and we asserted. We derided and we denied. 
We even undertook to do some thinking. But scarcely that 
much — 

The last week was characterized by a gentle humanity as, 
under the stimulating lectures of James Harvey Robinson, 
we slowly approached the " return to earth " and mundane 
things, generally. No invidious distinctions are intended in 
this naming of three lecturers out of the twenty or more who 
took part in the program. Combinations of circumstances 
made these three stand out as the personifications of the dis- 
tinctive moods of the three weeks. All the rest of us, 
lecturers and students, alike, contributed to, or subtracted 
from, these distinctive moods as suited our likings and our 
talents. Nationalism and internationalism; psychology pro 
and psychology con; literature and the illiterate; the state 
and the anti-state ; cooperation and competition ; civil liberty 
and communism; education and ignorance; the single 
tax and the double tax ; the classic and the romantic ; the his- 
tory of slavery and the slavery of history: all these things, 
and many more, came in for a word, or an hour, of praise 
or of blame, for the good things, or the ills, done under the 
sun. It was good fun. It was exceedingly profitable. It 
is to be done again. 

There was a persistent whisper during the first week that 
an agent of that branch of our government which is called 
the department of justice was among those present, in dis- 
guise. The story probably had no real foundation. Certain 
residents of the fashionable colony in the town of Nantucket 
were said to have been greatly perturbed by this incursion of 
people with opinions upon the island. A number of them 
ventured to attend the school, for the purpose, as one of 
them explained, of securing evidence. It was a dangerous 
procedure. Several who came to scoff remained to laugh. 
After that, all was lost. A protest meeting was held in 
Nantucket at a private home. There was a story floating 
about the island that the war records of some of the 
opinioneers were not all that they should have been. A 
speaker at this protest meeting accused the school of being 
" socialistic." She was asked to define "socialism." But 
as the hour was growing late, and, anyhow, as it was Sun- 
day, further discussion of that subject was postponed. 

PLANS for next year are as yet undefined. That some- 
thing of the same general sort will be carried through is 
assured. Moreover, next year's program is likely to be more 
extensive. Certain types of problems were not adequately 
represented in the program, this year. For example, the prob- 
lem of education and the schools intruded itself to such an 
extent that the program for the second week had to be dis- 
rupted in order to provide a clear day for the discussion of 
that question alone. Opinions and clashes of opinion will 
have some bearing on education whether we consent or no. 
There was some talk of organizing two programs next year: 
one for those primarily interested in educational problems; 
the other for those primarily interested in the clash of 
opinions. 

The question of control of the program was discussed 
frequently by interested groups. All felt that this effort to 
domesticate the spirit of inquiry in some yearly event was 
thoroughly worth supporting. The opinions of all were 
voiced in a statement made by Mr. Howe: " Whatever we 
attempt to do here," he said, " we must constantly respect 
the intellectual integrity of those who come. Let us make 
of this a school of mental integrity." J. K. H. 



Straws in the Wind 

' I A HE colleges and universities are swamped by students 
•*■ again this autumn. The freshman flood has not abated. 
Some applicants for admission to Harvard have found a 
lack of living quarters, even, and have been compelled to 
sleep on the campus. The whole country seems to be in 
like case. The youth movemetn in America seems to be 
toward higher education. So far the newspapers report, 
at any rate. 

Educational authorities are distressed and confused by 
the problem thus presented. Suggestions for solving the 
problem are varied and contradictory. President Ernest 
M. Hopkins, of Dartmouth, insists that, since present equip- 
ments are inadequate to the demands, the college authorities 
should be supported in a program of careful selection. He 
thinks that those, only, who have potential intellectual 
capacity should be admitted. He would have an " aris- 
tocracy of brains." 

On the other hand, Chancellor Elmer E. Brown, of New 
York University, is reported as holding that any such pro- 
gram will prove to be unfair; that society must make pro- 
vision just as rapidly as possible to take care of all who 
want to go to college, or to have a share in any form of 
higher education; and that meanwhile, the colleges must 
make shift to be as impartial as possible in their admission 
plans. 

Between these two points of view lie many varieties of 
acceptance and modification. The whole problem is appear- 
ing above the horizon of public discussion as never before. 

MEANWHILE, at Harvard, in particular, and at 
other schools, in general, the charge of discrimination 
against the Jews has not been settled. This fall the matter 
has been aggravated at Harvard by the publication of a new 
blank form which must be filled out by applicants for admis- 
sion. Among the questions asked are, "Race and color?" 
and particularly, " What change, if any, has been made 
since birth in your own name or that of your father ? " 
These questions are held by some to indicate that, in spite 
of an agreement made last spring to do nothing further in 
a discriminatory way until the committee on admissions had 
made an exhaustive report on the whole subject, Harvard 
intends to go right ahead with a program of discrimination 
against Jews and Negroes. One heated representative of 
dissent refers to the university as " an intellectual Ku Klux 
Klan." The report of the committee on admissions will 
not be ready for several months. 

The charge that Harvard is becoming more aristocratic, 
exclusive and prejudicial is further supported by the fact 
that student waiters will no longer be employed at the 
Union, Negro waiters having been installed with the opening 
of the new year. Thirty-five student waiters have been 
greatly helped in working their ways through college in 
the past by this employment. Most of the waiters have 
been Jews. 

These are but indications of the problems that are appear- 
ing on the Harvard campus, in large numbers. Problems 
are not, however, bad things for a college, provided they are 
honestly met and intellectually faced. Even though the 
Harvard class rooms should prove to be dull, this year, the 
campus ought to be quite a lively place. 

THE American people have a legend that we are all 
endlessly hungry for all the education we can obtain. 
Sceptics are looking upon this legend with suspicion, these 
days. They suspect (the suspicion is scarcely new) that 
what we are hungry for is credits, degrees, titles, positions, 
rather than knowledge and understanding. 

Massachusetts Agricultural College has recently found out 



October 1 5, 1922 



THE SURVEY 



115 



that not more than 10 per cent of the students who enroll 
in its extension courses actually complete the assigned work 
and get the credit. They pay the fee in advance, of course, 
but they do not get the credit until the work is completed. 
Ninety per cent never complete it. The cash fee for a credit 
allures, probably; but the long task of winning the credit 
by getting the education is too much for them. The Inter- 
national Correspondence Schools could probably show re- 
sults of the same sort. The New School for Social Research, 
New York, has found that its plan of " no credits, no ex- 
aminations, no certificates " has not attracted as many stu- 
dents as had been expected. Virtue may be its own reward, 
but in education most people seem to prefer to take the 
credit and let the cash go. 

< i TV /T ENTAL differences " are being investigated in 
J.VJ. every corner, these days. For example, Professor 
Kimball Young, of the University of Oregon, has published 
through the University Press, Eugene, a monograph on 
Mental Differences in Certain Immigrant Groups, basing 
his studies on psychological tests of South European groups 
in typical schools in California. He offers suggestions in 
the way of modifying school policies and proposals for 
handling the problems of immigration and racial mixtures. 
Dr. J. E. Wallace Wallin, of Miami University, Ox- 
ford, Ohio, has been investigating The Achievements of 
Sub-Normal Children in Standardized Educational Tests, 
and has published his results in a bulletin of the university. 
He concludes : " The direction of progress in education and 
social service is in differentiating more and more sharply 
the various degrees of quantitative deviation in intelligence." 
Of course, if this differentiating goes on long enough and 
far enough, we may ultimately arrive at — individuals. 

DR. KEITH PRESTON, who is, in his serious moments, 
professor of Latin in Northwestern University, but 
who, in his unofficial moments, conducts a column of liter- 
ary criticism in the Chicago Daily News, under the title, 
The Periscope, came up for breath not long ago and com- 
mented in these terms on standardization in libraries; but 
the application likewise to schools is evident: 

The keeper of the zoo, one day, 
Decided to buy only hay. 
" Since we must standardize," said he, 
" Hay suits the big majority." 

The bear was quite resentful, but 
The keeper of the zoo said, "Tut! 
Your taste, dear Bruin, does you proud, 
But I must cater to the crowd." 

The lion gave his bale one look; 
His baleful roar the cages shook. 
" O-o-oh ! " said the keeper of the zoo, 
" Guess I must get a bone or two." 

And so the Hon got his grist ; 
The bear went on the waiting list; 
The big majority still chew 
About what Nature meant them to. 

THE Bureau of Educational Experiments, 144 West 13 
street, New York, is continuously engaged in a number 
of experiments, which are being reported in occasional bul- 
letins. Recent bulletins describe an experiment in a 
" nursery school " and in the development and standardiza- 
tion of school records. 

The nursery school experiment has undertaken to investi- 
gate " the educational factors in the environment for babies " 
that need study and planning " as much as and perhaps 
more than those in the environment of older children;" 
and to provide " fuller scientific data concerning children's 
growth — growth of every sort that is measurable or observ- 



able." The results of this experiment, which has been 
running for three years, are set forth in an 80 page bulletin 
full of concrete materials and valuable suggestions. Harriet 
M. Johnson is the author; Carmen S. Reuben contributes 
a section on music. 

The humanizing of school records is dealt with admirably 
in the second bulletin. The method " calls for a new habit 
of observing children." The teacher " must develop the 
habit of observing children working together." The teacher 
" cannot record everything, nor can she always tell what is 
of most significance, but she can make tentative notes for 
her own use, leaving the sifting of evidence to a later sum- 
mary." Of course, this is not a " record " at all, as schools 
have known records. But this bulletin is not interested in 
school records, in spite of its title: it is about educational 
records, which may mean something very different. The 
author is Mary S. Marot. 

'T^HE Public Health Service has recently published, 
•*■ through the government printing office, a manual of 
suggestions on education related to sex, under the title, High 
Schools and Sex Education. Dr. Benjamin C. Gruenberg 
is the editor. Sex education is defined as inclusive of " all 
the instruction and training that may help to form normal 
and wholesome attitudes and ideals in relation to sex, and to 
shape conduct in accord with such attitudes and ideals." 
The manual attempts to cover the whole range of educa- 
tional experience with a view to determining how much 
of our school work helps in these directions and to what 
extent it needs and is capable of reconstruction with these 
ends in view. Some practical suggestions are offered in addi- 
tion to the theoretical discussions. Extensive bibliographies 
are provided. However much the public health service has 
been criticised for its failures in other directions, its work 
in the direction of social and sex education has probably 
been the most intelligent that America has known. School 
men and all interested in these problems will find this manual 
an admirable addition to their equipment. 

But no one should assume that this manual offers final 
solutions of these problems of sex education. No one knows 
enough about the subject to be permitted to dictate too 
freely to the young or to teachers. Children easily under 
stand when an adult is floundering. Open-mindedness is 
the best attitude. 

THE Boston meeting of the National Education Asso- 
ciation was enlivened by the attacks of the Boston 
Herald and the Transcript on the principle of federal par- 
ticipation in education as proposed in the Towner-Sterling 
bill. The Herald characterized the bill as containing the 
" virus of socialism and bureaucracy." The Transcript de- 
scribed it as " a bill to Europeanize our public schools." A 
representative of the mayor, in his address of welcome, 
attacked the bill in much the same way. The association, 
however, endorsed the bill as its own and proposes to fight 
for its ultimate adoption. The struggle will probably 
emerge into the open in the next congress. 

The actual issues are not yet clear. Some are fighting the 
bill on the antiquated grounds of " state's rights." Some are 
fighting for the bill on the doubtful ground of national re- 
sponsibility for the education of the people — as if the govern- 
ment should say : " Let there be universal intelligence." Some 
are frightened by big machinery. Others are enraptured by 
the spectacle, far-off seen, of a great national educational 
machine. The question is fundamental. The whole nation 
should get an education out of the debate that will rage over 
the bill when it comes up again in Congress. Friends and 
foes, alike, should welcome the most searching inquiry into 
the probable effects upon our democracy of this proposed 
increase of prestige at Washington. 



BOOK REV IEW S 



THE ENGLISH PRISON SYSTEM 

By Sir Evelyn Ruggles-Brise, K. C. B. Macmillan fcf Co., 
Ltd., London. 275 pp. 

ENGLISH PRISONS TODAY 

The Report of the Prison System Enquiry Committee, edited 
by Stephen Hobhouse and A. Fenner Brockway. Longmans, 
Green & Co. 728 pp. Price, $8.50; with postage from the 
Survey $8.90. 

ENGLISH PRISONS UNDER LOCAL GOVERNMENT 

By Sidney and Beatrice W ebb, with Preface by Bernard Shaw. 

Longmans, Green & Co. 265 pp. Price, $5-00, with postage 

from the Survey $5.30. 
The first of the books listed above was prepared by the former 
chairman of the Prison Commission for England and Wales 
for the use of the International Prison Commission at its 1915 
meeting. But because of the war the meeting was not held, 
and the publication of the book was deferred until 1921. 

This is essentially an apologia for the English prison system 
by its chief executive. The tone of the book is throughout 
one of complacency. The author expresses his satisfaction and 
pride in the discipline, education, medical care, " the reforming 
influences of religion " and " the upright and manly attributes 
of our warder class." His general theory of the treatment 
of offenders is concisely stated on the first page: "All agree 
that the system should be, as far as possible, ' reformatory,' but 
many are tempted to overlook that it must be also, if punish- 
\ ment is to have any meaning, coercive, as restraining liberty; 
deterrent, as an example; and retributory, in the sense of 
enforcing a penalty for an offence." Withal the book contains 
much concrete information about the English prison system 
which, with due allowance for the author's bias, may be useful 
to American students of delinquency and corrections. 

In 1919 there was created a Prison System Enquiry Com- 
mittee, which included in its membership G. D. H. Cole, 
Bertrand Russell, J. R. Clynes, Sidney and Beatrice Webb, 
Bernard Shaw and others well known to Americans. The com- 
mittee conducted its investigations over a period of about three 
years. Its report was edited by two men who served long 
sentences of imprisonment during the war. At the outset the 
committee asked for official information, but this was consistent- 
ly refused. Ruggles-Brise even denied it a copy of the Standing 
Orders, and later a letter was written forbidding the staff to 
give any information. But before this letter was circulated and 
in spite of the obstacles interposed by the Home Office, evidence 
was obtained from a large number of prison officials, agents 
of prisoners' aid societies, visiting magistrates and ex-prisoners. 
The report includes samples of this evidence and conclusions 
of the committee as to the facts of the case, together with a 
few proposed changes. 

Part I of the report is devoted to a discussion of the prison 
system. It constitutes an almost unrelieved indictment. For 
example, the system of cellular confinement is still in operation. 
Even after the preliminary period of almost complete isolation, 
prisoners spend 17J4 hours out of every 24 in their cells, and 
on Saturdays and Sundays they are in the cells 19 to 20 hours. 
Another anachronism is the " silence rule." Apparently few 
prisoners attempt to obey this rule, and those who do so suffer 
grave mental injury. By disobeying the rule, prisoners can do 
something to retain their mental balance, but the cunning and 
hypocrisy which are necessary to evade discovery result in 
serious moral deterioration. 

" But the silence rule is only characteristic of the whole 
system. Self-respect is systematically destroyed and self- 
expression prevented in every phase of prison existence. The 
buildings in their ugliness and their monotony have a deadening 
and repressive effect. The labor is mostly mechanical and 
largely wasteful, and every indication of craftsmanship or 
creative ability is suppressed. The meals are distributed 
through momentarily opened doors as though the prisoners 
were caged animals. The sanitary arrangements are degrading 

116 ; 



and filthy, and the dress is hideous, slovenly and humiliating. 
Education is limited to the most elementary standard and is 
denied to those above 25 years of age. To the vast majority 
of prisoners recreation is entirely unknown, and lectures and 
music are rarely available. A letter may not be written to 
(or received from) home until two months of the sentence 
have been served, and the conditions under which the visits 
take place are so humiliating that many prisoners prefer not 
to have them. The religious ministration is almost valueless 
because of the conditions under which it is offered, and the classi- 
fication of prisoners is crude and ineffective. Punishments 
involving a starvation diet, solitary confinement, the postpone- 
ment of letters and visits, and the loss of remission, are im- 
posed for innocent and kindly speech or even for acts of un- 
selfishness, and the health of prisoners is constantly neglected 
under the suspicion of malingering" (p. 356). 

Part II of the report is devoted to a consideration of the 
effects of imprisonment. Perhaps the most remarkable facts 
brought out are those relating to insanity and suicide in prison. 
The ratio of insanity is ten times as great as among the 
general population, and after deducting those regarded as men- 
tally abnormal when admitted, the ratio is five times as great. 
Equally significant is the suicide rate. Elaborate precautions 
are taken against suicide, but in spite of this the rate is three 
times as high as outside of prison. But the instances of insanity 
and suicide are only extreme cases of a mental and moral 
deterioration from which the great majority of prisoners suffer. 
Another interesting conclusion is that there is no " criminal 
type," but there is a " prison type " produced by the very 
experiences of prison life. The failure of the prison system is 
stated finally in terms of recidivism. The figures for 1920-21 
show that no less than 54.4 per cent of male prisoners and 73.3 
per cent of women had been previously sentenced at least five 
times. 

By all odds the most useful of these three volumes for the 
average student, social worker and citizen is that by Mr. and 
Mrs. Webb with its preface by Bernard Shaw. This book is 
intended by its authors to serve a double, perhaps a triple, 
purpose. First, it is one of a series by the Webbs dealing with 
the history of local government in England. But second, they 
announce it as " a convenient historical introduction " to the 
report of the* committee. We are given here a detailed history 
of prison administration especially in jails and workhouses 
from the Seventeenth to the Twentieth Century. No further 
comment should be necessary than to say that this is done with 
the author's usual thoroughness, objectivity and interesting 
presentation. 

Special attention should be called to the epilogue in which 
the Webbs make " certain observations upon the history that 
we have sought to relate." They point out that under the 
centralized control of jails, workhouses and convict prisons 
since 1877 not all has been gain. " One of the unforeseen 
results of the transfer of the local prisons to the administration 
of a government department was to put a stop to even the small 
amount of publicity that had since 1835 prevailed." Another 
shortcoming is " the reluctance and the difficulty with which 
such a directly administered national department associates 
voluntary agencies closely with its own administration." Finally, 
they suggest the need of a " more complete separation of day- 
by-day administration from inspection and final control of 
policy." 

The third purpose of this book, English Prisons Under Local 
Government, is served by the preface in which Bernard Shaw 
drives home the lessons of the investigation in which he partici- 
pated. The incompatibility of the official aims of imprison- 
ment, listed by Ruggles-Brise, is brilliantly pointed out. Shaw 
divides offenders roughly into three classes: "First, the small 
number of dangerous or incorrigibly mischievous human ani- 
mals. . . . Second, a body of people who cannot provide 
for or order their lives for themselves. . . . Third, all 
normal persons who have trespassed in some way during one 



October 15, 1922 



THE SURVEY 



117 



T of those lapses of self-discipline which are as common as 
colds. . . . The first is easy; too easy, in fact. You kill 
or you cage; that is all. In the third class, summoning and 
fining and admonishing are easy and not mischievous. . . . 
It is the offender of the second class, too good to be killed 
or caged, and not good enough for normal liberty, whose treat- 
ment bothers us." But not even for this class does Shaw find 
any place for punishment. " If crime were not punished at all, 
the world would not come to an end any more than it does 
now that disease is not punished at all. . . ." " A criminal 
must be treated, not as a man who has forfeited all normal 

I rights and liberties by the breaking of a single law, but as one 
who, through some specific weakness or weaknesses is incapable 
of exercising some specific liberty or liberties." 
University of Kansas Stuart A. Queen 

ORGANIZING THE COMMUNITY 
1 By B. A. McClenahan. The Century Co. 260 pp. Price, 
$1.75; with postage from the Survey, $2.00. 
Designed as a help for students of the subject and for all those 
actively engaged in organizing communities, this book, with its 
sub-title promising the consideration of practical principles, 
comes as a welcome text. The promise of the title is not entirely 
fulfilled; for the book is not devoted to principles of organization 
except in small part. The bulk of the chapters deal with social 
service in the small town and the county, with some reference 
to rural districts. As a description in those fields of the status 
of recreation, health, family case work, civics, and leisure-time 
activities in general, and a picture of the recent developments in 
legislation and form of organization for these activities in cer- 
tain states, the book is useful. 

Dr. Mangold, director of the Missouri School of Social 
Economy, in which the author is assistant director, in a short 
foreword, gives the general assumption carried throughout that 
" community organization is based on fundamental democratic 
principles and therefore builds wisely for the future " and, " the 
only right way is to take the community into the confidence of 
the worker and to construct an organization based on the best 
sentiment and the good will of the people." The author calls 
community organization the special contribution of the day to 
social work, and seems to regard it as a general coordination of 
charitable, civic and " leisure time " activities. Undoubtedly 
coordination plays a large part in community organization; but 
if the latter is making, or is to make an important contribution, 
it will be in presenting methods of organizing whole communi- 
ties; in analyzing elements of effectiveness in methods of organiz- 
ing as they apply to different situations. Community organiza- 
tion relates to all forms of social service or what not, and, as 
usually regarded, is more comprehensive and more radical than 
the concept of the present volume. 

Constant stimulation of community clubs or units by a central 
agency is advocated by Miss McClenahan, and it is suggested 
that legal authority be granted to boards of public welfare for 
functions such as enforcement of school attendance laws; proba- 
tion and parole work for juvenile, police and district courts; 
administration of poor relief; promotion, supervision and con- 
duct of recreational facilities. A summary of principles of 
corr ^ — \y organization lists: need of the community to see 
and work out its own problems^ necessity for the executive board 
to assume responsibility, representation of the whole community 
by the board, adaptation of program to local needs and agencies, 
regard for all sections of the territory covered, small beginnings, 
general participation, systematic promotion of publicity, cen- 
tralization in a community council and finally, democratic organ- 
ization and procedure. 

A fourth of the book is devoted to the social survey, methods, 
principles, forms, types and uses. Types of social welfare 
activities and forms of organization are described for the small 
town and the rural community. Little or no attempt is made to 
analyze the rural attitude toward social service or cooperative 
organization. Considerable space is given to a description of 
county plans of organization and the legal provisions for county 
welfare work in Iowa, California, Minnesota, North Carolina 
and Missouri. The reader would welcome further statements 
that would indicate the values of these laws in furthering the 
democratic abilities and procedure of the citizens in the states 
in question. An interesting account is given of the ways in 
which communities reacted to the program of the American 
Red Cross. 



The book would be useful to those not thoroughly familiar 
with social work who are attempting some service in a small 
town. Its usefulness for others is limited because of 
its elementary nature and the fact that it covers a large field 
and consequently does not deal intensively with any subject. 

Columbia University LeRoy E. Bowman 

A HALF CENTURY OF PUBLIC HEALTH 

By Stephen Smith, M. D. American Public Health Associa- 
tion, New York. 461 pp. Price $3-75, paper bound; 
$5.25, cloth covered; $10 edition de luxe; with postage from 
the Survey $4; $5.60; $10.40. 

The romantic story of Fifty Years of Public Health is here 
told by Dr. Stephen Smith, founder in 1871 and the first presi- 
dent of the American Public Health Association. Dr. Smith's 
death at the age of over 99 was recently reported. He notes 
that immediately prior to 1871 there was inaugurated in New 
York city a system of public health so radical and effective 
as to mark the opening of a new epoch. But this epoch was 
also due first of all to the initiative of Dr. Smith who here 
established scientific, civic sanitation and in 1866 secured the 
enactment of the metropolitan health law. 

Following the history of Dr. Smith is a forward-looking 
address by the president of the association, Dr. Mazyck P. 
Ravenel. After tracing the admission of Canadian workers 
in 1884, Mexican in 1891, Cuban in 1902, the development of 
sections and of publications including the American Journal of 
Public Health, the use of prizes and the efforts for standardizing 
methods of public health work, Dr. Ravenel takes up a study 
of present and future developments of the association. Special- 
ization and the very broadness of health platform he counts 
among the disintegrating present tendencies. He quotes a 
contributor who feels that the association has " an abundance 
of light, but your light must be hidden under a bushel because 
you have no means to disseminate it." 

The story of public health in Canada, briefly sketched by 
Dr. Peter H. Bryce of Ottawa, is followed by a chapter on 
the " fairy tales of science " as written on the development of 
bacteriology by Professor Frederic P. Gorham of Brown 
University. Only fifty years ago Pasteur wrote to Declaux, 
" The war has forced my brain to be fallow. I am ready for 
new productions," and added that he wished for riches only 
that he might call his scientific friends about him to " trans- 
form the world by our discoveries." The list of brilliant 
discoveries of disease germs from 1837 to 1919 is given. Bacte- 
riology was introduced into the United States from 1880 to 1885, 
but Professor Thomas J. Burrill in the seventies was start- 
ing a study of bacteriology in his botany course at the Uni- 
versity of Illinois, and in 1877 he discovered the causative 
organism of fear blight. In 1878 and 1879 Dr. William H. 
Welch and Dr. T. Mitchell Prudden at Bellevue Hospital 
Medical College and the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 
New York were studying and demonstrating bacteria. 

Students and workers in public health will be pleased to find 
here chapter studies of American mortality progress, such as 
those on the quarantine system, state and municipal control 
of disease, water purification, refuse removal, stream pollution 
by industrial wastes and its control, federal food control, food 
conservation, milk and its relation to public health, history 
of child welfare in the United States, housing as a factor in 
health progress, ventilation, the effect of industrial hygiene on 
public health, the relation of medical entomology to public 
health and the history of public health nursing. Each is told 
by a master in his subject. Arthur J. Strawson 

RUSSIAN DISSENTERS 

By Frederick C. Conybeare. Harvard Univ. Press. 370 pp. 
Price $4.00; with postage from the Survey, $4.30. 

The principal impressions one receives from this learned work 
are of the unspeakable cruelty of religious machines, of the 
pettiness of matters which men regard as vital in religion and of 
the courage and patience of multitudes of common folk in bear- 
ing witness to whatever may seem to them to be the truth. What 
a curious god they believe in who conceive him as sternly ob- 
serving whether a blessing is pronounced with two or three 
fingers extended, or concerned as to exact form of ritual! 

Of the three groups of dissenters discussed in the book by far 



118 



THE S 



the largest is that whose heresy has to do with ritual. These 
date from the seventeenth Century, and had their origin in an 
attempt to reform the forms of ceremony. The changes made 
by the authorities were of slight. importance, and were no doubt 
introduced with intent to bring the service into accord with that 
of the Greek Church of which the Russian Church was a branch. 
The changes were demanded as if they were of the utmost im- 
portance and were resisted with equal firmness. It would seem 
that the resistance was due to that innate quality of all of us by 
which we resent an arbitrary order. No doubt a very little sym- 
pathy and Christian charity would have produced unity on the 
one hand or would have allowed diversity on the other; but 
neither sympathy nor Christian character was in evidence. The 
Old Ritualists took as their slogan " Let what is ancient, pre- 
vail," and defied knout, sword and stake rather than yield to 
innovation. And the church authorities did not spare knout, 
sword or stake. The patriarch Nikon led in the early perse- 
cutions which, as always, extended rather than ended the heresy. 
Later it split into several sections based on various trivial differ- 
ences; but they retained a degree of unity, making at least com- 
mon cause against the common enemy, and grew until their es- 
timated numbers about 1880 were thirteen or fourteen millions. 

Much more interesting, though much smaller in number, are 
the other two groups, although like the first they reproduce the 
typical forms of dissent found throughout Christendom. These 
two are the Dukhobors with allied sects, called here "the Ration- 
alists," and " the mystic sects." Both names seem rather unhap- 
pily placed. The author notes this fact as to the first, attributing 
it to " Russian publicists," and adding, " It is somewhat of a 
misnomer, but it calls attention to the fact that they are the 
outcome, not of reverence for the traditions and ritual of the 
great churches, but of inward illumination." But these are in 
fact the true mystical sects, allied to the Montanists of the early 
church, to Eckhart and Pauler of the Middle Ages, and to the 
Quakers of Modern times. They represent in Russia a move- 
ment far older than the " Raskol " or ritualistic heretics. They 
are " a direct result of putting the New Testament in the hands 
of Russian peasants," and " savor of pure conversion to simple 
Christianity." They rejected ritual, images, formal organiza- 
tion, and demanded " so lofty and ethical level that they spread 
but little until they accommodated themselves to the mentality 
of the Russian peasants." Today the total number is in the 
millions. 

The third group consists of the self-torturers and extreme 
fanatics, corresponding to the flagellants of the Middle Ages. 
The name " mystic sects " used by the author is wholly inap- 
propriate. Their faith takes on the various extravagant forms 
and teachings characteristic of half-crazed zealots, reaching 
even to claims on the part of various individuals to be incarna- 
tions of God, of Christ, of Mary and of the Holy Ghost. 

A final curiosity is a sect, fairly universal until lately, which 
defied Napoleon I. Jesse H. Holmes 

THE PHILIPPINES, PAST AND PRESENT 

By Dean C. Worcester. Macmillan Co. Second Edition. 

1,024 PP- Illustrated. Price, $5.00; with postage from the 

Survey, $5.30. 
There is probably no other American with so long and so varied 
an experience in the Philippines as Dean C. Worcester, who 
first went to the Islands as a member of a scientific expedition 
in 1887. He returned there later for two years and a half of 
travel and study, and in 1899, after the Spanish-American War, 
he went again as a member of the first Philippine Commission. 
He was also a member of the second Philippine Commission. 
As Secretary of the Interior, Mr. Worcester directed the Bureau 
of Non-Christian Tribes and spent much of his time traveling 
among these strange peoples. He writes his story in an easy, 
interesting style, and his descriptions are interspersed with per- 
sonal anecdotes. 

There are at least two defects in this story which are evident 
to any one conversant with affairs Philippine. Mr. Worcester 
knows the wild tribes and the Moros (Mohammedans) ; no one 
knows them better. Much of their development is due to his 
interest in them, and he says in this book, " The only thing that 
has kept me in the Philippine service for so long a time was my 
interest in the work for the non-Christian tribes. ..." The 
Christian-Filipinos, representing roughly eleven-twelfths of the 
total population of the islands, accuse Mr. Worcester of describ- 



URFEY October 15, 1922 

ing the islands primarily as inhabited by head hunters and 
Mohammedans. Mr. Worcester's long experience with these 
mountain peoples might justify some such suspicion and the 
perusal of this volume would increase this feeling. Of seventy- 
four illustrations in Mr. Worcester's book, thirty are of the 
non-Christian peoples or their territory and but few of the 
remaining forty-four give any indication of the advancement 
of the Christian population. 

And now comes the second weakness in these thousand and 
more pages. One does not read far to learn that they are 
written to establish a theory. The theory is that the Filipino 
is not ready for self-government. The first paragraph contains 
the motive of the book. Governor Harrison, sent by Mr. Wil- 
son, had landed in October, 1913, and promised the Filipinos a 
" new era." This arouses Mr. Worcester's ire. For many 
chapters we are dragged through the revolution of twenty-two 
years ago. Most of this story is reproduced from the accounts 
of others. Numerous harrowing details of Filipino atrocities 
are unearthed, some from sources which a former professor 
in a well known American university would scarcely have been 
expected to use as authority. And then Mr. Worcester makes 
the mistake of advertising a Judge Blount, whose book is, 
according to Mr. Worcester, full of errors, especially in that 
the Christian-Filipino is depicted as too enlightened an individual. 
The reader wishes Mr. Worcester had omitted his quarrel with 
Judge Blount, for one grows weary of detailed quotations and 
arguments, which become occasionally personal. Mr. Worcester 
asserts that Judge Blount spoke of him as " Non-Christian 
Worcester," " an overbearing bully of the beggar-on-horseback 
type," " the P. T. Barnum of the ' Non-Christian tribe ' indus- 
try." All of which has little to do with the ability or lack of 
ability of the Filipinos to manage their own affairs and sounds 
as though a long, hot season with indolent muchachos, sleepless 
nights with no breeze to stir the cocoanut trees, and the bam- 
boos, ants, mosquitoes and other tropical woes had combined to 
prevent proper perspective on a problem in which we Americans 
are all interested. W. W. Pettit 

New York School of Social Work 

THE AMERICAN VITRUVIUS: An Architect's Hand- 
book of Civic Art 

By Werner Hegemann and Elbert Peets. Architectural Book 

Publishing Co. 298 folio pages, richly illustrated. Price, 

$40; with postage from the Survey, $41.00. 
Apart from Mulford Robinson's admittedly sketchy attempts 
in this direction, America has not hitherto had a work of gen- 
eral survey over the whole field of civic art. The present work 
is neither a history nor an argument in favor of any particular 
theory or school, but a collection of material sufficiently ample 
to illustrate each important field and sufficiently elastic in its 
arrangement to bring together those examples which for mod- 
ern, practical purposes belong together, whether they are of 
the same period or not. The chapter headings are: The Modern 
Revival of Civic Art, Plaza and Court Design in Europe, The 
Grouping of Buildings in America, Architectural Street Design, 
Garden Art as Civic Art, City Plans as Unified Designs, The 
Plan of Washington. 

For the first time, we think, in an American work, sufficient 
justice is done to the genius of Camillo Sitte whose systematic 
study laid the foundation for the modern, scientific approach 
to city development. Very interesting also is the evaluation r>f 
the part played by international fairs in the rediscovery and 
re-application of classical formulas for the grouping of build- 
ings. America's principal contribution to that aspect of the 
subject, however, is the university campus, represented in this 
book by a great variety of examples. 

The term civic center is often used rather loosely; the present 
book brings it back to its original significance and discusses the 
relation of individual important buildings to their environment 
as a separate problem. 

In such matters more especially as park design, and the plan- 
ning of harmonious streets and blocks, the authors draw upon 
a surprising number of recent projects in different parts of the 
world, many of which are quite new to American readers and 
very suggestive in the lessons they hold for American city prob- 
lems. The chapters on general city plans and land sub-divisions 
also contain much that is new but are valuable mainly for their 
comprehensive character. The chapter on Washington is the 
result of a special study made by Mr. Peets. 



ALSO WORTH MENTIONING 



GIVE MB THE YOUNG 

By Edmond Holmes. E. P. Dutton <£ Co. 148 pp. Price, $2.00 ; with 

postage from the Survey, $2.15. 
In vigorous, some will say intemperate, language, this well 
known educational author attempts to answer the increasing 
demand for a way out of the self-indulgence, moral laxity, dis- 
honesty and other moral ills that have befallen the civilized 
world. On the negative side, he demonstrates the futility of 
compulsory method in patriotic and religious education; on the 
positive side he enlarges on the need for an environment of 
liberty and encouragement for the cultivation of spontaneity 
and individuality, so that ideals may grow, and with them the 
power to apply them. "Give me the young," says Mr. Holmes, 
in effect, and social, reconstruction will take care of itself. 

THE MAKING OP CITIZENS 

By J. O. de Roulhao Hamilton and Edgar W. Knight, National 
Social Science Scries. A. C. McClurg <t Co.. Chicago. 146 pp. Price, 
$1.00 ; with postage from the Survey, $1.10. 
The authors were consultants in general education to the War 
Plans Division of the General Staff of the War Department in 
1920 and here elaborate a previous report on Education for Cit- 
izenship. Training for citizenship, they point out, hitherto has 
for the most part remained a by-product of education, not one 
of its principal aims. They demand a permeation of all educa- 
tion with a tenable ideal of good citizenship, and a revision of 
that ideal itself so that the patriotism of tomorrow may "pos- 
sess warmth of instinct, yet tempered by reason, knowledge and 
discipline" and be devoted to the service of society. 

THE NEGRO IN OUR HISTORY 

By Carter Godwin Woodson. Associated Publishers, Washington, 
D. C. 393 pp. Price, $2.00 ; with postage from the Survey, $2.15. 

A textbook dealing with the leading facts of Negro life and 

history, prepared for the use of eighth grade and high school 

students. 

IN NON-UNION MINES 

By Powers Hapgood. Bureau of Industrial Research, New York. 

48 pp. Price. $.50 ; with postage from the Survey, $,55. 
The diary of a Harvard man who at the request of the Bureau 
of Industrial Research went into the coal mines of Pennsylvania, 
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Kentucky and is now working in an 
anthracite colliery in Pennsylvania. He describes conditions as 
they exist in the various coa fields, the difference between union 
and non-union mines, and the miners' points of view. 

A HISTORY OF LABOR 

By Gilbert Stone. Macmillan Co. 416 pp. Price, $4.50 ; with pos- 
tage from the Survey, $4.70. 
A story of the masses in England and other countries and their 
struggle through the slaveries of the past to the degree of free- 
dom which they enjoy today. The book is divided into two 
parts: the past and present. The section called The Past traces 
labor from the origins of Greek, Hebrew, and Roman slavery 
through the gilds, the agrarian and industrial revolutions to the 
rise of trade unionism. The second section, The Present, 
studies reform, the factory, the home, and the mental horizon, 
with a brilliant closing chapter on present-day tendencies. 

WAGES, PRICES AND PROFITS 

Labor Research Department. Preface by Sidney Webb. Labor Pub- 
lishing Co., London. 110 pp. Price, 6 sh. 
This study of fluctuations of wages, prices and profits dur- 
ing and since the war shows how incomplete and difficult of 
access are the records on these important factors even in a coun- 
try that stands high in the systematic recording of economic sta- 
tistics. As Mr. Webb points out, it would not be difficult, with 
more cooperation between the government and the leading in- 
dustries, to secure a much more voluminous body of facts from 
which to deduce the trend of happenings. Yet, the sources, in 
the hands of skilled investigators, sufficed to produce certain 
significant findings which indicate an experience similar to that 
in the United States. Wages during the war period rose from 
100 to 200 per cent; the most notable advance was not an ab- 
normal rise of wages already high but a grading up of the lowest 
wages to an acceptable national minimum leyel. Retail prices 
rose by 212 per cent between 1906 and 1920, and wholesale 
prices to a greater extent. The methods by which abnormal 
war profits were secured and concealed are analyzed. The 
purchasing power of wages has declined since 1914, and whole- 
sale reductions in wages since the war have generally preceded 



reductions in prices. National machinery for fixing wages has 
broken down; and the emphasis in wage determinations has been 
shifted from a consideration of the cost of living to that of 
" what the industry can afford to pay." Present wage rates in 
many cases are less than a bare subsistence wage. 

HUMAN FACTORS IN INDUSTRY 

By Harry Tipper. Ronald Press Co. 280 pp. Price, $2.00 ; with 

postage from the Survey, $2.20. 
Mr. Tipper presents soberly and fairly the case for an enlight- 
ened labor administration in modern industry on the basis of 
the open shop. He points to excessive centralization and the 
discipline arising from it as one of the main causes in the crea- 
tion of antagonism on the part of the workers and gives many 
examples of modern organization in which this tendency has 
been overcome by more or less democratic methods. Neverthe- 
less his hope that humanization of shop conditions will suffice 
to make the American worker a convert to the open shop prin- 
ciple is Utopian; and, excellent as his many suggestions are, they 
are not likely without more fundamental changes to create a real 
partnership of capital and labor. 

BUILDING WITH INDIA 

By Daniel Johnson Fleming. Missionary Education Movement. 228 
pp. Illustrated. Price, cloth, $.75 ; paper, $.50 ; with postage from 
the Survey, $.85 and $.60. 
The author, for twelve years professor in the Forman Chris- 
tian College, Lahore, tells in this book of India's heritage; her 
handicaps, economic, hygienic and social; her aspirations and 
her recent progress and present opportunities. 

ADVENTURES IN IDEALISM 

By Kathrin Sabsovich. Published by author. Room 1715, 80 Maiden 
Lane, New York. 208 pp. Illustrated. Price, $3.00 ; with postage 
from the Survey, $3.15. 
This biography of the late Professor H. L. Sabsovich may be 
recommended especially to Lillian Russell and to certain gen- 
tlemen in the State Department who look upon every immigrant 
Jew as a menace to American security and prosperity. It is the 
story of an immigrant who in spite of good education and pro- 
fessional distinction had to begin at the bottom in an East Side 
tenement to win his way to a leading position in American so- 
cial work, and who used every new opportunity for advance- 
ment to render greater services, not only to his own race, but to 
America. As general agent of the Baron De Hirsch Fund and 
founder of the Jewish colony of Woodbine, New Jersey, Sabso- 
vich was one of the first to recognize and make fruitful the 
agricultural potentialities of the American Jew. It is largely 
due to pioneer work such as his that rural education and coloni- 
zation plans have assumed so much prominence in the Jewish 
community. His widow, who took part in all this slow up- 
building, has enlivened her story by reminiscences of the early 
struggles which in retrospect have taken on a humorous tinge. 

THE RESTORATION OF AGRICULTURE IN THE FAMINE AREA 
OF RUSSIA 

Translated by Eden and Cedar Paul. Labor Publishing Co., London. 

167 pp. Price, 5s. 
This is an interim report of the State Economic Planning Com- 
mission of the Council for Labor and Defense of the Russian 
Socialist Federal Soviet Republic. As such, though not pri- 
marily issued for foreign consumption, it may be held to partake 
of the character of government propaganda. Nevertheless, the 
scientific form in which this report is kept and the width of 
economic interests shown by its contributors, coming from such 
a source, will help to disperse the still so widely held belief that 
Russia is in a complete state of chaos and uncertainty of life. 

THE GERMAN CONSTITUTION 

By Reni Brunet. With an introduction by Charles A. Beard. Alfred 
A. Knopf. 339 pp. Price, $3.50 ; with postage from the Survey, 
$3.70. 
This work by a distinguished French scholar is more than an 
interpretation of the German republican constitution as it is 
now in force. It traces its history in the events of the revolution 
and in the growth of the principles that have gone into its mak- 
ing. Professor Beard calls it the best treatise on the subject in 
any language; it is the first complete analysis so far published 
in America. 

FORTY NOTIFIABLE DISEASES 

By Hiram Byrd. World Book Co., Yonkers-on-Hudson, N. Y. 74 pp. 

Price. 60 cents; with postage from the Survey, 75 cents. 
A summary of the more important facts concerning communic- 
able diseases, prepared for the layman. 

119 



120 



THE SURVEY 



October 15, 1922 



COMMUNICA TIONS 



j 



The Small-Town Worker Again 

To the Editor: Here is a list of questions. I submit them 
fully realizing that one foolish social worker will ask more 
questions than a hundred wise ones can answer. Yet I wish 
that they might be published to provoke discussion. These ques- 
tions reflect honest doubts which keep me on the fence. Do you 
think that some of your readers might be sufficiently sympathetic 
to knock me off my uncomfortable perch to one side or to the 
other? 

I sense, somehow, that social problems are too often pre- 
sented in the setting of the metropolitan community. But who is 
interested in the doings of Podunk! I dare to think sometimes 
that what might be no solution at all for our congested mon- 
strosities might well be the very solution of our smaller com- 
munities. But can any good come from Nazareth! I often 
wonder whether we of the smaller communities permit the 
brilliant intellectual lights of the larger cities to blind our own 
small-town visions. I should prefer, therefore, to have these 
questions discussed from the viewpoint of the smaller com- 
munity. 

At the national conferences the smaller communities are 
usually seen but not heard. They feel, perhaps, that where 
metropolitan wisdom is bliss it is folly to show your small-town 
ignorance. When, therefore, from the deepest recesses of these 
cosmic minds the richest oil gushes at so many hundreds of 
barrels per day, we little folk seem to be quite content to fur- 
nish the proper setting and to worship in silent adoration. So 
it usually happens that we carry back to our smaller commu- 
nities the reasonings of the metropolitan mind, the words of the 
metropolian vocabulary, and a metropolitan technique. 

When an unusual situation confronts us, when serious diffi- 
culties arise, we begin to speculate on how that master mind 
would cope with it. Sometimes we do not stop even at that, 
but dispatch an S. O. S. night message to the great oracle of 
the nearby metropolis. We arrange for him a special meeting, 
or make him the chief attraction of our annual meeting, so that 
he may pour smooth oil on the turbulent waters in our little 
mill pond. What he usually does, however, is to put his best 
metropolitan organization foot forward and to jingle the five 
silver bells suspended from its toes. 

On the other hand, the people who fill our pay envelope 
expect from us small-town workers more practical suggestions 
applicable to local conditions, and less technical objections. 
They want common sense to rule, instead of a high-brow vocab- 
ulary, in our social interpretations. They are closer to our 
work. They come into more intimate contact with its opera- 
tions and its personnel. They delegate less to paid executives. 
They are more in control of the policies of the social 
agencies 

What should be the executive's attitude to his own people on 
fundamental differences? Are policies, unsound in New York, 
necessarily unsound in Podunk? Is the social executive to con- 
sider himself to be an ambassador of a social divinity? Is he 
to die a martyr's death rather than become an apostate? If so, 
where is the truth? Where is the inspired word from which 
he can quote? Where the high authority on small-town com- 
munity problems? 

Today he stands face to face with serious problems involved 
in the centralization of community welfare work. He is facing 
a condition, not a theory. Community forces and leadership 
are in control, without which no social program can make sub- 
stantial progress. These community leaders are accustomed to 
do their own thinking. They do not permit the social workers' 
profession to do their thinking for them. They will hire the so- 
cial worker as their social architect with the definite proviso 
that his plans and specifications must be submitted for their 
modification and final approval. Will the end not be good if the 
profession helps to make it good? Will it not be irreparably 
bad if it helps to make it bad? Let the constructive social 
processes continue to prevail even though we may be called upon 
to make a painful surrender of some of our pet theories and 
ideals. 

Should the mind of the social worker be flexible? Should 



he be resourceful in adjusting himself to new conditions? Or 
should he die with his boots on? 

These are my questions: 

Should social welfare endeavor be as highly specialized in 
the smaller community as it is in the metropolitan community? 

Should a separate and distinct agency be maintained in the 
smaller community for every conceivable phase of social en- 
deavor, even though such an agency must ever remain anaemic 
and puny for want of sufficient nourishment and proper ex- 
ercise? • 

Does such a weak agency justify its separate existence 
merely by bearing the name of its prototype in the larger city, 
by proclaiming the same principles and standards, by being 
identified with the same national or state organization? 

Does it justify its separate existence even though its financial 
and service resources may be so limited as seriously to affect 
its vision, administration, and application? 

Should a remedy be applied through the attempt to combine 
some of the more closely allied efforts into one strong depart- 
mental organization with a program, support and prestige that 
will stimulate broad vision, expert administration, and inten- 
sive application? 

How should such a combination be effected? By the gentle 
method of moral suasion? Failing in this, by strangulation 
through withholding financial support? By force of group 
action? 

Whose responsibility is it to make the first move? How and 
where should he first move? Through whom should he move? 
What if he encounter immovable objects in traditional conserva- 
tism, in organization and official pride, in selfish considerations? 

Should the contributors be consulted on this matter, or should 
they be completely ignored because so few of them fully un- 
derstand all that is involved? 

Have the social authorities laid down a combination rule 
which is strictly orthodox and in minute accord with the doc- 
trines of a professionally inspired word? 

Would hetereodoxy do if it produce the results desired? 

John Melpolder 
Community Welfare Association, 
Springfield, Mass. 

Discontent on the Farm 

To the Editor: During the last three and a half months, I 
visited California, Washington, Montana, Wyoming, Wiscon- 
sin and Michigan, speaking to farmers' picnics, fairs, etc., or in 
small towns in agricultural districts. A very large proportion 
of the audiences were bona-fide farmers, and I attended con- 
ferences of representatives of farm and labor organizations 
in several other states. 

It is conservative to say that I have found the farmers very 
much more discontented than on my trip last summer, which 
I reported in the Survey Graphic last February ("What is 
Back of the Agricultural Bloc?"). The farmers are not car- 
ing about statistics particularly, except what they get for their 
products, what they have to pay for what they buy, and taxes 
and interest on their mortgages. 

The wheat farmers are now getting only from 65 cents to 
95 cents a bushel for their wheat, which has cost anywhere 
from $1.00 to $1.50 to produce. The average money income 
last year, per farm family, according to figures of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, was $100 after paying fixed charges, and 
that represents the return for the labor of the farmer, his 
wife and their children. Prices for most other farm products 
are about as subnormal as the price of wheat. 

Nearly everywhere I went there was a bitter feeling of re- 
sentment against the present administration, and a feeling that 
it had utterly failed to accomplish what it started out to do. 
Only a very limited number of farmers have much confidence 
in the tariff on agricultural products as a means of getting 
them out of their hole. The sentiment for Federal legislation 
to stabilize the prices of farm produce and for Federal crop 
insurance, is much stronger than a year ago. Scores of farm- 
ers told me during the months of July and August that they 



October 15, 1922 



THE SURVEY 



121 



were going to have to give up their farms if they did not get 
a good price for their products — and they haven't gotten it. 

The discontent of the farmers partly explains the fact that 
men like Poindexter in Washington and Townsend in Michigan, 
were able to carry the primary in their states for United States 
Senator. Even they received only about one-third of the votes 
cast in the primary. A lot of farmers said they were through 
with political action. Thousands of others have no confidence 
in either of the old parties and are going to vote for an inde- 
pendent ticket — Socialist, or Farmer-Labor. A most significant 
fact is lie general feeling of common interest between city wage 
earners and farmers. 

State Senator Herbert F. Baker, who made such a phenom- 
enal run in Michigan against Senator Townsend, is a farmer 
working on his three hundred and twenty acre farm in the 
Thumb. He was selected to contest the primary with Town- 
send by a meeting of 130 delegates in Grand Rapids last April, 
representing the entire labor movement of the state, and in- 
cluding the railroad men's organizations. To be sure, he was 
heartily backed by leaders of all the progressive farm organiza- 
tions later. In all states mentioned, a non-partisan, political 
organization of representatives of farm and labor forces was 
effected to work together for the election of candidates for 
Congress and state legislative offices. Large numbers of farm- 
ers and wage earners in all the western states are committed 
to joint political action. They are making the campaign this 
year with small resources, and little political experience, but 
they have made, and will continue to make, a splendid showing. 
This political affiliation of workers who have often been set 
against each other by those who impartially exploit both, is 
most encouraging. Benjamin C. Marsh 

Managing Director, Farmers' National Council, 

Washington, D. C, 



Prohibition in California 

To the Editor: The article in the Survey for September 
15 on Prohibition in California is two years behind the times. 
A recent statement issued by the Grain Trade Association of 
the San Francisco Chamber of Commerce carries the figures of 
arrests, etc., up to June 30, 1922. It confirms the figures in 
the report of the Temperance Board of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church for arrests of 26,673 f° r the Y ear ending June 
30, 1920. However, 1921 shows a total of 30,106, and 1922 
a total of 39,981. The arrests in San Francisco for drunken- 
ness increased from 1822 in 1920 to 7,262 in 1922. 

The statement quoted, which is taken from official sources 
and has not been challenged, covers also a comparison of the 
inmates of California state penitentiaries, state reformatories, 
insane asylums pnd institutions for the feeble-minded, all of 
which show a k.ge and steady increase year by year from 1918 
to 1922 inclusive. 

While the Temperance Board's figures on drunkenness and 
crime are disingenuous, its statement about wine grapes is abso- 
lutely misleading. To attempt to account for the enormous 
increase in the price of wine grapes, and in the enlarging of the 
market for them upon the theory that they are now used for 
food supplies and have participated in the general rise in the 
price of food products, seems like "sinning against the light." 
As the California Grape Grower, which is the official publica- 
of the California Grape Protective Association, puts it: " Home 
brew has saved the wine grape growers of California from dis- 
aster." The president of the California Grape Growers' Ex- 
change published, less than a year ago, a most optimistic picture 
of the future of the wine grape industry, from which I quote 
the following paragraph: 

" Nature tells everybody that the juice of any grape will be- 
come wine if preventive means are not employed. Everybody 
knows that wine grapes make a better grade of wine than either 
the table or raisin varieties; but that all varieties will make wine 
of one character or another if you just crush them and let them 
alone. This is just what the poor people have done, and in- 
cidentally they are responsible for the creation of one of the 
greatest markets in the United States for the wine grapes of 
California. Therefore, unintentionally so far as the prohibi- 
tionist is concerned, his propaganda and doctrine and laws have 
made the wine grape more valuable than it ever was. It never 
used to be as prized as the table or raisin grape. Today it is 



of much greater value, and the same tonnage of grapes is going 
into wine as of yore." 

The reason for this is obvious. The federal authorities have 
provided by regulation that any person may make two hundred 
gallons of " non-intoxicating fruit juices " a year for his own 
use, and that the test of what is intoxicating in such cases is one 
of fact and not limited by the percentage of alcohol. Wine mak- 
ing requires no cooking operation, and about the worst that can 
happen is that the wine may turn to vinegar if it is not properly 
stored. 

Although the price of California wine grapes is about ten 
times higher than it was before prohibition, the California 
Wine Growers' Association is uneasy, because of the great in- 
crease in production. Grape acreage in California alone has 
increased 30 per cent under prohibition, and the farmers in 
the irrigated belt from Arizona down to Texas have gone into 
grape growing on a large scale, and new vineyards are literally 
springing up in Ohio, New Yoik and other eastern states. The 
carload shipments of wine grapes indicate that a great deal more 
wine is now being made in the homes of the people than was 
formerly made by the wineries and imported. 

By the way, it may perhaps interest readers to know that the 
chambers of commerce of San Francisco, Sacramento, Los An- 
geles and San Diego have taken a poll of their members for 
beer and light wines. The general average in favor of beer and 
wine was 83 per cent. Hugh F. Fox 

New York 

An Undesirable Amalgamation? 

To the Editor: At a recent joint conference of the Juvenile 
Reformatory Section of the American Prison Association and 
the National Conference on the Education of Truant, Back- 
ward, Dependent and Delinquent Children, Hobart H. Todd, 
superintendent of the New York State Agricultural and In- 
dustrial School, introduced a resolution that there be a com- 
bination of the two organizations, calling them in the preamble 
"two organizations dealing with the same question" and stat- 
ing that "duplication of effort in the same direction is contrary 
to all modern ideas of economy and efficiency." But the two 
organizations are in no sense dealing with the same question; 
and it seems to me to be the most reactionary thing and one 
capable of resulting in definite hindrance to progress for an 
organization to be formed that proposes to deal both with the 
child and the adult criminal. There is no place at a prison 
conference for the consideration of any child, be he dependent, 
delinquent, truant or backward. Such amalgamation might 
conceivably make for economy, but it could never make for 
true efficiency, and such amalgamation is contrary to all mod- 
ern ideas of child welfare. The truant, backward, dependent 
or delinquent child is the job of the educator and the physi- 
cian only. 

I believe that this protest will strike a responsive note in 
the hearts of all people who have had sympathetic experience 
with the youngsters classified as truant, backward, dependent 
and delinquent. I use the term "sympathetic" deliberately. 
There should by all means be a national conference of juvenile 
agencies, but it should be absolutely divorced from the Amer- 
ican Prison Congress, and if it must affiliate with another or- 
ganization, it should consolidate with the National Educational 
Association. Carrie Weaver Smith 

Superintendent, Girls Training School, 

Gainesville, Texas 

1 

Dental Hygienists 

To the Editor: In an article on dental care [the Survey for 
July 15] you say legislation on dental hygienists is pending in 
California. Dental hygienists' training was recognized by leg- 
islation in California two years ago. A department of dental 
hygiene has been established under the State Board of Health; 
its director is a dental hygienist, and a dental hygienist is part 
of the permanent staff of our Bureau of Child Hygiene, a 
bureau of the State Board of Health which was established in 
1919 as a result of our Children's Year program. The Univers- 
ity of California Dental Department trains dental hygienists. 

Adelaide Brown, M. D. 

San Francisco 



Social Studies 




: 



Conducted by 

Joseph K. Hart 



How Some Minds Are Made Up 



THE psychologist who insists that minds are nothing 
but sets of habits, " adaptations to environments," is 
doubtless asking us to believe too much. Our own 
minds and the minds of those we meet exhibit 
characteristics that cannot be fully explained as habitual. But 
we shall do well to consider somewhat further the habitual 
elements in mind before we turn to those other elements. All 
of us are largely the creatures of habit, both in body and in 
mind ; some of us are almost completely habitual — " sot in 
our ways," incapable of a new thought, a new emotion, a new 
act. How does anyone ever achieve such complete " sotness ?" 
What are some of the social bearings and meanings of such 
complete habituations? Understanding at this point may 
illuminate large areas of our social problems. 

The answer is to be found, first, in the nature of our life 
and in one of its most real needs. The human being wants 
and needs control, — of himself and of his world in relation to 
himself. Habit is the sum of this control; particular habits 
are the expression of this control. Habits are the most useful 
of tools. We all admire " skill," whether of hand or mind. 
Well, of course, skill is just adequate habit organized in some 
particular and advantageous direction. " Technique " is 
mostly habit, also. " Form," an expression used by athletes, 
indicates the final perfection of habit. Aisurance of any sort 
is mostly habit. The juggler, the rope-walker, the musician, 
the actor, the preacher, the executive, the locksmith and the 
lock-picker — all these and numbers like them, are all at home 
in their particular spheres; they are habituated to their tasks. 
They live and work in areas of activities within which habit 
has assumed control; within which novelty, either of thought 
or of act, is for the most part ruled out. They are habitu- 
ated to their worlds: their " minds are made up!" We know 
what they will do, or say. They all seem to " belong." 

ONE of the best illustrations of this habituation to a 
sphere of activity is to be seen in the mind of the 
average teacher. The processes by means of which the minds 
of most of us " have been made up " may be seen going on 
any day and all day long in the average schoolroom. This fact 
brings to light a second reason why so many of us are quite 
irrevocably " sot in our ways." Not only does experience, in 
its current influences, make for this habituating of our minds 
and lives, but we have come to think of life and the world 
almost completely in terms of finalities, of fixed relationships 
and " hard facts." We are afraid of life. Hence we have set 
up a great social institution, the school, whose prime purpose 
is just this schooling of mind and living to these assumed 
finalities, hard facts and fixed relationships. That is to say, 
we are not content with those useful habits, skills, adaptations 
and adjustments which give us mastery of our environments. 
We go much further: we attempt to organize all mind, all 
action, all existence into similarly fixed forms ; we school our 
children to the acceptance of these fixed forms as the ultimate 
reality — the created universe, with fixed moral laws. 

Under all circumstances, education is likely to be mostly 
habituation. In the form of schooling it is never anything 
else. The Century Dictionary gives one definition of the 
verb " school," i. e. to school, as follows: 

" To teach, train or discipline with the thoroughness and 
strictness of a school ; discipline thoroughly ; ' bring under 
control." 

122 



This is what schooling always means; and most of 
our educating is schooling. This is what "adaptation to 
environment " (that magic formula — i. e. black magic) 
means. A complete education of this " adaptation to envi- 
ronment " sort, means complete acceptance of the status quo 
as final, and the subordination of the mind of the individual 
to existent things. The mind, after such an education, is 
" made up," closed to all new conditions. Nothing chal- 
lenges such a mind. It waves all unusual elements, all cri- 
tical ideas, aside with a lordly gesture (which was learned 
at school) : 

" Here is reality," it says, " here in the organized ways, in 
the established institutions, in the accepted attitudes. Dark- 
ness is without, and the minds that wander in darkness can- 
not see what we who belong can see. Outside is un- 
reality: anarchy, envy, profane babblings, science falsely so 
called." 

Such a mind is, of course, just a bundle of closed habits. 
Such a mind has just the reality that its habits possess, and 
no more. When the world of habit that supports such a 
mind goes to pieces, that mind is lost. Then it laments for 
the " good old days," and protests against the new ; against 
" bolshevism," or " socialism " ; against " modernism," or 
" evolutionism " ; against " impressionism," or " futurism," 
or against any sort of innovation. 

IN minds like this, industrial agitation rouses deep and 
persistent anger: an existent economic system is sacred. 
Criticism of it is criticism against nature, and, therefore, 
against God. When George F. Baer, twenty years ago, 
insisted that he and his associates were God's stewards for 
the handling of anthracite coal, he was not hypocritical: he 
was perfectly real, and perfectly natural. He lived in a 
world of mental, moral and economic habituation that was 
for him — not by calculation, but by the assumptions of a 
life-time — the ultimate reality. 

Similar attitudes of mind exist in politicians, moralists, 
religionists — in all of us. Let no one assume that this page 
intends to attack education, or property, or politics, or 
morality, or religion. We shall always have all these, — in 
some form. But we need to see the part that habit and the 
mere inculcation of habit play in the making of what we 
call " our world." We shall always have habits. But 
habits are tools, not final realities. In certain savage tribes 
the widow of a dead chieftain claimed the sacred right of 
being buried alive in his grave. That " right" was just as 
sacred to her, and to her group, as any that we Americans 
know or have known. How could such a barbarous custom 
become a sacred right? The mind of the widow and the 
minds of the group had been made up by the long processes 
of education. 

It is altogether likely that many of our political, moral, 
religious and economic attitudes are as purely the product 
of education as this one. Our minds are being made up for 
us in just the same ways. These habitual attitudes ought to 
be subjected to criticism, to analysis and to reconstruction 
in the light of science. We send missionaries from what we 
call our "enlightened civilization " to various " dark con- 
tinents ." Should we not, likewise, send missionaries from 
our growing intelligence to the dark continents of habit that 
still exist within ourselves? 



Study Course on 
Social Organization 



Questions on 
Current Issues 



III. How People Behave 

All people differ: no two are identical, and the differences 
among people are very precious matters. None the less, all 
people are alike: the most diverse have something in com- 
mon. Which of these two factors, the differences among 
people or the likenesses, has the larger share in determining 
conduct and behavior? Do most people act like other peo- 
ple, or do they try to be as different from other people as 
possible? Or is all our behavior something of a mixture 
of the two? Are there such things as standards of be- 
havior? Which is the stronger, an individual impulse or a 
group standard of behavior? 

I Group standards of behavior 

-*- • Do all groups have standards of behavior for their members? 
Can you give illustrations? Were these standards definitely set up, 
or did they "just grow up?" How do these standards operate on 
the individual? Do they cover all the activities of the group mem- 
bers, or is their scope limited? Do group members obey these 
standards? Why? Must they obey them? Why? Should they 
obey them? Why? Are these standards ever violated? What 
happens then? What does obedience to these standards do for a 
member of the group? What does it do to him? What does dis- 
obedience do for him and to him? What does the group think of 
disobedience to these standards? 

^ Preserving these group standards 

■■*• Is any one responsible, in the groups you know, for the en- 
forcement of these standards? Do those who enforce them obey 
them, too? How do new members become acquainted with these 
standards? What happens when these standards are criticized? 
Do the groups you know have secret rituals or ceremonials of any 
sort? What for? Do they have pass-words? What for? Is the 
nation a group? Ever? Do groups ever permit their members to 
make changes in the group standards? Why do people permit 
themselves to be so dominated by group controls? Do groups ever 
become too autocratic? Can you give illustrations? 

2 Changing group standards 

*-'• Do all groups have the same standards? For example, do 
all racial groups have the same standards of conduct and custom? 
What happens when groups with diverse standards come into close 
contact; for example, when two racial groups live close together 
in the city? Do their standards ever break down? What does 
"break down" mean? Can you give illustrations? Is it well that 
standards should break down now and then? 

What happens when a rebellious individual appears in a group? 
What can the group do with him? Consider the case of Socrates. 
What did he try to do to the standards of Athens? Should he have 
done those things? Did Athens treat him properly? Has a member 
of a group the right to criticize the standards of the group? Has 
he the right to leave the group? Has he the right to work for the 
group's destruction? Do groups ever outgrow their usefulness? 
Should they then be destroyed? How can this be accomplished? 
Can they be reformed ? What was Socrates trying to do in Athens ? 
Are groups ever intelligent? Do they think? Are group members 
thoughtful? About what? Does the world ever need new standards 
of conduct? Where can these be secured? From some group? From 
the past? From individuals? 

References: 

John Dewey. Human Nature and Conduct. Henry Holt and 
Company. 

James H. Tufts. The Real Business of Living. Henry Holt 
and Company. 

William G. Sumner. Folkways. Scribner's Sons. 

The books mentioned on this page may be obtained through the 
Scbvby Book Department. 



Do You Know Your Community? 

While hatreds seem to grow apace and wars threaten in 
the wide world, hatreds and wars do not tell the whole 
story. Men and women of initiative and imagination are at 
work, too; and constructive work is being done almost 
everywhere. Consider some of the positive movements 
discussed in this issue of the Survey. 

The Movement for Better Planning for Cities 

-*- • Should this movement operate in big centers alone? Or, is 
there room for thoughtfulness and planning in smaller communi- 
ties? What is being done in your city, town, village, rural com- 
munity, toward thoughtful building for the future? (Cf. pp. 85, 
89, 91, 94.) 

O How Communities Are Getting Together 

"■* • In wartime, communities all over the country undertook pro- 
grams of work and play together, sometimes under their own lead- 
ers, sometimes under leaderships supplied from elsewhere. What 
has become of all those movements? Is anything of the sort left 
in your community? Have you now any community singing of the 
older sort? Recreation plans, of any sort? Organized play? Or- 
ganized programs for the promotion of health or community wel- 
fare? What do you know about the health conditions, especially 
among children, in your community? Has your community an in- 
telligent program along these lines, with an intelligent leadership, 
or is it "on the drift"? (Cf. pp. 93, 102, 107-111, 112.) 

3 Community Thoughtfulness About Industry 
• Industry has been frequently described as an inescapable con- 
flict of interests between the employers and the workers. Are em- 
ployers and workers fighting everywhere? Are they all fighting in 
your community? Is there no common program in industry in your 
community? Do the employers in your community feel it their duty 
to crush the workers, and pay them just as little as possible? Do 
the workers in your community regard their employers as their 
natural enemies? Is your community interested, in any way v in its 
industrial problems? Or are all those problems turned over to 
the workers and employers to be fought out? Do you know of any 
cooperative efforts between employers and workers in your com- 
munity? (Cf. pp. 95, 96, 98, 99.) 

A Safeguarding Community Intelligence 

■ • Much has been made of the so-called Army Tests as proving 
that America was very largely illiterate and feeble-minded. To 
what extent have the results of those tests been accepted as true 
of your community? Have you in your community any recognized 
preachers of the doctrine that America is in danger because of 
feeble-mindedness? Are these people intelligent? Do they know 
the materials they teach, or are they using second-hand stuff? 
Have they some special propagandist materials to exploit in this 
connection? That is to say, do they identify their feeble-minded 
groups with some special group or groups in the community? Are 
they scientific in their attitudes, or are they sentimental, or bitter, 
or partisan? (Cf. pp. 79, 113.) 

C Safeguarding Democracy 

*-'• In what direction is your community moving: toward more 
complete self-government? Or toward government handed down 
from the state or national capital ? What is happening in your in- 
dividual citizens in this respect? Do they favor more individual 
responsibility in government? Or do they favor an increase in 
the authority of the state,? Do they wannt to govern themselves? 
Or do they want to be governed by some more or less external author- 
ity? Do they think of America in terms of democracy? Or in 
terms of a growing governmental regulation of all the affairs of 
life? What attitude is your education taking in these matters? Are 
children being educated to share in the responsibilities of govern- 
ment? Or are they being educated for subordination? (Cf. p. 82.) 

123 



124 



THE SURVEY 



October 15, IQ22 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 



AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR ORGANIZING FAMILY SOCIAL 
WORK— Mrs. John M. Glenn, chairman; Francis H. McLean, field di- 
rector; Davjd H. Holbrook, executive director, 130 East 22nd St., New 
York. Advice in organization problems of family social work societies 
(Associated Charities) in the United States and Canada. 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL WORKERS (formerly Na- 
tional Social Workers' Exchange) — Graham Romeyn Taylor, director, 130 
East 22nd St, New York. An organization of professional social workers 
devoted to raising social work standard* and requirements. Membership 
open to qualified social workers. 

AMERICAN CHILD HYGIENE ASSOCIATION— Richard A. Bolt, 
M. D., General Director, 532 17th Street. N. W., Washington, D. C. 
Helps to prevent the unnecessary loss of mothers' and children's lives 
and tries to secure for the mother and child a full measure of health and 
strength." 
" Publishes monthly magazine, ' Mother and Child.' " 

AMERICAN COUNTRY LIFE ASSOCIATION— K. L. Butterfield, presi- 
dent; A. R. Mann, vice-president; E. C. Lindeman, executive secretary; 
Nat T. Frame, Morgantown, W. Va., field secretary. Emphasizes the 
human aspect of country life. Membership, $3.00. 



HAMPTON INSTITUTE— J. E. Gregg, principal; G. P. Phenix, vice- 
principal; F. H. Rogers, treasurer; W. H. Scoville, secretary; Hampton, 
Va. Trains Indian and Negro youth. Neither a state nor a government 
school. Free illustrated literature. 

THE INSTITUTE FOR CRIPPLED AND DISABLED MEN— John 
Culbert Fanes, director, 245 East 23rd St, New York. Maintains free 
industrial training classes and employment bureau; makes artificial limbs 
and appliances; publishes literature on work for the handicapped; gives 
advice on suitable means for rehabilitation of disabled persons and cooper- 
ates with other special agencies in plans to put the disabled man " back 
on the payroll" 

JOINT COMMITTEE ON METHODS OF PREVENTING DELIN- 
QUENCY (under the Commonwealth Fund Program for Preventing 
Delinquency) — Arthur W. Towne, executive director, 52 Vanderbilt Ave., 
New York. Will begin publishing and distributing bulletins and other 
literature in the fall of 1922. 

LEAGUE FOR INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACY (formerly Intercollegiate 
Socialist Society) — Harry W. Laidler, secretary; Room 931, 70 Fifth Ave., 
New York. Object — Education for a new social order, based on production 
for use and not for profit Annual membership, $3.00, $5.00 and $25.00. 
Special rates for students. 



AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION— Lenna F. Cooper, 
secretary; Battle Creek Sanitarium, Battle Creek, Mich. Organized for 
betterment of conditions in home, schools, institutions and community. 
Publishes Journal of Home Economics. 1211 Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 



AMERICAN PEACE SOCIETY— Founded 1828, labors for an Interna- 
tional peace of justice. Its official organ is the Advocate of Peace, $2.00 
• year. Arthur Deerin Call, secretary and editor, 612-614 Colorado Build- 
ing, Washington, D. C. 

AMERICAN PRISON ASSOCIATION— Annual Congress of American 
penologists, criminologists, social workers In delinquency. Next Congress 
Detroit Mich., October, 1922. E. R. Cass, general secretary, 135 East 
15th St, New York. 



AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE CONTROL OF CANCER— Frank 
J. Osborne, executive secretary; 370 Seventh Ave., New York. To dissemi- 
nate knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. 
Publication free on request Annual membership dues, $5.00. 



NATIONAL ALLIANCE OF LEGAL AID SOCIETIES. Officer*: 
President, Albert F. Bigelow, 111 Devonshire Street, Boston; Secretary, 
John S. Bradway, 133 South 12th St, Philadelphia; Chairman of Central 
Committee, Leonard McGee, 239 Broadway, New York. This organization 
was formed in 1912 as a national association of all legal aid societies and 
bureaus in the United States to develop and extend legal aid work. The 
record of proceedings at the 1922 convention contains the best material 
obtainable on practical legal aid work. Copies free on request 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF COL- 
ORED PEOPLE— Moorfield Storey, president; James Weldon Johnson, 
secretary; 70 Fifth Ave., New York. To secure to colored Americans the 
common rights of American citizenship. Furnishes information regarding 
race problems, lynchings, etc Membership 00,000, with 350 branches. 
Membership, $1.00 upward. 

NATIONAL BOARD OF THE YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN AS- 
SOCIATIONS — 600 Lexington Ave., New York. To advance physical, 
social, intellectual, moral and spiritual interests of young women. Main- 
tains National Training School which offers through its nine months' 
graduate course professional training to women wishing to fit themselves 
for executive positions within the movement Recommendations to posi- 
tions made through Personnel Division. Placement Section. 



THE AMERICAN SOCIAL HYGIENE ASSOCIATION— 370 Seventh 
Ave., New York. For the conservation of the family, the repression of 
prostitution, the reduction of venereal diseases, and the promotion of sound 
lex education. Information and catalogue of pamphlets upon request 
Annual membership dues, $2.00. Membership includes quarterly magazine 
and monthly bulletin. William F. Snow, M.D., general director. 

CHILD HEALTH ORGANIZATION OF AMERICA— 370 Seventh Ave., 
New York. Dr. L. Emmett Holt chairman; Sally Lucas Jean, director. 
To arouse public interest in the health of school children; to encourage 
the systematic teaching of health in the schools; to develop new methods 
of interesting children in the forming of health habits; to publish and dis- 
tribute pamphlets for teachers and public health workers and health liter- 
ature for children; to advise in organization of local child health programs. 

CHILD WELFARE LEAGUE OF AMERICA— A league of agencies to 
secure a better understanding of child welfare problems, to improve stand- 
ards and methods in the different fields of work with children and to make 
available in any part of the field the assured results of successful effort 
The League will be glad to consult with any agency, with a view to assist- 
ing it in organizing or reorganizing its children's work. C. C. Carttens, 
director, 130 East 22nd St.. New York. 

COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN— 305 West 98th St, New York. Rose 
Brenner, president; Mrs. Harry Sternberger, executive secretary. Promotes 
civic cooperation, education, religion and social welfare in the United States, 
Canada, Cuba, Europe. 

Department of Immigrant Aid — 799 Broadway, Mrs. S. J. Rosensohn, 

chairman. For the protection and education of immigrant women and 

girls. 

COMMUNITY SERVICE (INCORPORATED)— 315 Fourth Ave., New 
York. Joseph Lee, president; H. S. Braucher, secretary. Citizenship 
through right use of leisure. A national civic organisation which on request 
helps local communities to work out a leisure time program, 

EUGENICS REGISTRY— Battle Creek, Mich. Chancellor David Starr 
Jordan, president; Dr. J. H. Kellogg, secretary; Prof. O. C. Glaser, execu- 
tive secretary. A public service for knowledge about human inheritances, 
hereditary inventory and eugenic possibilities. Literature free. 

FEDERAL COUNCIL OF THE CHURCHES OF CHRIST IN 
AMERICA — Constituted by 30 Protestant denominations. Rev. Chas. 8. 
Macfarland, Rev. S. M. Cavert, general secretaries; 105 East 22nd St, New 
York. 

Commission on the Church and Social Service — Rev. Worth M. Tippy, 
executive secretary; Rev. F. Ernest Johnson, research secretary; Agnes 
H. Campbell, research assistant; Inez M. Cavert, librarian. 



NATIONAL CATHOLIC WELFARE COUNCIL— Official National Body 
of the Catholic Organizations of the country. 

National Executive Offices, 1312 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., Washington, 

D. C. 
General Secretary, Rev. John J. Burke, C.S.P. 

Department of Education — Executive Secretary, Rev. James H. Ryan. 
Bureau of Education — Director, A. C. Monahan. 
Department of Laws and Legislation — William J. Cochran. 
Department of Social Action — Directors, John A. Ryan and John A. Lapp. 
Department of Press and Publicity — Director, Justin McGrath; Assistant 

Director, Michael Williams. 
National Council of Catholic Men — President, Rear-Admiral William S. 

Benson; Executive Secretary, Michael J. Slattery. 
National Council of Catholic Women — President, Mrs. Michael Gavin; 

Executive Secretary, Agnes G. Regan. 
National Catholic Service School for Women, Washington, D. C. — 

Director, Charles P. Neill; Dean, Maud R. Cavanaugh. 
Bureau of Immigration — National Director, Bruce M. Mohler. 



NATIONAL CHILD LABOR COMMITTEE— Owen R. Lovejoy. sec- 
retary; 105 East 22nd St., New York. Industrial, agricultural investiga- 
tions. Works for improved laws and administration; children's codes. 
Studies health, schools, recreation, dependency, delinquency, etc Annual 
membership, $2, $5, $10, $25 and $100; includes quarterly, "The American 
Child." 

NATIONAL CHILD WELFARE ASSOCIATION, INC.— Charles F. 
Powlison, general secretary; 70 Fifth Ave., New York. Originates and 
publishes exhibit material which visualizes the principles and conditions 
affecting the health, well being and education of children. Cooperates with 
educators, public health agencies, and all child welfare groups in community, 
city or state-wide service through exhibits, child welfare campaigns, etc 

THE NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR MENTAL HYGIENE— Dr. 
Walter B. James, president; Dr. Thomas W. Salmon, medical director; 
Associate Medical Directors, Dr. Frankwood E Williams and Dr. V. V. 
Anderson; Clifford W. Beers, secretary; 370 Seventh Ave., New York. 
Pamphlets on mental hygiene, nervous and mental disorders, feeble-minded- 
ness, epilepsy, Inebriety, criminology, war neuroses and re-education psy- 
chiatric social service, backward children, surveys, state societies. " Mental 
Hygiene;" quarterly, $2.00 a year. 

NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL WORK— Robert W. Kelso, 
President Boston : W. H. Parker, Secretary, 25 East Ninth Street, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. The Conference is an organization to discuss the principles of 
humanitarian effort and to increase the efficiency of social service agencies. 
Each year It holds an annual meeting, publishes in permanent form the 
Proceedings of this meeting, and issues a quarterly Bulletin. The fiftieth 
annual meeting and Conference will be held in Washington, D. C, in May, 
1923. Proceedings are sent free of charge to all members upon payment 
of a membership fee of five dollars. 



(In answering these advertisements please mention The Survey. It helps us, it identifies you) 



October 15, 1922 



THE SURVEY 



125 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY 



NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE PREVENTION OP BLIND- 
NESS — Edward M. Van Cleve. managing director; Lewis H. Carris, field 
secretary; Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, secretary; 130 East 22nd St., New 
York. Objects: To furnish information, exhibits, lantern slides, lectures, 
publish literature of movement — samples free, quantities at cost. Includes 
New York State Committee. 

NATIONAL CONSUMERS' LEAGUE— 44 East 23rd St., New York. 
Mrs. Florence Kelley, general secretary. Promotes legislation for en- 
lightened standards for women and minors in industry and for honest 
products; minimum wage commissions, eight hour day, no night work, 
federal regulation food and packing industries; "honest cloth" legislation. 
Publications available. 

NATIONAL FEDERATION OF SETTLEMENTS— Robert A. Woods, 
secretary: 20 Union Park, Boston. Develops broad forms of comparative 
study and concerted action in city, state and nation, for meeting the funda- 
mental problems disclosed by settlement work; seeks the higher and mora 
democratic organization of neighborhood life. 

NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING— 
Member, National Health Council — Anne A. Stevens, R.N., Director, 370 
Seventh Ave., New York. For development and standardization of public 
health nursing. Maintains library and educational service. Official Mag- 
azine, " Public Health Nurse." 

NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE — For social service among Negroes. L. 
Hollingsworth Wood, president; Eugene Kinckle Tones, executive secretary; 
127 East 23rd St., New York. Establishes committees of white and colored 
people to work out community problems. Trains Negro social workers. 

NATIONAL WOMAN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION— Anna 
A. Gordon, president. Headquarters, 1730 Chicago Ave., Evans ton. III. 
To secure effective enforcement of the Eighteenth Amendment, to 
advance the welfare of the American people through the departments of 
Child Welfare, Women in Industry, Social Morality, Scientific Temperance 
Instruction, Americanization and other allied fields of endeavor. Official 
publication. " The Union Signal," published at Headquarters. 

NATIONAL WOMEN'S TRADE UNION LEAGUE— Mrs. Raymond 
Robins, president; 311 South Ashland Blvd., Chicago, 111. Stands for self- 
government in the work shop through organization and also for the enact- 
ment of protective legislation. Information given. 

PLAYGROUND AND RECREATION ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA— 
1 Madison Ave., New York. Joseph Lee, president; H. S. Braucher, 
secretary. Special attention given to organization of year-round municipal 
recreation systems. Information available on playground and community 
center activities and administration. 

PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION LEAGUE— To secure repre- 
sentation for all. C. G. Hoag, secretary, 1417 Locust St., Philadelphia. 
Membership, $2.00, entitles to quarterly P. R. Review. 

THE RACE BETTERMENT FOUNDATION— Battle Creek, Mich. For 
the study of the causes of race degeneracy and means of race improve- 
ments. Its chief activities are the Race Betterment Conference, the 
Eugenics Registry, and lecture courses and various allied activities. J. H. 
Kellogg, president; B. N. Colver, secretary. 

RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION— For the Improvement of Living Con- 
litions — John M. Glenn, director; 130 East 22nd St, New York. Depart- 
ments: Charity Organization, Child-Helping, Industrial Studies, Library, 
Recreation, Remedial Loans, Statistics, Surveys and Exhibits. The publi- 
cations of the Russell Sage Foundation offer to the public in practical and 
inexpensive form some of the most important resmlta of its work. Cata- 
logue sent upon request. 

TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE— An Institution for the training of Negro 
Youth; an experiment in race adjustment in the Black Belt of the South; 
furnishes information on all phases of the race problem and on the Tuske- • 
gee idea and methods. Robert R. Moton, principal; Warren Logan, treas- 
urer; A. I. Holsey, acting secretary, Tuskegee, Ala. 



READ the SURVEY 

If you want to keep abreast of social and industrial 
progress. 

If you want accurate news and first-hand information on 
social and industrial movements. 

If you are interested in any of the subjects discussed in this 
issue — for the Survey "follows up." 

The Survey, 112 East 19th Street, New York. 

I enclose $5 for a year's subscription. 

r... . . - 10-15-22 

will send $5 on (date) 

Name 

Address 




Nona Genuine Without Trade Mark 



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They must have perfect comfort and rest. To 
insure this much study has been given by 
physicians, sanitariums, and hospitals. They 
have found the greatest aid in perfect condi- 
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beds are all important. You may have a good 
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They cannot be sanitary and fully restful to 
the nerves without quilted mattress pads. 

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white wadding of the best grade between. 
This assures the tired nerves a smooth even 
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and healthy respiratory conditions which are 
not possible with the ordinary mattresses. 

Further, they keep the bed and babies crib 
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126 



THE SURVEY 



October 15, 1922 



The Christian 
Work 

A Religious Weekly Review 
Edited by Frederick Lynch 

An interdenominational paper, 
giving a rounded view of religious 
developments in America and 
throughout the world. 

A paper interested in everything 
which helps to bring the kingdom of 
brotherhood and good among men. 

The source par excellence for in- 
formation on denominational activi 1 
ties, the work of the Federal Council 
and other interdenominational or- 
ganizations, the movement for 
christian unity and international 
peace. 

A paper to supply intellectual and 
moral vision and leadership to the 
earnest, open-minded Christian — 
whether a college man of 1922 or the 
retired clergyman of '72. 

Some Recent Contributors: Rufus 
M. Jones, Alva W . Taylor, Howard 
C. Robbins, Sherwood Eddy, Charles 
E. Jefferson, W. Robertson Nicoll, 
Robert E. Speer, Fred B. Smith, T. 
Rhondda Williams, Lucia Ames 
Mead, Newell Dwight Hillis, S. 
Parkes Cadman, Francis E. Clark, 
Samuel Z. Batten, Sidney M. Berry, 
William Adams Brown, Paul Jones, 
Harold Hatch. 

Samples sent on request. Sub- 
scription $3 a year. A special five 
months' trial subscription — includ- 
ing twenty-two issues for $1. 

The Christian Work 

Room 8n 
70 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. 



(In ansivering these advertisements please 



Squandering Childhood's Heritage of 
Health 

(Continued from page 103) 
babies under three years of age. The weight of good medi- 
cal and social welfare opinion has not resulted in a licensing 
of all families receiving unrelated babies into their care, as 
is the law in a few advanced states. Because of this many 
little children are cared for in private and institutionalized 
families without any public authority being able to enforce 
really good medical standards of care. The social costs to 
the children subjected to this treatment are greater than can 
be expressed. 

MUCH of this medical work, of which just a few exam- 
ples have been cited, is due in part to the short-sight- 
edness of the social agencies in question. It is also due in 
part to a disinclination on the part of the physicians to insist 
upon what they feel are minimum standards of care. The 
leading children's workers in foster-care agencies are certainly 
agreed that the most thorough-going medical work is a 
necessary part at every stage in the operation of their organ- 
izations. But these workers and agencies are few in 
number. 

Every good social welfare agency is regularly asked to 
care for a far larger number of individuals than it can 
possibly receive. This is as true of a family society or a 
children's society as it is true of a hospital. A careful selec- 
tion must necessarily be made from those most in need. 
In the case of a child-caring agency the child is lifted out 
of his old environment for transplanting into a new environ- 
ment. It is by no means a foregone conclusion that this 
transplanting will prove a benefit to him. Indeed it may be 
almost taken for granted that the chances are against success 
unless a medical director, assisted by specialists, examines 
with care the child's physical needs and the ability of the 
agency in question to meet those needs with the equipment 
at hand. 

Good medical work tones up all the other work of a 
children's agency. Step by step the health relationships of 
life are made to stand out in all their clearness. Hardly a 
decision is reached as to a vocation, the understanding of a 
behavior problem, or the return of a child to its own home, 
without the physical factors coming into the foreground. 
It is an enormous protection to an agency to have the final 
examination of a reputable physician just as a matter of 
record because even honest parents at times have very wrong 
conceptions as to what really has been done for their chil- 
dren. 

This early diagnosing of physical conditions is of the 
first importance in the social planning for the child. An 
adoption in one instance may be unwise, free home care in 
another injurious, institutional care the last thing to be 
thought of in another. The answers to these may all he 
arrived at without an appeal to the emotions, but instead 
through the use of facts based largely on medical findings. 

It is only by such careful medical work that a body of 
scientific information in regard to the merits and demerits 
of institutional care for children, especially for the group 
under three years of age, can be built up. It will help to 
determine the layout of institutions and the merits and de- 
merits of small as against large units of care. It will help 
to determine the maximum number of children which a 
given worker can properly care for. Research of this sort 
has not been properly tried in this field. We find 
institutions for the care of older children averaging from 
five to twenty children to one worker, and placing-out 
societies averaging from fifty to two hundred children per 
supervising social worker. Which average is correct? 

Careful medical work will give a point of view to lay 
people who are directly responsible for the foster care of 
mention The Survey. It helps us, il identifies you) 



October 15, 1922 



THE SURVEY 



127 



children and lead to their understanding the essential prin- 
ciples of health promotion. It will help to prepare parents 
to receive their children after periods of foster care with less 
likelihood that the children will revert to old conditions of 
neglect. All too frequently the child is now returned to a 
home unprepared to give him what he needs. 

The interplay between the doctors and the social workers 
will emphasize for the physicians the necessity for much that 
is ceremonial and educational in their work. It may be 
necessary for a physician to receive a difficult child five or 
six times before making a local examination. But out of 
these well planned visits the girl will get a new point of 
view and a more thorough understanding of the relation 
of her conduct to her efficiency and future happiness. 

The physician interested in this particular phase of medical 
work must like children. He must understand child psy- 
chology, the importance of respecting the child's own 
personality and the necessity of not only giving his point of 
view, but of getting the child's point of view and winning 
his cooperation in this game of health. 

Medical services of the quality here outlined cannot be 
worked out on a free basis. We have certainly gone beyond 
the point where the children of an agency of any considerable 
size can be sent to private physicians on a gratuitous basis. 
Careful routine examinations including the services of spe- 
cialists and the follow-up work which is so educational and 
so necessary cannot be ensured unless we have the highest 
type of physicians, and these physicians must be paid for 
what they do. A paid and responsible medical service is the 
one way out of a condition that spells great neglect and loss 
to children. The volunteer doctor — granting equal abili- 
ties — cannot keep pace with the paid medical expert. A 
pooling of medical work on the part of children's agencies 
is more than a possibility. Such we have in the Preventive 
Clinic in Boston and in two well-known cooperative chil- 
dren's clinics in Philadelphia, and in other clinics in Balti- 
more and elsewhere. 

There are approximately 1 1 1 agencies in Philadelphia, for 
example, doing some form of child-caring work. Their total 
annual budgets approximate six million dollars. No one 
knows what their actual medical expenditures are, but it 
may be rightly assumed that they are woefully inadequate. 
If these same agencies were to spend each year as much as 
five per cent of their total budgets on preventive health work 
for their children, the results to their wards and to the 
community would be surprisingly beyond words. Nor must 
we ever lose sight of the importance and necessity of a gen- 
erous expenditure for purely preventive medical work for 
children and parents in their own homes. The ultimate 
effect of this realization will be the keeping of increasing 
numbers of children in their own homes where, all things 
considered, they can best be cared for. We can get along 
with fewer heavily endowed institutions and societies, if 
more work is done along the lines of disease prevention and 
health promotion. Until that time, one of the most definite 
and tangible things we can do for a child in foster care is to 
make him healthy and well. 

J. Prentice Murphy. 

A Uniform Illegitimacy Law 

(Continued from page 104) 

of an illegitimate child according as it is or is not in the 
custody of the father. In the former case the ordinary non- 
support laws apply; the failure to support a child not in the 
custody of the father is made a misdemeanor only where 
paternity is established or acknowledged and where the fail- 
ure is without lawful excuse. 

The criminal law has also been called into service to deal 
with the peculiar problem of the absconding defendant. If 
(Continued on page 129) 
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128 



THE SURVEY 



October 15, 1922 



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BOOTH TARKINGTON'S WORKS: Add $1 to the annual subscription price ef 82.50 
(sending 93.50 in all) and we will send you also The Literary Review' t special three- 
volume set of Booth TarUinBton's works. Including 1 Monsieur Beaucalre, The Two Van 
Revels, In the Arena. The Beautiful Lady, and His Own People. 8 22 




FRANKLY— 
An Appeal 

THE 

JACOB A. RIIS 

NEIGHBORHOOD 

SETTLEMENT 

48 Henry St., New York 

Perpetuates the 
work and memory 
of its founder, the 
late Jacob A. Riis. 

The work of the Set- 
tlement is limited 
only by lack of 
funds. 

Greater benefits can 
be wrought with 
more money. Won't 
you give us that extra 
help, so much needed 
right now? 



Please make checks 
payable to A I rick H. 
Man, Treasurer. 



(In answering these advertisements please mention The Survey. // helps us, it identifies you) 



October 15, 1922 



THE SURVEY 



129 



A Uniform Illegitimacy Law 

(Continued from page 127) 

the need for the support of the child is looked upon as 
affecting only the locality where mother and child reside, the 
' father places himself, by escaping into another jurisdiction, 
beyond the reach of the law. In order to be dealt with, he 
has to be brought back, and this is possible only through an 
extradition proceeding. 

To make extradition available, a criminal act prior to the 
escape must be fastened upon the father. Pennsylvania makes 
the illicit connection with the woman a crime; Massachu- 
setts, the begetting of the child; Minnesota, the escape into 
the other jurisdiction. The Minnesota provision probably 
will not stand judicial scrutiny; even if escape can be made 
a crime, the escaping person is not a fugitive from justice, 
since before the escape he was not a criminal. To make an 
act of illicit intercourse a crime is legally not impossible, 
but practically for many reasons inexpedient, and if the act 
is not. punishable it is certainly illogical to treat its natural 
consequence as a crime, a consequence indeed which the law 
makes it a crime to prevent. 

The framers of the uniform law dealt with the problem 
of the absconding father in a different manner. They per- 
mit the mother to bring proceedings in the place where the 
father is permanently or temporarily resident, and it is no 
bar to the jurisdiction of the court that she lives in another 
state. In such a case the provision permitting the judgment 
to require payment to a trustee will be particularly service- 
able, and the law proposes to make the failure to carry out 
the judgment a misdemeanor, whether the mother lives with- 
in the jurisdiction or not. While this provision is novel, it 
is in line with the traditional coercive measures in bastardy 
proceedings and analagous to contempt process. Another 
novel provision is the one which permits the mother to sue 
upon the judgment of another state, though it be a judg- 
ment for alimony, and to make it a judgment of her own 
state. Experience will show whether these expedients will 
overcome the jurisdictional difficulties which have been en- 
countered in the attempt to enforce the obligation of support. 

The provision which opens the courts of the state enact- 
ing the law to the non-resident mothers is in a sense, from the 
point of view of that state, an altruistic provision, and reci- 
procity would normally be appropriate. It was one of the 
main arguments in favor of a uniform law that liberal juris- 
dictional provisions may be more easily secured in a measure 
upon which a number of states are asked to unite ; this argu- 
ment had its proper weight in a body in which the sentiment 
against measures of social reform merely as such was rather 
pronounced. 

IT WILL be apparent, indeed, from this summary of its 
contents, that trie proposed law is not a striking or revolu- 
tionary reform measure like the Castberg law of Norway. 
It falls short of what some American states have recently 
attempted. Above all, it does not undertake to introduce those 
administrative aids and safeguards which have been intro- 
duced in Minnesota and which should form part of a com- 
plete legislative program dealing with the subject. Adminis- 
trative arrangements are for the present beyond the range of 
the uniform legislation which the National Conference un- 
dertakes to frame. In its substantive provisions a uniform 
law may, of course, be radical as well as conservative, but 
the Conference deliberately refrained, in the proposed law, 
from radical innovations which either could not be effect- 
ually carried out anywhere, or which would not warrant, in 
view of public sentiment at present, an appeal for uniform 
enactment in all the states. 

But the proposed law may justly claim to be a consider- 
able improvement upon the existing law in most states; and 



" The Reality of God's Presence " 
" A Religion of Power " 
" Enthusiasm for Jesus " 

Typical titles of Pennsbury Leaflet series. Convenient size, 
4 to 12 pages ; Reasonable quantities free. Send for samples. 

Pennsbury Leaflet Committee 
Room 25, 304 Arch St., Phila. 



HOUSES SUPPLYING INSTITUTIONAL TRADE 
■ ■ ■ 

Dry Goods 

FREDERICK LOESER & CO. 
484 Fulton Street Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Groceries 

SEEMAN BROS. 
Hudson and North Moore Streets New York 

Electric Clock Systems 

LOCKWOOD & ALMQUIST, Inc. 
501 Fifth Avenue New York City 



KANAK 



Kanak is a solid, odorless " chemical sponge," 
absorbing gases and food odors in refrigerator or 
closet as a sponge absorbs water. It will guard 
against the tainting of butter, milk and such deli- 
cate foods by those of decided odor, like cheese, 
and onions. Every refrigerator should have one. 
Price, $1.00. 

LEWIS & CONGER 

9 Floors of Household Equipment 
45th Street and Sixth Avenue, New York City 



it will permit a cooperation between the states in securing 
relief for mother and child, for which no adequate provision 
has been made in the past. The principles incorporated in 
the law have now the endorsement of a representative body 
of lawyers as well as of those who are most familiar with 
the problem in its social aspects. They offer the best that 
can be obtained for the present, and an earnest effort should 
be made to get the law adopted in as many states as possible. 

Ernst Freund. 



PAUL L. BENJAMIN, for the past two years an associate 
editor of the Survey, has accepted a position as general sec- 
retary of the Family Welfare Society of Indianapolis. This is 
a consolidation of the three largest social service organizations 
in that city, namely the Charity Organization Society, the Chil- 
dren's Aid Society and the Mothers' Aid Association. Only two 
other cities, St. Paul and Toledo, have so far combined family 
case work and work for children in one organization; in neither 
case has the experiment been under way long enough to make 
possible a conclusive estimate as regards the value of such 
combination. 

Previous to his connection with the Survey, Mr. Benjamin 
was associate secretary of the Associated Charities in Minne- 
apolis, in charge of the after-care work of the American Red 
Cross, and field secretary for the National Tuberculosis Asso- 
ciation. He has taken a very active part in the formation and 
work of the American Association of Social Workers. 



(In answering these advertisements please mention The Survey. It helps us, it identifies you) 



130 



THE SURVEY 



October 15, 1922 



CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS 

RATES: Display advertisements, 25 cents per agate line, 14 lines to the inch. 
Want advertisements, 8 cents per word or initial, including the address or box 
number, for each insertion, minimum charge, $1.50. Discounts on three or more 
consecutive insertions. Cash with orders. 



Address Advertising 
Department 



THE SURVEY 



112 East 19th Street 
New York City 



WORKERS WANTED 

WANTED: Immediately at the Maryland 
State Training School for Boys, a young 
college man as athletic instructor, recrea- 
tional and social director who is fond of 
boys and fitted by experience to train and 
develop them along the above lines. Sal- 
ary of $960 per year and maintenance to 
.the right party to begin with and prospects 
of advancement. For further information 
write to the State Employment Bureau, 22 
Light St., Baltimore, Maryland. 

WANTED: Man and wife experienced in 
child caring for superintendent and matron 
of a small Jewish Children's Home. Good 
salary. Apply in writing giving complete 
references to 4321 Survey. 

GRADUATE NURSES, dietitians, labor- 
atory technicians for excellent hospital posi- 
tions everywhere. Write for free book now. 
Aznoe's Central Registry for Nurses, 30 
N. Mich. Ave., Chicago, Illinois. 

WANTED: Family case worker for As- 
sociated Charities in suburb of Boston. At 
least one year's experience required. Salary 
$1200. In answering state age, education 
and experience. 4302 Survey. 

SOCIAL Workers, Secret jries, Dietitians, 
Housekeepers, address Miss Richards, Provi- 
dence, R. I., Box 5, East Side. Boston Office, 
Trinity Court, 16 Jackson Hall, Fridays 11 
to 1. Address Providence. 



SITUATIONS WANTED 

SOCIAL WORKER, PROTESTANT, 
desires position in welfare work for girls. 
Eight years' experience in club and com- 
munity work. 4318 Survey. 

POSITION as superintendent by woman 
of executive ability with wide experience in 
institutional and hospital work. Child car- 
ing institution or work with unmarried 
mother preferred. 4327 Survey. 



WANTED: Assistant superintendency, 
recreational or physical directorship in 
small private school, home for delinquents 
or orphans by young man, age 22. Protes- 
tant, qualified. 4332 Survey. 

MAN with twenty years' experience di- 
recting work for older boys and superintend- 
ing Homes for Children will be available 
for superintendent of Institution November 
15. Sister would accompany as matron if 
desired. 4333 Survey. 



SITUATIONS WANTED 
(Continued) 

YOUNG man with wide experience in 
child caring, desires position as sub-execu- 
tive or head of boys' department. Best of 
references. 4322 Survey. 

GRADUATED dietitian and experienced 
personnel manager accustomed to buying 
food supplies and feeding large groups of 
people. Industrial cafeteria preferred. 
4328 Survey. 

COMPANION-SECRETARY with lady 
traveling. Well educated young woman, 
secretarial experience in business and pri- 
vate school. Isabel Hughes, Williamstown, 

Mass. 

NOW available, social worker experi- 
enced in settlement, playground and girls' 
organization work. Expert in group recrea- 
tion. 4305 Survey. 

BOYS' worker, 26, educated, formerly as- 
sistant superintendent small Jewish Insti- 
tution and teacher English classes, best ref- 
erences, available immediately. 4323 
Survey. 

YOUNG college woman, case and institu- 
tion experience, wishes metropolitan connec- 
tion. Child welfare oc work with adoles- 
cents preferred. 4324 Survey. 

EXPERIENCED case worker desires con- 
nection with Industrial or Social Organiza- 
tion, New York City vicinity or elsewhere. 
4325 Survey. 

EXPERIENCED social worker and grad- 
uate kindergartner, teaching experience, 
wishes executive position in orphanage. 
Full particulars given upon request. 4326 
Survey. 

A TRAINED experienced lady wishes a 
superintendency or matronship of an or- 
phanage, home or school. Fifteen years' ex- 
perience with boys and girls. Excellent ref- 
erences. Would take entire charge of an 
exceptional or nervous child in a good fam- 
ily. 501 Sande Avenue, Essington, Pa. 

EXECUTIVE woman, extensive experi- 
ence Child Welfare, institutional head, and 
case work director seeks change. 4319 
Survey. 



POSITION as housemother, or supervi- 
sion of Day Nursery. Experienced, city 
references. 4331 Survey. 



UNFURNISHED SUITE TO LET 

PARLOR suite (unfurnished) suitable 
for doctor or dentist. Bath, lavatory, elec- 
tric lights. Moderate rental. Call at 57 
West 92d Street. 



BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY 
MASSACHUSETTS 



FOR C A I X7 Unusual opportunity — 
rv/IY O.HI_IJ long and well-established 
fully equipped tea-room. Splendid oppor- 
tunity for two friends. Address 4313 Survey. 



TEACHERS WANTED 



TEACHERS wanted for public and pri- 
vate schools, colleges and universities. Edu- 
cation Service, 1254 Amsterdam Ave., New 
York. 

HATHAWAY TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Free Registration 
Managers 

Hiss N. S. Hathaway „ Mr ?u E - H- „ 8co £ 
_ . . , ri 853 West 117th St. 

Bennington. Vt. New York Clty 



FOR THE HOME 

Tea Room Management 

In our new home-study course, " COOKING 
FOR PROFIT." Booklet on request. 

Am. School of Home Economics, 849 E. 58th Si., Chicago 



STATIONERY 

THIRSTY blotters sent free on request, 
also samples of excellent stationery for per- 
sonal and professional use. Franklin Print- 
er), Warner, New Hampshire. 



MSS. WANTED 

Earn $25 weekly, spare time, writing 
for newspapers, magazines. Experience un- 
necessary, details Free. Press Syndicate, 964, 
St Louis, Mo. 

STORIES, POEMS, PLAYS, etc^ are 
wanted for publication. Submit Mss. or 
write Literary Bureau, 509 Hannibal, Mo. 



MISCELLANEOUS 

"Home -Making as a Profession" 

Is a 100-pp. ill. handbook— il's FIIEE. Hume study 
Domestic Science courses, fitting for many weU-pald 
positioas or for home-making efficiency. 
Am. School ot Home Economic!. 849 E. 58th St.. Chicago 

RF^FARPH- We assist In preparing 
rVLJCrtrvv^I l • special articles, papers, 
speeches, debates. E.-pert, scholarly service. 
Adthob'8 Research Bcrbad, 500 Fifth Ave- 
nue, New York. 



YOUNG MAN, Jewish, now head of set- 
tlement, twelve years in social work, desires 
position with educational and recreational 
organization or with Federation. 4330 
Survey. 



WANTED: Superintendency of Home 
for Orphans or Delinquents by married 
man, college graduate, thirty-six 'years of 
age. 4295 Survey. 

{In answering these advertisements please mention The Survey. It helps us, it identifies you) 



BUY YOUR BOOKS 

from 

THE BOOK DEPARTMENT 

of 

SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc. 

We specialize in book* on social, civic and 

economic subjects, but we handle 

all current publications 



October 15, 1922 



THE SURVEY 



131 



STATEMENT OF THE OWNERSHIP, MAN- 
AGEMENT, CIRCULATION, ETC., RE- 
QUIRED BY THE ACT OF CONGRESS 
OF AUGUST 24, 1912, of the Survey, pub- 
lished semi-monthly at New York, N. Y., for 
October 1, 1922. 
State of New York, 7 
County of New York, J ss> 

Before me, a Commissioner of Deeds, in and 
for the State and county aforesaid, personally 
appeared Arthur P. Kellogg, who, having been 
duly sworn according to law, deposes and says 
that he is the business manager of The Survey, 
and that the following is, to the best of his 
knowledge and belief, a true statement of the 
ownership, management (and if a daily paper, 
the circulation), etc., of the aforesaid publication 
for the date shown in the above caption, re- 
quired by the Act of August 24, 1912, embodied 
in section 443, Postal Laws and Regulations, 
printed on the reverse of this form, to wit: 

1. That the names and addresses of the pub- 
lisher, editor, managing editor, and business 
managers are : Publisher, Survey Associates, 
Inc., 112 East 19 Street, New York City; Editor, 
Paul U. Kellogg, 112 East 19 Street, New York 
City ; Managing Editors, Bruno Lasker, Geddes 
Smith, 112 East 19 Street, New York City; 
Business Manager, Arthur P. Kellogg, 112 East 
19 Street, New York City. 

2. That the owners are: (Give names and 
addresses of individual owners, or, if a corpora- 
tion, give its name and the names and addresses 
of stockholders owning or holding 1 per cent or 
more of the total amount of stock.) Survey 
Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 Street, New York 
City, a non-commercial corporation under the 
laws of the State of New York with over 1,600 
members. It has no stocks or bonds. President, 
Robert W. deForest, 30 Broad Street, New 
York, N. Y. ; Vice-Presidents, Henry R. Seager, 
Columbia University, New York, N. Y. ; V. 
Everit Macy, " Chilmark," Scarborough-on-Hud- 
Bon, N. Y. ; Secretary, Ann R. Brenner, 112 
East 19 Street, New York, N. Y. ; Treasurer, 
Arthur P. Kellogg, 112 East 19 Street, New 
York, N. Y. 

3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, 
and other security holders owning or holding 1 
per cent or more of total amount of bonds, mort- 
gages, or other securities are : (If there are none, 
so state.) None. 

4. That the two paragraphs next above, giving 
the names of the owners, stockholders, and se- 
curity holders, if any, contain not only the list 
of stockholders and security holders as they 
appear upon the books of the company but also, 
in cases where the stockholder or security holder 
appears upon the books of the company as 
trustee or in any other fiduciary relation, the 
name of the person or corporation for whom 
such trustee is acting, is given ; also that the 
said two paragraphs contain statements embrac- 
ing affiant's full knowledge and belief, as to 
the circumstances and conditions under which 
stockholders and security holders who do not 
appear upon the books of the company as trus- 
tees, hold stock and securities in a capacity 
other than that of a bona fide owner; and this 
affiant has no reason to believe that any other 
person, association, or corporation has any in- 
terest direct or indirect in the said stock, bonds, 
or other securities than as so stated by him. 

[Signed] ARTHUR P. KELLOGG, 

Business Manager. 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 19th 
day of September, 1922. 

[Seal] MARTHA HOHMANN, 
Commissioner of Deeds, City of New York, 
New York County Cleric's No. 150; New 
York County Register's No. 22056. 
Commission Expires May 4, 1924. 



BULLETIN BOARD 



Texas State Conference of Social Work: 
Dallas, Texas. Secretary, Dr. Carrie 
Weaver Smith, Girls' Training School, 
Gainesville, Texas. October 15-18. 

American Dietetic Association: Annual 
Convention, New Willard Hotel, Wash- 
ington, October 16-18. 

American Public Health Association: 
Annual Meeting, Hotel Statler, Cleve- 
land, October 16-19. Secretary, A. W. 
Hedrich, 370 Seventh Avenue, New York. 

National Urban League: Pittsburgh, Pa., 
October 17-21. 

American Association of Railway Sur- 
geons: Chicago, October 18-20. 

Colorado Tuberculosis Association: Insti- 
tute on the Nutritional Problems of Chil- 
dren, Denver, Colo., October 18-November 
1. Conducted by Dr. W. R. P. Emerson, 
409 Barth Building, Denver. 



SALVAGE 

From the wreck of the Interchurch 
World Movement we have secured a 
limited number of the following which 
will be sent absolutely 

FREE 

upon receipt of postage. 

INTERCHURCH 
WORLD SURVEYS 

TWO VOLUMES— HOME 
AND FOREIGN 

Library Edition (large size) 
printed In two colors and profusely 
illustrated with maps and charts. 
Send for postage, 25c. 

AMERICAN VOLUME 

Small size. Printed in two colors. 
Illustrated. Send for postage, 10c. 

STANDARDS FOR CITY 
CHURCH PLANTS 

A score card for rating city 
churches and religious education 
plants. Send for postage, 6c. 

SUSQUEHANNA COUNTY 
SURVEY 

A story of social and religious life 
in a rural county. Send for pos- 
tage, 5c. 

Address 

PRESBYTERIAN BOARD 
OF HOME MISSIONS 

156 Fifth Avenue, New York City 



New Jersey Tuberculosis League: Annual 
Meeting, Newark, October 20-21. Secre- 
tary, Ernest D. Easton, 45 Clinton Street, 
Newark, N. J. 

New Jersey State Conference of Social 
Work : Atlantic City, October 24-28. Sec- 
retary, S. Glover Dunseath, 21 Washing- 
ton Street, Newark, N. J. 

New York State Organization for Public 
Health Nursing: Hotel Pennsylvania, 
New York, October 24-26. 

Colorado State Conference of Social 
Work: Pueblo, Col., October 26-28. Sec- 
retary, Charles I. Madison, Extension Di- 
vision, Colorado University, Boulder, Col. 

National Congress of the Cooperative 
Movement: Chicago, October 26-28. Co- 
operative League, 167 West 12th Street, 
New York. 

Ohio Welfare Conference: Columbus, No- 
vember 1-3. Secretary, Howard R. 
Knight, Ontario Building, Columbus. 

Missouri State Conference for Social 
Welfare: Jefferson City, November 8-10. 
Secretary, L. A. Halbert, 408 East 11th 
Street, Kansas City. 

Massachusetts State Conference of So- 
cial Work: Greenfield, Mass., Novem- 
ber 13-15. Secretary, Richard K. Conant, 
37 State House, Boston. 

Southern Medical Association: Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn., November 13-16. 

New York State Conference of Charities 
and Correction: Albany, November 14- 
16. Secretary, Richard W. Wallace, 
Drawer 17, The Capitol, Albany. 




THE MARKETPLACE 

Where articles may be bought, sold or 

exchanged 

RATES: 8 cents a word 

$1.50 minimum for one insertion 

Display — 25c an agate line; $3.50 an inch 

Discounts on 3 or more insertions 

PORTABLE GARAGE WANTED by 
resident of Redbank, N. J. Single or double; 
must be 20 feet deep. 4288 Survey. 

FOR SALE: Sohmer Baby-Grand Piano. 
Excellent tone; excellent condition. 4329 
Survey. 

FOR SALE: Kelsey Printing Press with 
several fonts of type, complete, for post 
cards, labels, small circulars. 4308 Survey 
or phone 7490 Stuyvesant. 

INSTRUMENTS FOR SALE: Viola, 
clarinet, banjo. 4309 Survey or phone 7490 
Stuyvesant. 

CURRENT PAMPHLETS 



Listing) flftu cents a line, for four insertion) ; 
copy to remain unchanged. 

Self-Surveys in Schools fob the Blind. 
A Manual for the Guidance of Teachers. 
By Samuel P. Hayes. The Pennsylvania 
Institution for the Instruction of the Blind. 
Overbrook, Philadelphia. Price, $1.00. 

The Gospel fob an Age of Anarchy, by 
Norman B. Barr. 24 pages ; paper, 25 
cents, postpaid. 444 Blackhawk St., Chi- 
cago. 

The Motion Pictube Pboblem. By Rev. Charles 
N. Lathrop. Commission on the Church au<,] 
Social Service, Federal Council of Churches, 1#5 
E. 22 St., New York. Price, 15 cents. 

Calcium Requirements of Children. By Henry 
C. Sherman and Edith Hawley. Reprint fi-oui 
Journal of Home Economics, 1211 Cathedral ini 
Baltimore, Md. Price, 10 cents. 

Amebican Social Wobk in the Twentieth Cen 
tubv. By Edward T. Devlne and Lilian Brandt. 
An airplane view of developments and accom- 
plishments since 1900. 62 pp., paper covers. 
Send 50 cents to The Frontier Press, 100 West 
21 St., New York. 

How the Budget Families Save and Have— the 
reserve system explained (5 cents) ; How John 
and Mary Live and Save on $35 a Week — a 
weekly budget plan (10 cents) ; Weekly Allow- 
ance Book (10 cents) ; Ten-Cent Meals, by Flor- 
ence Nesbltt, 44 pp. (10 cents). Am. School 
Home Economics, 849 East 58 St., Chicago. 

Cbedit Union. Complete free information on re- 
quest to Roy F. Bergengren, 5 Park Square, 
Boston, Mass. 

Bow to Meet Habo Times. Edited by Bruno 
Lasker. A summary of the report of Mayor 
Mltchel's Committee on Unemployment, now out 
of print. Including all of the essential parts and 
recommendations. Reprinted from The Subvey. 
25 cents a copy, postpaid. The Subvev, 112 
East 19 St., New York. 



PERIODICALS 



Fifty cent) a line, for four insertion); copy to 
remain unchanged. 

The American Journal of Nursing shows the 
part which trained nurses are taking In the bet- 
terment of the world. Put It In your library. 
$3.00 a year. 19 W. Main St., Rochester, N. Y. 

Mental Hygiene; quarterly; $2.00 a year; 
published by the National Committee for Men- 
tal Hygiene, 370 Seventh Ave., New York. 



(In answering these advertisements please mention The Survey. It helps, us, it identifies you) 



IBB WILLIAMS PBINTINO COMPANY, NEW TOBK 



TWO DELUXE "CLARK" CRUISES 



3rd Cruise 

AROUND THE WORLD 



19 th Cruise 

AROUND THE MEDITERRANEAN 



65 Halcyon Orient Days 
$600 and up 



120 Days of Luxury Travel 
$1,000 and up <£?&&*$ 

stateroom) including regular ship and shore 
expenses. 

"The Empress of France" "The Empress of Scotland" 



(according to size 
and location of 

stateroom) including regular ship and shore 

expenses. 



Palatial express steamer, luxuriously ap- 
pointed; 18,481 tons ; electric elevator, glass- 
enclosed promenade deck ; sumptuous public 
rooms; wardrobes, electric fans, modern 
ventilating system and safety devices, etc. 

A Fascinating 

Itinerary 

Cuba, Panama, 
San Francisco, 
Hawaii, 1 4 days 
in Japan, China, 
Philippines, Java, 
Malay Peninsula, 
Burman, 19 days 
in India and Cey- 
lon, Suez Canal, 
Egypt, Italy, 
France, etc., with 
k stop over tickets 
lin Europe. 




A mammoth Atlantic liner, 25,000 tons, 
42,500 displacement; 3 great promenade 
decks, 14 public rooms, 25 imperial suites 
and chambers de luxe, elevator, gymnasium, 
and most modern ventilating system and 

safety devices, 

etc. 



A Surpassing 
Itinerary 

Madeira, Spain, 
Gibraltar, Algeria, 
Greece, Turkey, 
Bosphorus to 
Black Sea, 1 9 days 
in Palestine and 
Egypt , Italy, 
Riviera, France, 
etc., with stopover 
tickets in Europe. 



' Kandy, Ceylon — Temple of The Sacred Tooth 

INSPIRING SHIP BOARD EVENTS 

Services, lectures, travel club meetings, concerts, entertainments, deck sports — a constant 

round of social festivities. 

Unsurpassed Canadian Pacific Cuisine and Service. Orchestra at Meals. 

Physicians and Nurses, if needed. 

Hostesses and Chaperons for ladies traveling alone. 

Large staff of trained conductors; elaborate shore drives, best hotels, chartered railroad 
trains, guides, baggage expenses, landings, tips, etc. — all included. 

Dr. D. E. Lorenz, author of "The Mediterranean Traveler," and Managing Director of 
Clark's "Round the World Cruise," will have charge of the parties of Survey readers 
now forming. 

Illustrated Books and Ship Diagrams Sent Free Postpaid 
Please State Cruise Preference 



Address: Clark Cruise, care of the SURVEY, 112 East 19th Street, New York City 



|lfcVS^»^Ni^» ! ^VX^tl^>i^«B^V33'#«^V^»»Na^»l»Jffl3^ 



In Two Sections : becti 





$5.00 a 



I. XL1X, N< 



saww 

GRAPHIC NUMBER November i, 19; 




)E 



■^■■■■HMBB 



From a book- plate by Frank Brangwyn 

pit E OH. 

Its Human Cost 



kmkhouse 




From 26 Broadway 

JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER, Jr. 

WHAT THE COAL STRIKE HAS LEFT UNSETTLED 

JEN' 




Surrey Graphic for December 




"The Church of the Divine 

Fragments" 

LEXANDER JOHNSON 
is writing his memoirs. He 
has retired from active duty 
as a social worker, and will 
spend the rest of his life 
(he is nearly seventy-six) 
telling people what he thinks he knows. 
He is one man who can write charmingly 
and intimately, with a sense of getting 
somewhere, in dealing with social activi- 
ties. His story will be useful to social 
workers and, much of it, fascinating read- 
ing for everybody. His memories of forty 
years cover more different kinds of social 
work than engage half a dozen ordinary 
men. It will be dedicated to those whom 
he calls his "friends and work-fellows, the 
social workers of America to whom he 
feels as a grandfather." 

One large section of his book will tell of 
his "adventures among the feeble-minded." 
It will be a frank confession of success and 
of failure. It tells what he saw should be 
done with the child-minded folk, and how 
he tried to do it during ten wonderful years 
of his life spent among them. How he 
sometimes got somewhere and sometimes 
missed ; how he wrestled with governors, 
trustees, doctors and employes. How he 
won the confidence of the labor unions and 
the legislators. How he taught his "chil- 
dren" to be first happy and then useful. 

The heart of his experience with the 
grown children will be published in a 
series in SURVEY GRAPHIC. 

Seeking the Law in Vain 

F\ONALD RICHBERG, member of 
the Chicago Bar, who represented the 
railway labor officials in the Chicago in- 
junction proceedings, analyzes what he re- 
gards as the declining respect for law in 
America and its causes. His answer to the 
question, "is there a code of law in the 
United States which may be universally 
understood and uniformly enforced," 
throws a searching light on the problem of 
making this a more law-abiding country. 



The Most Ancient Cities^oi 
America 

XX Y Mary Sheepshanks. Following, the 
recent appraisal of the Indian pueblo 
by John Collier, this article by a London 
settlement worker describes the modern 
race problem in the perhaps even more 
ancient Inca cities of Peru and Bolivia and 
the smoldering revolt among the Indian 
peons and laborers. 

My Serbian Christmas 

T) Y Eleanor E. Ledbetter, is a true narra- 
tive of a rare experience. Mrs. Led- 
better is famous for her library work with 
the foreign-born in Cleveland, which, in 
fact, is much more than that: a neighborly 
contact of sympathy and understanding 
such as few Americans have with their fel- 
low-citizens from other lands. Her years 
of effort, as this article shows, have their 
compensation in the enjoyment of personal 
friendships which give her the privilege 
of participation in a domestic ritual at once 
intimate and charged with cultural mean- 
ing. 

Joseph Stella 

[ OSEPH STELLA has come back. Since 
) readers of the SURVEY knew him as one 
of the foremost American portraitists of 
the lives of the humble, he has experimented 
in many media and the expression of many 
moods. His fame as an artist has constantly 
mounted, and such of his more recent 
works as Brooklyn Bridge and Coney 
Island have placed him into the forefront 
of daring innovators among American 
painters. But some of his earlier friends 
have mourned the loss of his brush and 
pencil when it came to interpreting the life 
and labor of America — to Americans. Yet, 
although he is engaged on a great piece of 
work carrying forward his newer aims, 
Stella has come back to a continuation of 
his earlier, more intimate studies. In a 
series of drawings covering twenty years of 
his work, he will in the December GRAPHIC 
present his conception of womanhood. 



SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc. 



SURVEY GRAPHIC 

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exploration, reaching out to 
wherever the tides of a generous 
progress are astir. Subscription, 

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PAUL U. KELLOGG, Editor 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

Bruno Lasker Joseph K. Hart 

Geddes Smith Haven Emerson, M.D. 

Hannah White Catlin 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 
Edward T. Devine Graham Taylor 

Jane Addams Florence Kelley 

Graham R. Taylor John A. Fitch 

Winthrop D. Lane William L. Chenery 

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industrial welfare and the public 
health. Subscription, including 
the twelve Graphic numbers. 

$5 a year 



Vol. XIX., No. 3 



The Survey : Graphic Number 



November 1, 1922 



ROBERT S. LYND is well 
known in New York publishing 
circles where he has held several 
responsible posts, both editorial 
and administrative. His interest 
in social and industrial problems 
led him to leave his business con- 
nections two years ago for further 
study at Union Theological Semi- 
nary and Columbia University. 
The experience described in Done 
in Oil occurred in the course of a 
summer's work in Elk Basin un- 
der the Pre«byterian Church. 

JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER, JR., 
in addition to his great business 
responsibilities, is chairman of the 
board of the Rockefeller Founda- 
tion, trustee of the Rockefeller In- 
stitute for Medical Research, di- 
rector of the General Education 
Board, of the Bureau of Social 
Hygiene and of the International 
Health Board. 

THE article on the coal commis- 
sion and its task is written by an 
expert student of the subject who 
prefers to remain anonymous. 

JOHN CALDER, for many 
years director of industrial rela- 
tions of Swift & Co., Chicago, is 
an engineer with a long experience 
as factory manager. In a presi- 
dential address to the Society of 
Mechanical Engineers, many years 
ago, he introduced for the first 
time to that body the subject of 
safety engineering — a field of 
human welfare in which he has 
made contributions of outstanding 
importance. His book, Capital's 
Duty to the Wage-Earner, em- 
bodying the experience of his 
career as a labor-manager, will 
be published by Longmans, Green 
& Co. 

The work of RALPH M. PEAR- 
SON, who lives at Taos, New 
Mexico, is represented in most of 
the larger permanent collections 
of American art, and has won 
medals and prizes at a number of 
exhibitions. The series of etch- 



CONTENTS 
of Section I 

DONE IN OIL ■ Robert S. Lynd 137 

A PROMISE OF BETTER DAYS 

John D. Rockefeller, Jr. 147 

WHAT LIES BEFORE THE NEW FEDERAL 

COAL COMMISSION 149 

THE FAITH OF AN INDUSTRIAL ENGINEER 

John Colder 154 



TOILERS OF THE CITY . . 
Etchings by Ralph M. Pearson 



157 



IN RUSSIA WITH WESTERN PIONEERS 

Clarissa S. Ware 162 

EDITORIALS 166 

Oil and the twelve-hour day — The Coal 
Commission - The Red Cross at home and 
abroad ■- The aftermath of the Russian 
famine 

NEIGHBORS 171 

AMERICANS-Verse - . Reginald Wright Kauffman 173 
SOCIAL STUDIES , Joseph K. Hart 180 



Arthur P. Kellogg, Business Manager 

John D. Kenderdine, Assistant Business Manager 
Mary R. Anderson, Advertising 

Rita F. Stein, Sadie L. Stark, Field Representatives 

Published semi-monthly and copyright 1922 by Survey 
Associates, Inc., 112 East 19th Street, New York. 

Price: This issue, 30 cents a copy; $5 a year; Canadian postage, 
SO cents; foreign postage, $1.00 extra. Changes of address should 
be mailed us ten days in advance. When payment is by check 
a receipt will be sent only upon request. 

Entered as second-class matter, March 25, 1909, at the post 
office. New York, N. Y., under the act of March 3, 1879. Accept- 
ance for mailing at a special rate of postage provided for in 
Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized on June 26, 1918. 

135 



ings reproduced in this issue is of 
scenes in Chicago. Like Mr. Pear- 
son's New Mexico, an example 
from which was reproduced in 
the October Graphic, it combines 
a rare sense of architectural va- 
lues with an even rarer feeling 
for human values. 

CLARISSA S. WARE, a gra- 
duate of Bryn Mawr College, went 
to Russia last May with her hus- 
band, Harold M. Ware, a gra- 
duate of the Pennsylvania State 
College of Agriculture, who took 
charge of the agricultural recon- 
struction unit sent by the Friends 
of Soviet Russia with an equip- 
ment of twenty tractors, twenty 
three-gang plows, disc harrows, 
spike tooth harrows and seeders, 
as well as a complete camp, food . 
and medical equipment for the 
unit of nine American men and 
Mrs. Ware. 

LEON WHIPPLE is instructor 
in journalism at New York Uni- 
versity. 

FLORENCE FLEISHER, for- 
merly on the editorial staff of the 
Survey, is a writer on literary 
subjects. 

Several of the Survey j s contri- 
buting editors appear in the 
"news." EDWARD T. DEVINE 
was appointed by President Hard- 
ing a member of the coal commis- 
sion. He is an authority on the 
subject of unemployment preven- 
tion. JANE ADDAMS received 
an ovation on the occasion of her 
recent appearance in Chicago at a 
meeting demanding the release of 
the political prisoners. WIN- 
THROP D. LANE has gone to 
Athens to take charge of the pub- 
licity end of the new American 
Red Cross activities in the Near 
East. GRAHAM ROMEYN TAY- 
LOR, according to latest news, was 
travelling from Orenburg to Sam- 
ara — both cities with which he has 
become very familiar in the course 
of his previous missions in Russia. 




AN ELK BASIN PUMPER AND HIS SHACK 



SK6SOFJ/W 



GRAPHIC NUMBER 



NOVEMBER 1, 
1922 




Volume XLIX 
No. 3 



Done in Oil 



By ROBERT S. LYND 



THE ELK BASIN FIELD.— The Elk Basin field is 
located in the northern part of Park County (Wyoming), 
along the Montana-Wyoming State line, and is about 12 
miles west of Frannie. It lies in the Big Horn Basin and 
occupies the crest of the Silvertop Anticline. The discovery 
well was completed in November, 191 5, at a depth of about 
l,iOO feet, and had an initial flow estimated at about 400 
barrels per day. Before the end of 191 5 a number of equally 
good wells were completed in this field and the development 
was carried across the State line into Carbon County, Mon- 
tana. The field was so promising that before the end of 
1915 a pipe line to Frannie was planned. The line was 
completed in May, 1916. 

The oil produced in the Elk Basin Field is a very high- 
grade light crude and is similar to that produced in the 
Grass Creek Field. The marketed production from the Elk 
Basin Field was third largest in the state during 191 6 and 
1917, and since 1917 it has ranked fourth. — (Report of the 
Federal Trade Commission on the Petroleum Industry of 
Wyoming. January 3, 1921 — p. 18.) 




TATISTICALLY that is about all 
there is to Elk Basin. At least that 
is all I had been able to find out 
about it before that bleak May day 
when I dropped down over the rim- 
rock. Varied reports had come to 
me about conditions in our Western 
oil fields, and now for three months I was to see for 
myself. 

"Oil Town!" had exclaimed the woman who sat 
next me as our train clicked its blistering way across 
the Bad Lands of western Dakota the afternoon 
before, "Oil town! don't talk to me about oil 
towns. Three months of it before you? God help 
you," she said, collapsing into silence. 

I looked out at the raw hopelessness of the Bad 
Lands undulating raggedly off into nowhere — just 
ground, that's about all one could say for it. 

My neighbor revived after a while long enough 
to add, "I once lived in one of these oil towns. I 
know oil towns. Ugh ! you never get away from 



the smell of the oil — you eat it and drink it and 
wear it and sleep it. See that land out there? It'll 
look like a green picnic ground to you if you come 
back this way when you're done." 

I dropped off the train at Frannie, the nearest 
railroad station to my destination, some seventy- 
five miles south of Billings. Frannie is — about 
what you would expect from its name; a clutter of 
frame houses and tar-paper shacks, a hardware 
store, grocery store, lumber yard and a bank which 
exists to lend money to the struggling, outlying dry- 
land farmers at 10 and 12 per cent. It is known to 
the outside world chiefly as the eastern terminus of 
the pipe line from the Basin. 

"They tell me you are the Elk Basin Stage," I 
said to the man in a sombrero busy teetering a van- 
load of assorted freight on a staggering little truck. 

"That's where I'm a-startin'," he rejoined. "I'll 
get there if the mud lets me." A Wyoming road, 
I was to discover, is more often than not a mere 
trail through the sage brush, and each traveler has 
perfect freedom to "blaze his own" to avoid mud 
and ruts. 

At the end of two hours of heavy going across a 
bleak waste of sage brush we pitched sharply down 
over the rimrock and slid with screeching brakes 
down the long Mormon Hill into the Basin. Why 
"elk" had ever come to that barren hole in the 
ground in sufficient numbers to give it that name is 
a mystery I never succeeded in fathoming — or per- 
haps there was just one elk that stayed in and never 
got out alive! It was literally a "hole in the 
ground," gouged out of the naked clay and sand- 
stone, a mile wide, three miles long, and perhaps 
three hundred feet deep. Huddled in the 'bottom 
were the gray mass of the gasoline plant buildings, 
and a motley assortment of tents, tar-paper shacks 
and slate-colored company bungalows, while the 
gaunt skeletons of the oil derricks and the bleak 
little corrugated iron pump houses cluttered the 



137 



138 



DONE IN OIL 



fringes. No water, no trees, no grass — not a living 
growing thing in sight save the straggling sage 
brush. Scattered over the desolate floor of the 
Basin between four and five hundred people were 
living the long six-and-one-half and seven-day week 
of the oil fields. 

The Elk Basin production is controlled wellnigh 
lock, stock, and barrel by the Standard Oil interests. 
In this respect it is typical of the situation through- 
out the entire state of Wyoming, where the Stand- 
ard Oil companies control "93 to 97 per cent of the 
total production" of petroleum.* Approximately 
87.5 per cent of the crude oil production of Elk 
Basin is the output of the two Standard Oil com- 
panies' one hundred and four wells, while only the 
remaining 12.5 per cent is produced by the twenty 
wells of the small independent company, the Elk 
Basin Consolidated Petroleum Company. t The 
two Standard Oil companies are the Ohio Oil Com- 
pany, a Standard Oil company, and the Midwest 
Refining Company, 89 per cent of the stock of which 
last is owned by the Standard Oil Company of 
Indiana. The Midwest Refining Company (i. e., 
Standard of Indiana), in addition to its crude oil 
producing business also maintains a plant in the 
Basin for the production of gasoline by the com- 
pression method. 

Before I left Elk Basin last fall I took up with 
John D. Rockefeller, Jr., the question of the un- 
satisfactory labor conditions in the Basin. Mr. 
Rockefeller referred my suggestions to R. W. 
Stewart, chairman of the Board of Directors of 
the Standard Oil Company of Indiana. Mr. 
Stewart, speaking for his company, promptly re- 
plied to Mr. Rockefeller in these words : 

The Elk Basin field is largely owned and operated by the 
Elk Basin Consolidated Petroleum Company. The Mid- 
west Refining Company owns about 4 per cent of the stock 
in the Elk Basin Consolidated Petroleum Company. The 
Standard Oil Company of Indiana owns now about 89 per 
cent of the stock of the Midwest Refining Company. The 
Ohio Oil Company may have a small interest in the Elk 
Basin Consolidated Petroleum Company, but I think it is 
not substantial. You will thus see that none of the Stand- 
ard Oil companies has any such interest in the Elk Basin 
Consolidated Petroleum Company as would warrant their 
interference in the situation outlined by Mr. Lynd. 

That is, Mr. Stewart asserted that the small in- 
dependent company noted above as a negligible fac- 
tor in the Elk Basin field "largely owns and oper- 
ates" the field. This apparently freed the two 
Standard companies from any responsibility for con- 
ditions in the Basin. Mr. Stewart now acknowl- 
edges, something over a year later and after the 



* See the Report of the Federal Trade Commission on the Petroleum 
Industry of Wyoming, January 3, 1921, p. 8. It should be borne in mind 
throughout this report that the Midwest Refining Company passed into 
Standard Oil control in 1920 and 1921. It is now a subsidiary of the 
Standard Oil Company of Indiana. 

A later report of the Federal Trade Commission, following complaints 
from users of oil in Montana (July 13, 1922) states: "The petroleum in- 
dustry ... of the entire Rocky Mountain region is dominated by Standard 
Oil interests. This monopoly was perfected in 1920 and 1921 when the 
Standard Oil Co. (Indiana) obtained control of the Midwest Refining Co. 
The acquisition of this company gave the Standard interests practically 
complete control of the producing, transporting (pipe line), refining and 
marketing branches of the petroleum business of that entire section. . . . 
The monopoly is made possible by the terms of the Standard Oil dissolu- 
tion decree." 

t Based upon the output for three typical months. May, October and 
November, 1921. 



facts have been repeatedly called to his attention, 
that his statement to Mr. Rockefeller was in error. 
The seriousness of the matter so far as the five 
hundred people in Elk Basin are concerned lies in 
the fact that, coming from the responsible head of 
the parent company, his report effectively stalled, 
for the time being, all efforts from the outside to 
secure better conditions in the Basin. 

The West has a habit of asking no questions — a 
stranger is accepted pretty much on his own terms, 
provided they be modest. One fresh from the 
sophistication of the East is rather taken back by 
the friendliness-at-first-sight with which it accepts 
one, the sort of friendliness that strips off a pair 
of cotton gloves and gives them to a green man 
whose hands are blistering under pick and shovel 
work — you'll know just how friendly I mean if you 
are ever set to bucking Western hard-pan with pick 
and shovel with a crew of them! But I get ahead 
of my story. 

I tackled the boss of the Midwest outfit for a 
job and he passed me on to the "general office" in 
front of the company warehouse where my history 
was taken down and I was signed on as a rousta- 
bout at four dollars a day — less $1.35 a day de- 
ducted for board. My job entitled me to free 
quarters in one of the one-story bunk-houses and to 
a seat at one of the long oil-cloth tables in the mess 
shack. There was no ceremony about getting set- 
tled: one just dumped one's plunder into one of 
the unoccupied rooms and took possession without 
the formality of a key. The bunk-house proved an 
agreeable surprise; at the Ohio camp each man oc- 
cupied a separate room about seven by nine, walled 
with varnished tongue-and-groove board and fur- 
nished with a three-quarter iron bed and mattress, 
table, chair and closet, while in the Midwest camp 
two men were more often bunked together in a 
room about ten by twelve. 

"How are the bugs?" I asked a man lounging 
outside, who I learned later was a mule-skinner 
freighting through the Basin. 

"Try 'em and see," was his disguised reply. 
"Last time I was through here I killed ten in haif 
an hour and took to the barn with my mules the 
rest of the night. Me for the hay-loft tonight." 
But I found that his prediction was largely un- 
founded in the case of the room I drew; in fact 
one's luck in the bed bug line depended consider- 
ably upon the previous occupant of the room — and 
one's neighbors, for the partitions were thin. Woe 
to him, however, who neglected the periodic scru- 
pulous gasolening of bed, walls and floor! 

Married men who bring their families into the 
Basin occupy separate "houses" — I quote the word 
advisedly, for it takes a good deal of imagination 
to call some of the tents and tar-paper shacks built 
by the companies for their employes houses. The 
Ohio Oil Company (a Standard Oil company) is 
the worst offender in this regard, having only two 
real bungalows and three or four near-bungalows 
for a population of some twenty-five families, the 
remaining families living in one, two and three- 
room tents and shacks without plumbing or running 




Driller, from Texas 



Driller, from New Zealand 



140 



DONE IN OIL 



water. In at least one case' in the Ohio camp, an 
unusually fine type of American family of four — 
father, mother, and hoys of twelve and seven — 
lived in a single-room 10 x 14 tent. In the Mid- 
west camp the ratio is about half and half between 
bungalows and shacks. The eagerness of the peo- 
ple for more substantial dwellings is attested by the 
keen competition for the company bungalows 
whenever one falls vacant. During the long blaz- 
ing days of the brief summer, the flimsier dwell- 
ings are bake ovens, while they have to be so over- 
heated in winter when the thermometer sinks to 
twenty below as to result not infrequently in dis- 
astrous fires. Winter in an oil camp a mile up in 
the air is no joke. 

I was awakened at six o'clock my first morning 
by "Old John," the bunkhouse "crum boss," com- 
ing down the line literally blasting the occupant of 
each room out of bed with the most adequate assort- 
ment of profanity I have ever heard. John had 
come by his vocabulary honestly in the old days fol- 
lowing Custer's raid when he had owned a saloon 
in a town which he described with a twinkle in his 
eye as a "first rate hell-raiser." Ruddy and white 
of hair at sixty-five he drifted into the oil field, where 
as "crum boss" his tongue still flays small boys who 
use up his precious store of water by pilfering 
shower baths in his absence and routs protesting 
sleepers from the comfort of their blankets. Yet 
John is typical of the West, for I found him in the 
wash-house ten minutes later lending ten dollars to 
a still sleepy roustabout whom he had only the 
minute before been threatening with death and dire 
destruction. Later on, when one of the boys in the 
Ohio camp was rushed to the hospital twenty miles 
away with appendicitis and a hundred dollars was 
needed for an operation, it was "Old John" who put 
up the needed money. 

I washed in the hard alkali water in the wash- 
house, breakfasted with the taciturn double row of 
men feeding methodically in the mess shack, and 
shortly before seven checked in at the blacksmith 
shop and took my seat on the floor with the other 
men. One had only to look at them to mark the 
difference between them and the workers to whom 
one is accustomed in our larger cities. There was 
none of the heavy detachment so characteristic of 
the foreign born workers of the Eastern city. With 
one exception, in fact, they were all American born, 
mostly the substantial type from the Middle West, 
and their easy raillery bespoke an open air life free 
from the grosser fatigues of the machine operative. 
The unmarried men had many of them drifted in 
from other oil fields, all the way from Pennsylvania 
to California and Mexico, or from the soft coal 
centers of the Middle West, while many of the 
married men had originally given up fenced farms 
in Wisconsin, Iowa and Missouri and ventured west 
in that most precarious of all gambles, proving up 
on a dry land quarter-section. 

I checked out as one of a gang of eight rousta- 
bouts and a "straw boss" assigned to pick and shovel 
work — and the long grind of those weeks in the 
Basin was begun. I say "grind" not because the 



work itself was unbearably hard. Slogging away 
with pick and shovel at hard-pan soil that hasn't 
been molested since the Flood is punishing busi- 
ness at best, as is also rod-wrenching in the slimy oil 
ooze about the mouth of a well. But after all, a 
job's a job, and one worked at pretty much one's 
own gait, without the constant speeding up to keep 
pace with a machine that wears out the machine 
operative. But it was the drab, blistering monotony 
of seven days a week of it that bludgeoned all the 
fight out of a fellow. "When you finish a 




ENGINEMAN AND MOVABLE BOILER FOR 
DRILLING RIG 
These men all hare a healthy respect for their boilers. 
After Frank Du Fran was blown up with his boiler 
last winter one of the pumpers running a stationary 
engine wrote me : "There aren't half a dozen decent 
boilers in the whole field. I never stay inside my 
pumphouse with my boiler for fear of its blowing up" 

week's work out here," remarked the man next me 
as he leaned on his pick one Sunday morning, "you 
ain't good for nothin' but John D." Jobs like these 
make one realize how fatuous it is to say that the 
casual laborer ought to be "interested in his job." 
During the past year the foreman of one of the 
Standard companies has been dismissed charged 
with reputed illicit relations with the wife of a sub- 
ordinate, while serious charges of a similar nature 
have been current against another foreman — a condi- 
tion extremely unwholesome for the entire Basin and 
making it particularly difficult to hold the men in the 
bunkhouses in line. But psychology is demonstrat- 
ing the impertinence of an outsider's blandly apply- 
ing conventional moral terms like "good" and 
"evil" to men living and working under such ab- 
normal surroundings! Working all day under a 
scourging sun in a raw, shadeless hole in the plains 






DONE IN OIL 



141 



is one thing, but when there is nothing to do after 
the job but sit and look at the naked buttes, and 
when this keeps up Sundays too, it becomes "some- 
thing else again." The Rev. Harry Emerson Fos- 
dick tells the story on himself that he recently 
finished a Saturday afternoon of golf paired with a 
stranger who was evidently enough impressed with 
his game to ask Dr. Fosdick if he could not come 
out the following day, Sunday, to continue the 
match. "Sorry," said Fosdick, "I can't, that's my 
busy day." "Huh," grunted his partner, "you must 




OIL SMEARED FROM HEAD TO FOOT 
As an oil isoell is drilled it is "cased in" with pipe 
to prevent cave-ins. Later a string of one-inch tubing 
is lowered and inside it a string of steel rods, going 
the full depth of the well— 1500 to 2000 feet. On 
the bottom rod is a working valve, which sucks in the 
oil. The "jack" nsohich lifts the rods appears in the 
upper right hand corner. Every week or ten days the 
entire string of rods has to be removed, to replace 
the worn washers in the valve; the man here shown, 
a "rod wrencher," screws each section loose from its 
predecessor as it emerges 

have a hell of a job." Working for the Standard 
Oil Company seven days a week, is "a hell of a job" 
in that respect, too. 

Western folk are used to loneliness and take it 
philosophically, making the most of their meager 
resources. But bit by bit, squatting by one of the 
men for a moment after walking up the line to get 
a shot of stale water from the water bag, or in the 
long evenings after work in the shadow of the bunk- 
house, I sensed the wear and tear of the hardship 
of the life in the Basin. The drinking water was a 
constant source of protest among the men and their 
families in the Midwest camp. The only water in 
the Basin was alkali water pumped from wells two 
miles away and condensed for drinking. There was 



no trick at all to the condensing and the water in 
the Ohio camp was good, but the stuff the Midwest 
men and their families had to drink was so poorly 
condensed as to turn a white man's stomach. To 
make matters worse, various rough-and-ready com- 
binations, including, it was stated, potatoes and oat- 
meal, had been dumped into the condensing boiler 
to stop leaking flues — which helped to heighten the 
bouquet of the stuff. The mess shack served tea in- 
stead of water in an effort to cut the taste. Raids 
on the Ohio cistern under cover of darkness proved 
fruitless, for the wily "crum boss" kept his water 
padlocked after dark. So those who owned a Ford 
went twenty miles cross-country to Warren every 
few nights to bring home a five-gallon can of fresh 
water, while the rest of us drank the stinking stuff 
in the cistern week in and week out under the copper 
sky of that land where it never rains. 

The only shower bath in operation in the Basin 
during the past spring and early summer was the 
one down in the Ohio washhouse — which was not 
open to Midwest men — for the shower at the Mid- 
west bunkhouse had been frozen up some time early 
in the preceding winter and the local foreman 
had never taken the trouble to open it up again. 

"Good God," growled a man, oil-soaked from 
head to foot, trying to wash in a bucket of water 
before supper, "life would be a little bit better 
around here if we could get a bath once in a while." 

"Huh," said another fellow, laboriously scraping 
the day's accumulation of parafine off his clothes 
with his jack-knife, "I'd like to see a state inspector 
of hygiene come in here." 

It appears that the men were afraid to broach the 
matter of re-opening the shower to the foreman for 
fear of being fired, a situation standing out in raw 
contrast to the industrial representation plan set 
forth in the booklet issued by the Midwest Company 
and in operation in the Salt Creek field. 

Least defensible of all the sources of protest in 
the Basin, however, is the long week that includes 
Sunday work. 

"While John D. was a-sittin' on a soft cushion 
in church last Easter morning praisin' God for his 
goodness to him," remarked one of the men in the 
bunkhouse with the easy tendency of the workman 
to personify the corporation for which he works, 
"I was pullin' a well out here in the worst blizzard 
of the winter that made my hands freeze to every- 
thing I touched." 

"Why this seven-day week?" I asked Harry 
Stanley, a leather faced old-timer originally from the 
Standard Oil fields at Findlay, Ohio. 

"There ain't no need of it," he replied. "In 
Findlay even the pumpers come off 'tower' at a 
quarter before twelve Saturday night and are off 
until midnight Sunday. The trouble is they've for- 
gotten what Sunday is out here." 

Just how unnecessary the bulk of the Sunday work 
is may be seen from the report on Wages and 
Hours of Labor in the Petroleum Industry just 
issued by the U. S. Department of Labor.* In the 

* "Wages and Hours of Labor in the Petroleum Industry — 1920." Being 
Bulletin No. 297 of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. Issued 
April, 1922. 



142 



DONE IN OIL 




ference with him regarding 
working conditions in Elk 
Basin, that although the Stand- 
ard of Indiana owns at least 
eighty-nine per cent of the 
stock of the Midwest Refining 
£jf, . Company, it is powerless to 

interfere in such matters as 
working conditions — a bit of 
"passing the buck" which I at 
once challenged. Later he took 
the position that it is financially 
undesirable for the Standard 
of Indiana to interfere in such 
"Fifth Avenue", Elk Basin, with Midwest bunkhouses, mess shack, warehouse and details as working conditions 
garage in the foreground. This is the "tony" end of the Basin and in sharp contrast under its subsidiary company SO 
to the Ohio camp. A part of the Midwest tar paper shack colony— comprising ap- long as the latter is running 
Proximately half their personnel— appears in the back-ground to the left smoothly. It is of interest to 

note in this connection that the 
tables given below note that whereas the great Federal Trade Commission's tentative revision of 
majority of the workers in the first district (New the net earnings on net investment of the Midwest 
York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia) work only Company for the last three years for which figures 
a six-day week, in the districts further west the over- are given shows 43.2, 50.6 and 44.4 per cent respec- 
whelming majority of the workers labor a seven- tively, while the Indiana Company, due to stock divi- 
day week.f In other words, the seven-day week in dends of 2,900 and 150 per cent, is paying 4,500 per 
oil is not dictated by conditions in the industry neces- cent on its original investment. 

sitating continuous operation — except in emergen- In the letter to Mr. Rockefeller, Jr., referred to 

cies I — but by the unwillingness of the operators to above, Mr. Stewart wrote: 

recognize the need of one day's rest in seven for As you knoW) both the Standard Qil Company of Indiana 

their workers. and the Midwest Refining Company in their operations in 

Numbers of Oil Workers Working 6 and 7 Day Week— Classified the Wyoming Oil Fields are committed to a six-day week 

by Occupation and Geographic District* of eight hours each, wherever it is possible to operate on 

-o »> g that line. Generally speaking, this principle is observed 

%, 3 eJc E e" t a ^ S0 by the Midwest Refining Company. In fact I am ad- 

„.* i^ScSsS^.lo.^ ^ JS vised by the head of the Midwest Refining Company that 

« v> '£ 'tijjm ",^'ct! „ 3 "c c PX the only place where it is not observed is where the workers 

themselves have petitioned othemvise. [Italics mine.] 

N. Y., Penn., W. Va.. .6 days 152 189 1406 1007 165 

7 days ss 28 245 161 61 Mr. Stewart also assured me verbally that the work- 
ill., ind., Ky., Ohio.. 6 days 9 ss 43 9 e rs in the Basin realize that the Elk Basin field will 

7 days 175 25 758 1192 182 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r 1 r j 

Kansas, Mont., Okla., probably be abandoned after a number of years and 

Utah, Wyo 6 days 16 121 2559 397 15 are therefore anxious to work seven days a week 

Ark., La., Tex H%1 *ll '2 a $ ' 7SS 'ao while the work lasts-something like the painter 

7 days 1012 1772 3244 2021 409 who was hurrying to finish before his paint gave 

Cal 7 days 307 378 7«s 626 217 out) i supp ose! During my three months in Elk 

This table means, if we take the first column, the drillers, that Basin, I talked to no man who did not prefer a six- 

whereas 152 of them in the East work a six-day week and only day week, nor did I find a solitary man who knew 

55 a seven-day week, in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas only 18 anything about the Companies having been petitioned 
work a six-day week and 1012 a seven-day week, while in Cali- 
fornia there are no six-day workers among the drillers. 

R. W. Stewart, chairman of the Board of Di- %f 

rectors of the Standard Oil Company of Indiana, ' l! _9 

assured me, since my return, in the course of a con- 

■ ZT'tf J z 

t The Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies all workers laboring six-and- . 

one-half days a week with the seven-day week workers. -*^" "" V 

t An "open hole," i. e. well in process of being drilled, frequently can- Hfr £\^ 

not tic left standing idle because of the lateral pressure which causes 1-j ^ ,^|f*Hfl 6l ' Jf, 

cave-ins. 

* Pp. 90-2. I have selected here only the five classes of labor bulking 
largest numerically. The Government's statistics do not cover the entire ^^M 

industry: "The report is not intended to be a census of the petroleum &x •a. ^C^tt3 ^mt 4 ^Uk 

industry, but every possible effort has been made to apportion the work /■v< Tft* \/C^ J ^L ^ -''^f / t* ^L 

60 as to obtain a fair representation of the industry in each oi ' fyO ^W ^j J~^^^^^ jT~ - 1 ~m 

the country where it has been developed to any considerable Kep MHJjtt^v"' V^^H "^ ^V 

resentative establishments were selected, attention being given to both | ■* Jg »■ _ ^^ IB* 

iargc and tmall plants as well as to general location; that is, whether in 
industrial centers or in isolated sections, because all these conditions in- 
fluence in some degree the wages paid and the hours worked. . . . Schedules 
were obtained from 62 companies and 16 states engaged in the drilling 
and operation of oil wells, employing 35,255 males, estimated to be 25 per 
cent of the total number of such employes in the United States." (Sta- 
tistics are also given for pipe lines and refineries in the Federal Bulletin £J£ Basin boys 
guotcd.) • ' 




DONE IN OIL 



143 



to allow the men to work seven 
days a week. Not only is 
Sunday work well-nigh uni- 
versal, except in the East, but 
the hours worked per day by 
certain classes of workers 
throughout the oil industry 
match Mr. Gary's notorious 
"twelve-hour shift in steel." 
The "Industrial Relations 
Plan" of the Standard Oil 
Company of Indiana states in 
Part D, section V: 

"In order effectively to safeguard 
the welfare, health and proper 
comfort of workers, and to promote 

efficiency, the Company will continue to regulate the em- 
ployment of its labor on the basis of an eight-hour day ex= 
cept where otherwise agreed upon." 

In Elk Basin all pumpers, drillers and tool dressers 
of all companies — roughly one man in three — work 
a twelve-hour day seven days a week. For a few 
of the pumpers it is a twenty-four hour shift — and 
in the case of the Ohio workers, who get no holi- 
days, 365 days in the year! These few men are 
stationed at the more remote pump-houses and are 
responsible for keeping the pump going day and 
night; they "batch" it alone in their drab little cor- 
rugated iron shacks off in the sage brush; if they de- 
sire for any reason to leave the Basin for a day they 
must hire a substitute from their own wages. In 
addition to the seven-day week in the producing 
end of the field, all engine tenders, oilers and still- 
men (i. e. all classes of skilled labor) at the Mid- 
west Gasoline Plant work an eight-hour day seven 
days a week. All other classes of labor, in both the 
producing end and gas plant, including office per- 
sonnel, work a nine-hour day six and one-half days 
a week. In fact, one of the steadiest men in the 
Basin was docked recently for not being on the job 
the night his wife was delivered of a baby down in 
their rude little shack. There is no overtime pay 
for the occasional emergency work. The following 
figures issued this spring by the United States Bu- 
reau of Labor Statistics tell a grim story regarding 
the "long shift in oil." 



; r^. 





Drilling crew coming off shift at No. 36 



Clean-out machine and crew 



Average Full-Time Hours Per Week of Oil Well Workers 
Classified by Occupation and Geographical Districtt 



- 5 i,u°t tSSo 8. " » 

p -v a - 8 c 8 ° " •£ c c -S 

"isi 1 ■faS.& -gg-gg i-g-a g K 

Qqg Q Cjqj _>ei 5 c Pugg e~ q 

N. Y., Penn., W. Va. . 6 days 71.0 55.5 49.1 54.3 71.4 

7 days 84.0 83.0 61.7 61.5 84.0 

111., Ind., Ky., Ohio.. 6 days 72.0 57.0 57.3 56.0 72.0 

7 days 84.0 84.0 62.1 62.9 84.0 
Kansas, Mont.. Okla., 

Utah, Wyo 6 days 56.3 51.5 51.4 48.6 56.4 

7 days 83.6 80.7 63.4 70.3 83.7 

Ark., La., Tex 6 days 54.0 54.0 53.2 54.0 

7 days 69.3 58.8 61.6 64.4 80.5 

Cal 7 days 56.0 56.0 56.0 56.0 56.0 

Here again, taking the first column, the drillers, this means that 
the average total hours worked per week by all drillers in the 
New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia fields ivho work a six- 
day week is 71, while those working the seven-day week average 
84 hours. Stop a minute and figure up in terms of your own 44 
or 48 hour job just what that means! 

The needlessness of the long shift in oil is shown 
by the President's Mediation Commission in 1920 
in the California oil fields which provided that, 
"Eight hours actual work at the plant or place of 
employment shall constitute the work day in the oil 
industry." * ( 

While the above tables epitomize conditions with 
regard to the twelve-hour day and the seven-day 
week in Elk Basin, they point out even more defi- 
nitely the situation as it exists today throughout the 
producing end of the entire oil industry, both among 
the Standard companies and among the independ- 
ents. This schedule is more extreme than that 
which prevails generally in the refineries, where the 
three-shift system is common, and contrasts sharply 
with the three-shift day and one-day-of-rest-in-seven 
in which the Rockefeller interests (Colorado Fuel 
and Iron Company) have been among the pioneers 
in the steel industry. It is difficult to fix the original 
responsibility for the long shift in oil — it grew up 
with the industry. But certain it is that a large 
share of the responsibility for its continuance must 

t "Wages and Hours of Labor in the Petroleum Industry," pp. 90-2. 

* See "Memorandum of Terms Governing the Relations of Operators 
and Workmen in Oil and Gas Producing Companies, Oil and Gas Pipe 
Line Companies, Companies Operating, Cleaning, Topping, Dehydrating 
and Gasoline Plants, Contracting Drillers and Refining Companies in the 
State of California, as Determined hy the President's Mediation Cora- 
mission and the Committee of Such Operators." 



144 



DONE IN OIL 




"Literally a 'hole in the ground,' gouged out of the naked clay and sand stone. No water, 

no trees, no grass— not a living, growing thing in sight save the straggling sage brush"— a general 

view of Elk Basin. At the left is 'well No. 36 



rest upon the shoulders of 
the Standard Oil group, 
for the twenty-three large 
independent producers, 
and of course the little 
fellows, follow in the 
main Standard practices: 
"The members of the 
Standard Oil group," ac- 
cording to the Federal 
Trade Commission, "are 
the dominating factors in 
the petroleum business of 
practically vvery section 
of the United States. In 1919 the various Stand- 
ard companies controlled 23^2 per cent of the total 
crude petroleum production of the entire country, 
they operated about 68 per cent of the pipe lines, 
refined almost 44 per cent of the total quantity of 
crude refined, while Standard marketing companies 
were the dominating factors in both the domestic 
and export trade of the entire country. As in Cali- 
fornia, Standard aude petroleum purchasing and 
Standard marketing companies usually take the lead 
in announcing price changes, while others follow." 
While it is not meant here to imply that the 
Standard as a minority producer can dictate 
the labor policy of its competitors, it is plain 
that the financial power of the Standard companies 
and the strategic position of their pipe lines and 
refineries in the various fields tend to discourage any 
such advance beyond the Standard level in working 
conditions as would increase the overhead of the 
outside competitor. That at least certain of the 
more prominent Standard Oil companies could af- 
ford to set the pace in a general shortening of hours 



and days per week may be inferred from the earn- 
ings of the Midwest and Standard of Indiana 
cited above, and from the Federal Trade Commis- 
sion's revised schedule of earnings of the Standard 
of California for the last three years cited, 1917, 
'18, '19: 24.8, 34.1 and 30.8 per cent respectively.* 

The vacation policy of the Midwest Company 
in Elk Basin is to be commended — one week with 
pay after a year's service and two weeks with pay 
after two years. Here again, however, as in the 
case of housing and general care of its employes in 
sickness, the Ohio Company lags behind the Mid- 
west, for it grants no vacations at all with pay in 
the Basin. The Midwest, through its Industrial 
Relations Department, also provides free company 
insurance up to two thousand dollars and a com- 
pulsory sick benefit plan whereby a dollar a month is 
deducted from each man's pay and he receives two 
dollars-and-a-half a day after seven days' sickness 
for a period of twenty weeks. Another noteworthy 
evidence of Midwest welfare policy is the small 
but clean two-bed infirmary and the doctor sent into 
the Basin at the company's expense — in neither of 
which does the Ohio Company cooperate. All Mid- 
west employes are treated free by the doctor and 
their families are cared for at a nominal scale fixed 
by the company. The Midwest Company also keeps 
a traveling library of fifty books in the Basin. 

Hard as the long day and the seven day week are 
on the men, however, I sympathized even more with 
the women and children of the Basin. Elk Basin is 
not only over a dozen miles from the railroad, but 
twenty miles over rutted trails to even the nearest 
"movie" show. And while the men have the rough 



See editorial pntros for recent earnings of various Standard companies. 



DONE IN OIL 



145 



pool hall where they while away the evenings gam- 
bling mildly, for the women the days crawl endlessly 
by. In winter they are snowed in for weeks at a 
time. "Last winter," one mother of a familie of five 
told me, "the snow was so deep that I didn't get out 
of our front door for six weeks." While, during the 
brief summers they keep indoors while the sun 
blazes down as it only can in a treeless country 
where cloudy days are almost unknown. Someone 
has said that "it is always three o'clock in the after- 
noon in hell" — and it seemed always three o'clock 
in the afternoon in those sun-burned little shacks of 
the Basin. I recall a visit I paid to a patient girl- 
mother who had just been delivered of a still-born 
baby; I had dropped by one noon to see if there 
was anything an outsider could do. She lay in the 
bare little living-room-bed-room-everything-but- 
kitchen, smiling pluckily while the flies blackened 
the sheet and a rod line screeching back and forth 
over the parched ground outside the door added to 
the nausea of the heat. Several doors away in an- 
other two-room tar-paper shack all four children 
were down with whooping cough and the gaunt 
mother with her hair stringing about her face told 
me with a tired smile that she guessed there wasn't 
much else that could happen to them now. I used 
to wonder when I was new in the Basin at the ex- 
travagance of the mother of a family of six living 
on a salary of less than five dollars a day who paid 
two dollars for a watermelon, or at the expensive 
looking victrolas in one- and two-room shacks, or 
how some of the families could afford even a bat- 
tered Ford (about one family in every three has 
some kind of cheap automobile). But these things 
are literally more necessary than bread and pota- 
toes and shoes — they afforded the same imperative 
relief that the boy next me in the bunk-house, a fine, 
clean fellow of nineteen grinding along twelve hours 
on and twelve off seven days a week, got the night 
he went over to Red Lodge with a 
crowd and got on his first big drunk. 
There were occasional dances in the 
pool hall but these were sometimes 
uneasy times for certain of the wives 
for the dances were apt to bring boot- 
leggers into the Basin. In the course 
of the summer some of us launched a 
series of community sings which were 
eagerly attended — people sometimes 
actually standing outside the crowded 
little schoolhouse and singing in 
through the windows. The most ob- 
vious social need of the Basin had 
long been recognized to be, however, 
a community house where the women 
could sit and sew with each other dur- 
ing the day and there could be in- 
formal dancing and games at night; a fl 
rough basket ball floor would go far 
toward solving the recreation problem 
of the men in winter. The companies 
had been repeatedly petitioned to 
build some simple community house j^f 
such as the Midwest Company has 



erected in other fields. At length we subscribed six 
hundred dollars among ourselves toward the cost of 
the building, but even this concrete suggestion met 
with the profound silence of Don Marquis' "rose 
petal dropped into the Grand Canyon." 

During the past summer, due to the energetic 
work of M. Huyett Sangree, a minister temporarily 
stationed in Elk Basin by the Home Missionery 
Board of the Presbyterian Church, the matter was 
again pushed with the companies. The Midwest 
Company (Standard of Indiana) responded with an 
offer of five hundred dollars, contingent upon the 
Ohio Company (Standard) contributing a similar 
amount. The scheme was again promptly knocked 
in the head, however, through the Ohio Oil Com- 
pany's refusal to cooperate. The reason advanced 
by Mr. McFadyen of the Ohio Company in his letter 
of refusal — because "the price of oil has gone off" 
temporarily — would be highly amusing, in view of 
the fact that the Ohio Oil Company's stock sells at 
over $300 and it has just declared a 300 per cent 
stock dividend, were his refusal not the cause of such 
bitter disappointment to the people of the Basin. 

Many of the families of the Basin are substantial 
American folk whose children might go to college 
in a more favored community. And it was to the 
problem of their children that these earnest, patient 
people of the West recurred most often in the eve- 
nings as we sat about the doorstep while the dying 
sun splashed the Western sky with color. For the 
girls, unless they left home after finishing the eight 
grades of schooling available in the Basin, there was 
nothing ahead except work as a "hasher" for the 
rude crew in the mess shack or marriage to one of 
the unmarried men in the bunk-house and — the oil 
fields throughout all their lives too. For the boys 
the future was less problematical: they hung around 
the pool hall learning to grow up fast and eventually 
signed on as roustabouts. During the summer we 



A familiar figure in the Basin, who 
has outmanoeuvred the oil com- 
panies in their attempts to gobble up 
the oil rights on her near-by home- 
stead. She slept in the sage-brush 
in the early days until her house 
was built, and for fire years has 
hung on, burning sage-brush to keep 
warm during the long winters when 
it is twenty below, and carrying 
drinking water from the Basin two 
miles and a half away, her 'whole 
life narrowed to a single consuming 
passion— to beat the oil companies. 
She is hanging on, strong in the 
faith that there is a "river of oil" 
under her homestead— and there is 
a good chance that she will strike 
oil with her "wild cat" drilling com- 
pany, no'w at 'work. She has posted 
the sign shown above, threatening 
dire destruction to any man or beast 
of the oil companies that comes 
upon her property, and stands by 
•with her six-shooter at her belt 




^r^v'Kr* 



146 



DONE IN OIL 



organized scout troops for both boys and girls, and 
after the lay-off came, I took the boys off for a 
couple of hilarious camping trips. "It's been the 
first summer our streets haven't been full of howl- 
ing young hoodlums," said one woman. But these 
things of course did not get at the real problem of 
the children in a place like the Basin. 

Perhaps the healthiest thing about life in Elk 
Basin is the passion of young and old for trout fish- 
ing. Forty miles away over straggling trails are 
two trout streams — and trees and grass! In 
winter the people live for the coming of summer 
and during the brief summer they hang on through 
the heat by the thought of the next fishing trip to 
Pryor or the Canyon. And those of them who do 
not work the twelve hour shift and are lucky enough 
to own some form of conveyance make the best of 
their brief half-day on Sunday. One man who works 
an eight hour day seven days a week at the Mid- 
west Gasoline Plant used frequently to come off his 
shift at midnight, hop into his dilapidated Ford, 
do the forty miles through the night up the ghostly 
Pryor canyon, squat on the bank till dawn, and then 
fish until is was time to come scorching back to check 
in on his four o'clock shift without sleep. 

Day followed day in the Basin in glaring proces- 
sion : up at six, breakfast, on the job at seven, dinner 
at twelve-fifteen, on the job again at one, supper at 
five-fifteen, sit about a while, sleep, up at six, break- 
fast, on the job, — and so on and on and on, hemmed 
in forever by that grey circle of rimrock. Occa- 
sionally the monotony would be varied, as when 
Frank Du Fran was blown up by a defective boiler, 
or one of the tar-paper houses went up in flames 
while the neighbors stood helplessly by without 
water or fire-fighting apparatus, or there would be 
a fight as when "Big Joe" and his helper settled 
the question as to which was to be boss down at the 
test rig, or there would be an occasional dance or 
birthday party, or a meeting of the "Ladies Aid" 
(there is no church building and no regular services 
in the Basin), or a collection would be taken up for 
somebody sick or stranded (an appeal, by the way, 
to which people never failed to respond magnifi- 
cently — a subscription of $300 being by no means 
unknown). These things caused a slight commo- 
tion, which immediately flattened out, however, into 
the dead calm of "all work and no play." 

"Why don't you organize?" I asked a man one 
evening as we sat on a bench against the bunk-house. 
" 'Organize' hell — try it and see," was his laconic 
reply. 

It appeared that two men had tried it two years 
ago and had lasted only about two weeks on their 
jobs. A recent notice of a wage cut posted in the 
blarksmith shop had been accompanied with the 
pregnant suggestion that anybody not satisfied could 
get out. I gradually discovered that the men were 
most universally in favor of organization but in 
mortal terror of the companies' finding them out. 
There was a clause in the California agreement re- 
ferred to above providing that "membership in any 
labor union affiliated with the American Federation 



of Labor shall not be a bar to employment, nor 
shall any man be discharged or discriminated against 
for membership in such labor union," but needless 
to say such consideration was out of the question in 
the Basin. The very problem of finding ground on 
which to Hold a meeting in a town one hundred per 
cent owned by the companies is in itself almost pro- 
hibitive. Subsequently organizers have again en- 
tered the Basin, only to give it up as a bad job. 

"Shorty" stopped one day as we were digging 
and, leaning on his pick, remarked, "Well, I guess 
some of us'll be goin' down the road talkin' to our- 
selves pretty soon." And he was right: the tempo- 
rary cut in production ordered in a distant office 
where Elk Basin was only a spot on the map reached 
into the Basin one morning and the lay-off began. 
It sent "Shorty" down the road "talkin' to hisself," 
a boy of twenty-three shunted on to the next job in 
the haphazard career of the casual laborer; Charlie 
went north into the wheatfields, leaving his wife be- 
hind in the rusty little shack; Hugh got a railroad 
job, leaving his wife and two boys in their one-room 
tent. One by one they drifted up over the rimrock 
and the uneventful life of the Basin assumed a 
semblance of excitement as we speculated as to who 
would be plucked next. I find an entry in my note- 
book : "Seven more men laid off today. Things 
pretty blue around the bunkhouse." Fortunately the 
foremen in a community like Elk Basin of necessity 
work and live close to their men and they serve as 
a buffer to ease the peremptoriness of those twin 
catastrophes in the lives of those who work with 
their hands, wage cuts and lay-offs. Nothing but 
praise is due these men for the way they handled 
such matters in the Basin — they found stray piece- 
work for a time, and then when the cut became in- 
evitable generally sent the newer, unmarried men 
first, and when some of the married men had to go, 
allowed their wives and furniture to remain behind 
rent free until they could make the change. 

WHEN I finally came out of the Basin there was 
no question in my mind as to what should be 
done. These things are urgent: 

First: A six day week, with Sunday work only in 
real emergencies. 

Second: Abolition of the long twelve hour day 
and the substitution of three shifts instexd of two 
as in the California agreement cited above. 

Third: Provision of a simple community house 
for recreational purposes. 

In addition to these, there is an unquestioned 
need for: 

Fourth: Recognition, as in the California agree- 
ment, of the right to organize. 

Fifth: Better housing for from fifty to eight}' 
per cent of the families. 

Sixth: Extra pay for overtime work. 

All of the above six needed changes are bound 
to come. 

But owing to its isolated location, conditions in 
the Basin will always tend to lag behind those in 
(Continued on page 175) 



A Promise of Better Days 

By JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER, JR. 




GREATLY appreciate the editorial 
courtesy which has permitted me to 
read and to comment upon Mr. 
Lynd's article in advance of publica- 
tion. The conditions described 
have caused me deep concern. The 
first intimation months ago that 
such a situation existed in the Elk Basin field led me 
to institute prompt inquiry, with the hope that any 
just grounds for criticism might be removed forth- 
with. That these efforts, long since under way and 
still in progress, have not been more quickly effec- 
tive has been and is a disappointment. 

While I recognize the tolerance and restraint of 
the article, I should regret if the omission of safe- 
guarding references might lead readers to infer that 
the Elk Basin situation is typical of the oil industry 
as a whole or of the policies of the Standard Oil 
companies in particular, for quite the contrary is the 
fact. It is hardly necessary for me to call attention to 
what has long been very generally conceded among 
employers and employes alike, namely, that the Stan- 
dard Oil companies have always paid full wages and 
treated their men with justice, friendliness and con- 
sideration. I think it will be recognized that the Elk 
Basin is a peculiarly barren, isolated and difficult 
location in its physical setting. According to in- 
formation from responsible sources, I have reason 
to believe that the unhappy circumstances apparently 
surrounding this single field are in marked contrast 
with those in other branches of the industry, and 
especially those in less difficult producing areas. 

Having, however, thus pointed out that these 
conditions do not pertain widely, I certainly have no 
wish to defend or extenuate this particular situation 
in itself. On the contrary, I am glad of this oppor- 
tunity to set forth with all frankness and emphasis 
my own position in regard to matters of this kind. 

The circumstances described by Mr. Lynd have 
to do in part with hours of labor and in part with 
living conditions. On the basis of the facts in the 
matter, I trust there will be no misunderstanding 
either on the part of the responsible executives in the 
companies to which I may be related or on the part 
of the public at large as to my position on both of 
these questions. 

I believe that generally speaking the twelve-hour 
day and the seven-day week should no longer be 
tolerated in Industry, either from the viewpoint of 
public policy or of industrial efficiency; I believe that 
both have been proven to be unnecessary, unecon- 
omic and unjustifiable. As a matter of general pol- 
icy, subject only to the demands of occasional emer- 
gency, modern industry is justified in accepting the 
eight-hour day and the six-day week, as a labor 




Copyright Underwood & Underwood 



JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER, JR. 

"The twelve-hour day and the seven-day mueek 

should no longer be tolerated. . . . I believe that 

both have been proven to be unnecessary, uneconomic 

and unjustifiable 



147 



148 



A PROMISE OF BETTER DAYS 



standard toward which all the parties interested 
should steadily press. Even in those industries 
where the continuous process is an inevitable feature, 
the routine should be so adjusted that the employes 
can have at least one day's rest in seven and can ob- 
tain that share of leisure for self-development which 
accompanies the work-day of approximately eight 
hours. While the adoption of these standards may 
and doubtless will at first entail increased costs of 
production, I am confident that in the long run great- 
er efficiency and economy will result, and that from 
the outset public opinion will support any industry 
which installs them. The same sentiment will 
eventually bring into line the less scrupulous and less 
enlightened elements in every competitiv industry. 

With regard to living conditions there can be even 
less room for argument or division of opinion among 
men of clear vision and humane mind. Even in 
isolated locations like mining camps, it is not only 
possible but necessary that reasonable provision 
should be made for the health, comfort and content- 
ment of those who may labor there in behalf of the 
entire community. The oil fields, to be sure, suffer 
difficulties even greater than the coal mines, being 
not only temporary but speculative in their output. 
Even with this allowance the environment is certainly 
subject to amelioration and to such provision for 
home and recreational life as will promote the well 
being of all those concerned. 

I have never believed that these things should 
be provided for working men and women either as a 
result of chance generosity or deliberate paternalism. 
Quite aside from the fact that, in my judgment, 
they represent the soundest economic policy, they 
are due the employe as a matter of common justice, 
requiied by the basic fact that man is a human being 
first and a member of industry afterward. As a 
private citizen and individual stockholder, I have 
never hesitated to state my position on these points 
with all the clearness at my command. I have not 
wittingly lost an opportunity — so far as a minority 
stockholder may do so — to reinforce my position on 
the general policy with action that would be most 



concrete and adequate. I have done so, moreover, 
where changes urged by me involved competitive 
burdens and consequent anxiety to responsible man- 
agers, but I have never seen reason to regret any 
advance thus obtained or to modify the grounds on 
which they were urged. On the contrary, I would 
reaffirm the belief that sooner or later all such added 
burden is balanced by the increased efficiency and 
contentment of the laboring force and that less gen- 
erous directors of industry in due time will inevitably 
follow the same course, if not through choice then 
under compulsion of public opinion. 

In pursuance of this policy, some of the problems 
which have to be faced and many of the evils which 
should be removed are deeply rooted, sometimes 
within the processes of an entire industry. To my 
mind, however, where the right course is clear, dif- 
ficulties in the way do not excuse inaction, but rather 
should inspire a more vigorous determination. So 
far as concerns the discharge of my own responsi- 
bility as a stockholder for better industrial condi- 
tions and relations, I have made special provision 
for assistance in just such tasks as these, which are 
sometimes onerous, often perplexing, but always 
close to my heart. To that end I welcome every aid 
from whatever source, as men of like mind and 
common purpose try to raise industry to a level of 
public service and thereby to make the world a bet- 
ter place for all men to live in. 

[Mr. Rockefeller's letter reflects the straightforward attitude 
which he has repeatedly taken in matters of this sort during recent 
years. He points out, as I myself do in the course of my article, 
that certain conditions, such as the drinking water problem, are 
due to the peculiar isolation of the Elk Basin field. I must protest, 
however, at his including such conditions as the seven-day week 
and the twelve-hour day among "the unhappy circumstances ap- 
parently surrounding this single field" which "are in marked con- 
trast with those in other branches of the industry, and especially 
those in less difficult producing areas." As I have tried to make 
explicit in more than one place in the article, Elk Basin is in no 
sense unique either in the matter of hours worked per day or days 
worked per week — in fact, quite the contrary, it is entirely typical 
of the oil fields generally, with the exceptions noted in the article. 
The whole drab story is set forth in detail in Bulletin No. 297 of 
the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics on Wages and Hours 
of Labor in the Petroleum Industry, published in April, 1920, and 
to be had for the asking from the Government Printing Office in 
Washington. — R. S. L.] See editorial pages. 




Detail of a siction of the Elk Basin field— typical in its barrcm 



What Lies before the New Federal 
Coal Commission 







S time goes on the victory won by 
the United Mine Workers in the 
coal strike appears more and more 
complete. Although the original 
agreement concluded at Cleveland 
on August 15 carried the signa- 
tures of operators producing barely 
thirty million tons — only 6 per cent of the 
tonnage of the country — it was accepted within 
a fortnight by all of the strongly organized 
fields. The first district to sign was Eastern Ohio. 
Southern Ohio, Northern West Virginia, Central 
Pennsylvania, Illinois, Indiana, and the Trans-Mis- 
sissippi states followed in rapid succession. The 
first break in the opposition in the Pittsburgh Dis- 
trict came Monday, August 28. By Wednesday the 
Pittsburgh Coal Producers Association had capit- 
ulated, and on the following day the Pittsburgh 
Coal Company, having first withdrawn from the 
operators' association, signed the agreement osten- 
sibly with its own men. Nothing could have marked 
more signally the collapse of the opposition than 
this surrender of the largest producing company 
which had not only led the fight against a renewal 
of the old agreement but had threatened to sue any 
operator again consenting to the check off. Labor 
Day 1922 found all the union bituminous districts 
at work, except for a few thousand men in the Kan- 
awha Valley of West Virginia. 

Acceptance of the Cleveland agreement was facil- 
itated by the change which had come over the coal 
market. The strikers had accomplished what at the 
outset seemed impossible; they had created a short- 
age in spite of enormous stocks accumulated by con- 
sumers in advance of the strike, in spite of record 
production by the southern non-union mines and in 
the face of a business depression which greatly re- 
duced the normal consumption of coal. Whereas in 
August 192 1 the union operators had found it diffi- 
cult to pay the scale, in competition with the non- 
union mines, a year later the price of coal had risen 
far above the cost of production even at the union 
scale. So complete was the change in the market 
that the non-union operators were forced to raise 
wages and by Labor Day had generally reinstated 
the scale paid in 1920. 

The acceptance of the Cleveland agreement was 
so rapid as to lend color to the claim of the miners 
that the settlement was a national one. Had there 
been more deliberation at the sessions of the several 
district conferences that accepted the agreement, 
had the desire of the operators to participate in the 
handsome prices-prevailing not made them so preci- 
pitate, had any of the districts refused the terms of 
the Cleveland agreement, the settlement would have 



seemed more in substance what it was in form, a 
series of local agreements between local associations 
of operators and their own employes. The event, 
however, suggests that the union has reaffirmed the 
principle of national settlement. It is doubtful if 
the old method of negotiating an interstate agree- 
ment for the Central Competitive Field and then 
executing subsidiary contracts for outlying districts 
was ever followed in shorter time. The recent con- 
ference that met October 1 in pursuance of the 
Cleveland agreement even hints that we may have 
a joint call for a meeting of all organized fields when 
the next wage scale is to be formulated. 

What the Coal Strike Left Unsettled 

And yet the victory is a Pyrrhic victory and the 
peace it ushers in not a peace at all but rather an 
armed truce. In the first place the strike is not en- 
tirely over. Many thousand men are still out, sup- 
ported in part by strike benefits, demanding union 
recognition and a wage contract. Some of them are 
in the former non-union districts of Pennsylvania — 
Connellsville, Westmoreland and Somerset — some 
in the Georges Creek, New River and Kanawha 
districts of Maryland and West Virginia, where the 
operators are unwilling to continue dealing with the 
union as they used to do. In comparison with any- 
thing but a national suspension the number of men 
still on strike would seem large. 

Furthermore, the Cleveland agreement has set- 
tled none of the underlying causes of unrest. Feu- 
dalism is intrenched in West Virginia, supported 
by new injunctions. Over-development has been 
aggravated by the high prices and large profits of 
the non-union operators, and employment for the 
industry as a whole will be more irregular than ever. 

Uncertainty as to the price of fuel is still an un- 
settling factor in the nation's business. Another 
suspension looms next spring, for the union oper- 
ators still believe they cannot pay the present union 
scale when the market is again normal, and when 
the non-union operators, cutting labor costs, capture 
the available orders as they did in the latter part 
of 1921. 

In fact, the strike and its aftermath have raised 
the issue of price to the consumer in acute form. 
Bituminous coal is selling at double the price de- 
manded a year ago. The average spot price f.o.b. 
mines, on October 2, according to Coal Age, was 
$4.89 against $2.40 in October 192 1. The larger 
anthracite producers have agreed to last year's price 
plus the new production tax imposed by the State of 
Pennsylvania, but the independent operators are 
selling today [October 2] at a premium of from 
$ .65 to $4.50 a ton. 
The supply of anthracite available this winter 



149 



150 



WHAT LIES BEFORE THE NEW FEDERAL COAL COMMISSION 



will be 45 per cent short of last year's, even if the 
mines produce at a maximum. The deficit must be 
made up by substituting bituminous coal, either raw 
or in the form of coke, and most householders are 
apparently delaying the purchase of substitutes until 
cold weather is upon them. We shall be fortunate, 
indeed, to avoid a period of great inconvenience, if 
not of physical suffering, before the winter is over. 

The Fact-Finding Commission 

Upon this sea of unsettled issues and public un- 
easiness the President has launched his Fact-Finding 
Commission. The commission is to study both an- 
thracite and bituminous coal, but in deference to the 
terms of the anthracite settlement, as negotiated by 
Senator Pepper, is to make a separate report on 
anthracite which shall cover "every phase" of the 
industry. The decision not to create separate com- 
missions for hard and soft coal was wise, for the 
two can best be studied in common, as related 
though unlike parts of a whole. 

The commission differs from its predecessors — 
the Roosevelt Anthracite Commission of 1902 and 
the Bituminous and Anthracite Coal Commissions 
of 1920 — in two important respects. In the first 
place it is happily rid of the burden of arbitrating 
a wage dispute. One of the motives of the sponsors 
of the bill — especially the anthracite operators — 
was undoubtedly to elicit an indirect recommenda- 
tion as to the wage to be paid when the present con- 
tracts expire. But such recommendation, if made, 
would not be binding upon the employers or mine 
workers, and the subject of wage rates is not in- 
cluded among those on which the commission is 
affirmatively directed to make recommendation. 

The commissioners are, therefore, free to devote 
their attention to the facts of the coal business, and 
in this direction their instructions are specific and 
their authority sweeping. The matters enumerated 
in the act are a reasonable translation of the Presi- 
dent's promise last July to investigate "every phase" 
of the industry. Wages, earnings and living costs, 
investment, prices and profits, are included from 
"coal in place" to "delivery at the door of the con- 
sumer." The field is as broad as the dictionary. 
The commission can almost, like the Merchant Ad- 
venturers of England, "make war on any nation not 
Christian." The appropriation of $200,000 is 
enough to start on boldly, though not enough to 
finish the job. The sweeping majorities in both 
Houses left no doubt of the temper of Congress in 
passing the law, and it is the obvious duty of the 
commission to inform Congress if additional funds 
are necessary. 

The procedure of the commission is necessarily 
influenced by the fact that few of its members begin 
their task with any knowledge of the industry. They 
must, therefore, rely upon a staff of experts for the 
conduct of the investigation. Such an organization 
tempts to leisurely procedure. Even the instruction to 
make a first "report and recommendations not later 
than January 15, 1923," can hardly mean, in view 
of the time limit, more than a progress report, and 
recommendations as to lines of investigation to be 
pursued. Too many other bodies, under such cir- 



cumstances, have shut themselves up for a year and 
emerged at the end of their allotted span with a 
bulky report to be put on the shelves and soon for- 
gotten. 

The history of the American coal trade is strewn 
with such monuments of human industry. Inter- 
state Commerce dockets, Supreme Court cases, Fuel 
Administration statistics of distribution, Federal 
Trade cost studies, Geological Survey annual reports 
make an imposing array on a book shelf, but they 
seem not to have settled the coal problem. In pages 
of testimony taken, no commission could outdo the 
Senate committees whose printed hearings may now 
be numbered like books of the Old Testament, as 
I Reed, II Reed, I Frelinghuysen, II Frelinghuysen, 
III Frelinghuysen, and so on through a succession 
of major prophets — Calder, La Follette and Ken- 
yon — to say nothing of certain minor prophets and 
writers of epistles in the House. All of these re- 
ports have been to the good, and to them we owe 
much of what we have been able to learn about coal, 
but it is clear that little more can be accomplished 
through the holding of extempore hearings. Must 
not a radically different procedure be followed if 
the report of the Harding Coal Commission is to 
be rescued from decent interment at the end of this 
row of megaliths? 

In point of fact the present commission has a 
unique opportunity such as has been presented to 
no other agency working with coal. It has an op- 
portunity to educate the public to a sane and intel- 
ligent conception of the coal problem. More im- 
portant, it has the opportunity to initiate coopera- 
tive action among workers, employers, carriers and 
consumers, for which no legislation is necessary. So 
vital are these two opportunities that one may pre- 
dict that the success or failure of the commission 
will be measured by the degree to which it takes the 
public and the industry into its confidence and car- 
ries them along in its deliberations. 

Educating the Public 

The most useful result to be hoped for from the 
commission's labors is the formation of an intelli- 
gent public opinion. Until the public conscience is 
awakened to its responsibilities toward coal and the 
public mind informed on the issues involved, there 
can be little progress toward a permanent settle- 
ment. 

Now as the coal folk well know, the public takes 
no heed of the industry and its troubles except when 
the price is high. The consumer, big or little, re- 
cognizes no responsibility for the people in the 
mines. He will call for a Lever Law or an emer- 
gency fuel distributor when the price is exorbitant, 
but he knows nothing and cares little about inter- 
mittent employment of miners or bankruptcy of the 
mine owner. During the next six months fuel will 
be scarce and prices high, and coal will be constantly 
before the public. It is the responsibility of the 
commission to see that this preoccupation, instead of 
crystallizing in unreasoning prejudice, takes the 
form of an intelligent understanding of the causes 
of the shortage and a resolution that some remedy 
be found. On the other hand, if the commission 



WHAT LIES BEFORE THE NEW FEDERAL COAL COMMISSION 



151 



waits a year to publish its findings, the emergency 
will have passed, the price will have fallen, and the 
bulky volume will appear unnoticed by an apathetic 
public. 

And without public support, the recommendations 
of the commission will fail. If the commission pro- 
poses legislation it will find public support necessary 
to pass the legislation, or to enforce it when passed. 
In fact, on many matters in dispute, public opinion 
can accomplish what legislation cannot reach. It is 
to the conscience of the nation we must turn to in- 
sure fair play in West Virginia. It is to the public 
as referee that we must turn for final settlement of 
wage disputes. Without cooperation of the consum- 
ing public, all plans for overcoming seasonal unem- 
ployment by inducing storage are destined to fail, 
for it is the consumer who must do the storing. 

How can the commission meet this responsibility? 
First of all by taking the public into its confidence 
and informing people of its plans and program. 
Next, by feeding out through the press and peri- 
odicals the important evidence as fast as it is re- 
ceived and examined. Instead of waiting until the 
job is all done and then handing down a bulky vol- 
ume, let the commission give out pertinent bits of 
fact as fast as available. In such an investigation, 
some of the facts come out early, others cannot be 
established until the end. Why not release them in 
summary form as fast as they are ready? 

This plan does not mean a director of propaganda 
seeking to produce a pre-determined effect. It is 
merely an effort to recreate in the public mind the 
process of education which is going on in the minds 
of the commissioners themselves. They start with- 
out bias, to study a thing concerning which they 
know little. Their first task is to assemble the fun- 
damental facts, to make a primer on coal. Let 
them publish it bit by bit. It will fill a long felt 
need, because there is no coal primer. They will be 
for example obviously concerned with the seasonal 
swing in production. It will be a statement of fact, 
about which there can be no dispute. It will be essen- 
tial to clear thinking on coal. Let the commissioners 
release it for the use of the thousands of good 
Americans, who will follow the story if they get 
a chance. 

If this policy can be carried out, the commission 
will find many strong dailies and periodicals that 
will follow its work systematically. To those who 
have been watching coal for the past five years, it is 
encouraging to note how an understanding of the 
major underlying difficulties of the bituminous in- 
dustry, such as excessive competition, over-develop- 
ment, intermittent employment, has filtered down- 
ward through the minds of the engineers and econ- 
omists into the editorial columns of the metropol- 
itan press and the more sober magazines. The 
channel of communication by which the commission 
may reach its public is already laid. These observ- 
ers will watch for the facts as they appear from the 
commission — facts about supply, demand, storage, 
transportation, wages, investment, cost and profits 
— and build them block by block into their own con- 
ception of the industry. Then, when the year is 



over, the commission may rely on an intelligent 
opinion ready to criticise its recommendations and 
to carry them out, if they so deserve. 

In fact, the commission needs to do more than 
inform the public. It needs to consult the public. 
It would do well to engage the voluntary help of 
thoughtful men who have knowledge or influence 
concerning some part of its large field. It needs to 
consult economists, traffic men, railroaders, engi- 
neers, churchmen, consumers, men of affairs, friends 
of labor, not merely to employ them on its investi- 
gative staff, nor examine them formally as witnesses, 
but to get them thinking, to ask their counsel, to 
focus the sober judgment of men with varied points 
of view upon the many angles of a complex problem. 

What form this consultation should take is for 
the commission to work out. It might take the 
form of a number of advisory committees on the 
several subjects to be studied, such for instance as 
were used with notable success by the President's 
Conference on Unemployment. The duties of these 
committees would include assembling data, drafting 
statements of fact and recommendations for consi- 
deration of the commission, and winning public sup- 
port for such plans as were formally approved by 
the commission. 

What the People Expect 

For the country is looking to the commission, not 
only for findings of fact, but for leadership. The 
need of the hour is a plan and the responsibility of 
the Administration does not end until the plan has 
been put into effect. Leaving out proposals that re- 
quire legislation, it is clear that much can be done 
by voluntary cooperation. Take for instance the 
matter of storage : It is generally agreed that sum- 
mer storage of coal will steady the employment of 
miners, equalize the burden of the railroads, and 
protect the consumer against shortage. To a large 
extent, inducing people to store is simply a matter 
of educating them to their own interest. The com- 
mission should, therefore, have an advisory com- 
mittee on storage. On it would sit engineers who 
have studied the technique and cost of storage and 
a group of substantial consumers — selected perhaps 
by the Chamber of Commerce of the United States. 
The Storage Committee would consider the reports 
of the commission's technical investigators and 
would draft recommendations to the full commis- 
sion. On such a subject, the commission can make 
up its mind very early, and work can begin at once 
in getting the recommendation translated into 
action. 

If it be felt that the commission could not with 
propriety itself engage in the work of promoting 
storage, the initiative could be taken by the Presi- 
dent, to whom as well as to Congress the commis- 
sion is to report. Thus the President through the 
Commerce and Interior Departments might ask the 
assistance of the Chamber of Commerce of the 
United States in a campaign of education. Through 
the Coal Bureau of the chamber, local associations 
of commerce could be interested in surveys of their 
local needs and requirements. Experiments in co- 



152 



WHAT LIES BEFORE THE NEW FEDERAL COAL COMMISSION 




Copyright Underwood & Underwood 

Judge Samuel Alschuler, lawyer 
and Democrat, Chicago 



Underwood & Underwood 

Edward T. Devine, social writer 
and executive 



International Xews reel 



Charles P. Neill former U. S. 
commissioner of labor statistics 



operative purchase and storage by the citizens of 
York, Pennsylvania, could be called to the attention 
of other cities. If we can teach people about sani- 
tation, or housing or good roads by such means, 
why not about storing coal? To anyone with ima- 
gination, storage is only one of many needs of the 
coal industry that can be attained better by coopera- 
tion than by other means. 

Precisely the opposite of this plan was followed 
by the Bituminous Coal Commission of 1920, and 
with sad result. The majority report of that body 
contains seventeen recommendations, most of them 
very much to the good. But because there was no 
one to carry on after the demise of the commission, 
only one of them was put into effect, the one excep- 
tion being a recommendation that the commission 
be discharged. 

Winning the Confidence of the Industry 

Not less important than educating the public is 
the need of enlisting the support of the industry for 
the commission's work. It starts under a cloud 
of suspicion. Whereas the decision of the Anthra- 
cite Commission of 1902 is held as a sort of Magna 
Carta by the miners, the Anthracite Commission of 
1920 is remembered with distrust. Whatever the 
reason for the feeling, its existence cannot be ig- 
nored. It threatens to align the miners against the 
present commission in advance. 

There are also important elements among the 
operators, particularly in the non-union bituminous 
fields, who are suspicious of the commission and are 
likely to obstruct it where they can. 

To overcome this feeling so far as honest dealing 
can overcome it is of primary importance to the 
commission. Without the confidence of the industry 
investigation will be difficult. Without it, recom- 
mendations on such matters as a permanent machin- 
ery for collective bargaining cannot get far. More 
is to be accomplished by voluntary effort than by 
legislation. We are increasingly aware of the in- 



adequacy of wage tribunals. Neither side at heart 
wants government regulation. The miners would 
agree to publicity of accounts, but they do not want 
a Coal Labor Board. The operators might wel- 
come compulsory arbitration, but they would not 
like the concomitant regulation of profits. A per- 
manent machinery for collective bargaining must 
after all be worked out by those who run the mines 
and dig the coal. 

The greatest monument of the Roosevelt Com- 
mission of 1902 was the Anthracite Board of Con- 
ciliation which has settled minor disputes in the an- 
thracite region for twenty years. The greatest mon- 
ument the present commission could leave would 
be a workable machinery for collective bargaining 
in the bituminous industry. 

If the confidence of the industry can be won, much 
may be expected in the way of educating both sides 
to a truer sense of the realities of their situation. 
The obvious fact that $7.50 a day for 215 days does 
not yield as large an income as $6.00 for 30S days 
is not apparent to the rank and file of the union; 
and among the operators there has been much op- 
position based on nothing but ignorance and inertia 
to so commonsense a proposal as standardizing the 
thousands of meaningless trade names into grades 
that signify something. The coal industry like other 
human enterprises is being governed by habit, and 
it requires education to overcome the opposition of 
the union to the introduction of machinery or of the 
operators to better underground management or 
better marketing. 

How may the commission win the support of the 
industry? Unanimous support it cannot hope for. 
General support it deserves and should receive if it 
will convince the two parties of its honestv of pur- 
pose. The first requisite is of course an absolutely 
impartial investigation, that will go into the hidden 
things of both sides, without fear or favor. But 
beyond this means must be found to draw out the 
constructive opinion of operators and mine workers 



WHAT LIES BEFORE THE NEW FEDERAL COAL COMMISSION 



153 




f.OrH. thuXo 



George Otis Smith, director U. S.' I Thomas Riley Marshall, vice president 
Geological Survey in the Wilson administration 



Clincdinst 



Clark Howell, editorf Atlanta 
Constitution 



in ways less formal than public hearings. Both 
should be generously represented on advisory com- 
mittees. Both should be made to feel that the 
quarters of the commission are a sort of open house 
for coal men, where the counsel and suggestions of 
those who know most about the business are always 
welcome. 

In creating this state of mind, nothing would be 
of greater assistance than for the commission to dis- 
claim at the outset any purpose to fix wages. The 
commissioners are a fact-finding body, not a tribunal. 




Copyright Underwood Sr Underwood 

John Hays Hammond, mining engineer 



The job of finding facts does not mix well with 
settling disputes. The mixing of these two widely 
separated functions was the chief weakness of the 
President's July mediation offer. The commission 
he then proposed was to fix a wage as well as to in- 
vestigate the industry. Since then the parties to the 
dispute have agreed on a wage, and it would be an 
unwise confusion of issues to make the present 
agency responsible for passing on a possible future 
dispute. 

The law as it stands does not direct the commis- 
sion to recommend a wage. Rather it directs them 
to find certain facts which are pertinent to a consi- 
deration of the wage to be fixed. Looking forward 
to a possible break next spring, it seems clear that 
the administration would be in a stronger position 
if it used the body of facts found by the commis- 
sion as a basis for a mediation proposal instead of 
insisting that the commission itself go on record as 
favoring a given wage. Unless the commission 
makes such a disclaimer its position throughout the 
year will be that of judge rather than investigator, 
and the efforts of the two parties will be directed 
to proselyting the commissioners rather than to un- 
earthing the facts. 

What Facts Are Needed 

The program of work above outlined conceives 
of the commission more as a planning department 
than as a tribunal. Acceptance of this view would 
necessarily affect the emphasis to be laid on the sev- 
eral aspects of the problem. It means devoting 
more effort to disclosing wastes than to running 
down profiteers, more thought to laying foundations 
for peace and a stable supply of coal than to finding 
who shot somebody in Mingo County. 

Certain things the commission must obviously 
report upon — wage rates, earnings, costs and stand- 
ards of living, and the ability of the industry to pay. 
About this part of the job there is nothing new. It 
{Continued on page 177/ 




The Faith of an Industrial Engineer* 

B? JOHN CALDER 
HE late Viscount Bryce two years into their work today — to getting some joy out of 



ago, looking out upon our civiliza- 
tion with a weight of years, ripe 
experience and ability such as no 
other has brought to bear on the 
subject, expressed himself as fol- 
lows: 

The term democracy has in recent years been somewhat 
loosely used. At one time it means a state of society, at 
other times a state of mind, and in still others it implies a 
quality of manners. It has become associated with all sorts 
of ideas, some attractive, some repulsive, some moral or po- 
litical, and some religious. But democracy means nothing 
more or less than the rule of the whole people expressing 
their sovereign will by their votes. In the field of economics 
and government, our generation has been one of criticism, 
of examination and of revision. It was inevitable that we 
should develop heresies, impair faiths, and temporarily 
weaken the hold of the established social order upon popular 
imagination. 

The "established social order," in fact, has rarely 
commanded the entire support of the people; and 
often, confronting difficulties, discouragements and 
indifference, some are inclined to ask, "What's the 
use?" But it is misleading to argue from averages 
of opinions. There is no such controlling entity in 
society as "the average man." Democracy has been 
at all times served by an "aristocracy of ability" — 
a rule of the best for the ends then in view. Our 
present problem is to get the best to function in lead- 
ership of the public, capital, and labor toward attain- 
ing the socially desirable ends of our day, and to do 
so with an entirely open mind as to what may follow. 
The present social and industrial system offers such 
advantages to men of 
superior intelligence 
and industry that it 
cannot claim, and 
does not claim, abso- 
lute equality before 
fortune for all men. 
People are slowly 
coming to appreciate, 
however, that while 
capitalistic industry 
does offer advan- 
tages to superior 
ability it also offers 
a promise of the 
highest possible re- 
turn to the average 
man, and it is not 
too much to say that 
men are nearer to 
putting their hearts 



THE VALUE OF A MAN 

What is the approximate value, the "just" significance of a man 
— in goods, services, qualities — in doing, thinking and being, in the 
broadest sense? 

The value of a man — the totality of all his qualities in 

action — is equal to his production minus his consumption. 
When his production is less than his consumption, he has 

no value; he is, in varying degrees, a social parasite. 
When his production equals his consumption, he merely 

justifies his existence. 
When his production exceeds his consumption, he is an 

economic success. 
When his economic success is devoted to things which 

strengthen and uplift himself and his community, lie is a 

social success. 
When each man's acquisition is equal to his production, 

"justice" has been attained. 

This attainment is at once the task of a society or a state and 
the test of its quality. 



the job — than they ever have been before. 

Democracy in Unionism 

"As a democracy no union would last six minutes," 
said a powerful and autocratic craft union leader to 
the late Professor R. F. Hoxie, in 19 17, during his 
friendly and painstaking investigation of organized 
labor. Much has taken place in the intervening five 
years in the direction of making unionism "safe for 
democracy," and the evolution is still proceeding. 
Not a great deal has transpired officially, but some 
new organization features are causing concern to the 
federated bodies of American unionism and are 
creating undue alarm among employers and citizens. 
My opinion after long observation is that the 
somewhat condescending aristocratic leaders of 
orthodox federated craft unionism are slowly but 
surely losing out. The essential skilled crafts, which 
patronize the semi-skilled and unskilled laborer when 
they feel like it and ignore him when they don't, 
have driven the latter to the conclusion that the great- 
er solidarity of industrial unionism is his only secur- 
ity, using all the people in any one plant as the unit 
of organization. To the forward-looking employer 
this is not disturbing. He, too, has come to a similar 
conclusion, namely, that the sooner all the people in 
his plant "get together," the better for themselves, 
for the business and for mutual education. "But," 
say objecting employers, "just look at the preamble 
of some of the industrial unions." The answer is 
that it is the conduct, not the professed social phil- 
osophy of such bodies, that matters. For example, 
there are outside the fold of the American Federa- 
tion of Labor, unblessed by its big chiefs, jealously 

__ watched, hampered 

at every opportunity, 
and sometimes widely 
and unfairly stigma- 
tized as "un-Ameri- 
can." a number of 
organizations of la- 
bor, created compar- 
atively recently bv 
forward-looking men 
with advanced and 
frequently radical 
social views. The 
leader of one of 
them, for instance, is 
an avowed socialist 
with a saving com- 



* Prepared by the author 

from material to he u^e.l in 
a hook. Capital's Doty to the 
Wage Karner. which Long- 
mans. Green X Co. have in 
the pi - 



154 



THE FAITH OF AN INDUSTRIAL ENGINEER 



155 



mon sense permeat- 
ing all that he does, 
and a fine ideal of 
the worker's future 
in forming his hopes 
for the industrial 
evolution. What ob- 
jections can any 
thoughtful employer 
have to the existence 
of such an excep- 
tional labor leader 
or of his union, 
which is a true de- 
mocracy of labor 
held in check by 
strict obedience to 
fact and to its self- 
imposed laws? It 
rules justly and firm- 
ly over a strange and 
trying aggregation 



WHAT MEN DESIRE OF INUSTRY 

The Public desires five things in industry: 
i. Stability 

2. Adequate goods and services 

3. Competent leadership 

4. Some control in emergencies 

5. Progress. 

Capital desires the same five tilings in terms of: 

1. Security of investment 

2. Adequate production 

3. Good management 

4. Sufficient control of conditions affecting the risk 

5. Expansion. 

Labor's desires are very similar to the above, and obviously can 
only be obtained if the results desired by the public and 
capital are forthcoming: 

1. A steady job 

2. Adequate real wages 

3. A good fore man 

4. Individual and collective voice about conditions 

5. A chance to rise. 



of the young educat- 
ing themselves for la- 
bor leadership rather 
than for participation 
in industry, but all 
true education is wel- 
come and will spread. 
Social-mindedness 
and true democracy 
are growing features 
in some of the indus- 
trial unions; in fact 
they are in marked 
contrast to the sel- 
fishness and narrow- 
ness of some of the 
long-privileged craft 
unions which greatly 
outnumber the for- 
mer in membership. 
Craft unionism, I be- 
lieve, will not disap- 



composed of very recent Americans and immigrant pear. There are situations where craft organiza- 
refugees of all races and oppressed peoples, with a tion is the natural strategic formation of labor, but 
nucleus of experienced American workmen who have "industrial unions" are now likely to grow more 
far more reason to advance for the social faith that rapidly. Employers whose people through wise rep- 
is in them than have many complacent but by no resentation are increasingly "sold" on the worth- 
means enlightened adherents of capitalism. Capital whileness of the business that gives them a good 
will not always be able to make terms with such a living have nothing to fear from either, 
union, but to consider it "a national danger" in the It is one of the major misfortunes of labor, espe- 
face of the trickery and venality of some of the cially in America, that it follows personal leadership 
established orthodox union leaders with whom some rather than programs. This circumstance encour- 
employers "deal" is to take leave of common sense, ages control of men by psychology rather than by 

logic. It caters to slogans, passionate utterances 

The Issue of Radicalism an d tne glorification of industrial war. It discour- 

The Marxian preliminaries to the constitutions of ages deliberate thinking and the judicial and con- 

the Industrial Workers of the World, The One Big structive temper. 



Union, the Amalgamated Textile Workers, and 
nearly a score of other industrial unions of relative- 
ly small membership and of varying degrees of radi- 
calism and influence, which are outside the American 
Federation, should not be used as classifying or dam- 
nifying labels nor as giant crackers to startle capital 
and the nation. These preambles mean little or 
nothing to many of the rank and file of the members 
who seek through their unions, almost wholly, the 
rectification of the same kind of conditions as occupy 
most of the time of the orthodox varieties of union- 
ism and also the time of the rapidly increasing em- 
ployes' representative assemblies in each plant. 

Radical theories do not usually make either a 
unionist or non-unionist worker a less efficient and 
satisfactory employe under the system of capitalism, 
though there are exceptions, and nothing could be 
more radical than some of the verbal and tactical fol- 
lies of leaders of orthodox unions. The clothing 
trades unions, it is true, are more uniformly socialstic 
in their labor theory than others, but most of them 
while they retain their statements of radical prin- 
ciples now recognize that their theoretical goal is 
"far-off," and they are increasingly inclined to "go 
to school" meanwhile. So far "labor schools" are 
the resorts for the most part of "oral" workers and 



The way out is for management and the public to 
help in changing the mental attitude of organized 
labor and of those who speak for labor, and also to 
encourage the self-expression of the great mass of 
labor which is unorganized and forms nine-tenths of 
the gainfully employed. This they can do by offer- 
ing no opposition to the organizing of labor where 
it is desired; by insisting that it organize right: 
and, where labor is unorganized by choice — a con- 
dition not uncommon — by placing it at no disadvan- 
tage on account of that fact. 

The right kind of union organization, where or- 
ganization is desired, is local organization with local 
leadership — genuinely representative leadership, ap- 
pointed by and responsible to the workers of the in- 
dividual plant or the crafts within the community — a 
revival of the ancient guilds adapted to twentieth 
century needs. 

The day of absentee control of labor by national 
or international unions on a basis of class-conscious 
struggle has been tried and found wanting. Such 
organization has led to abuses greater than the bene- 
fits it brought, and the public will not much longer 
support it. For the distant boss and his walking 
delegate, whose job demands aggression and mili- 
tant poses regardless of the merits of a particular 



156 



THE FAITH OF AN INDUSTRIAL ENGINEER 



issue, there will in time be substituted the leader who England has the profoundest students of industrial 

has a knowledge of, and a stake in, the community in problems. Their program of education and the high 

which he lives. type of intellectuals adhering to labor there may yet 

We are facing the fact that real progress in lifting do much to forestall the industrial eclipse which is in- 

the standard of living comes from lifting the entire evitable if the policy of English labor is maintained, 

social structure through increased production and In America, however, the land of opportunity and 

services, and wherever possible through improved of healthy discontent, where everyone hopes to rise, 

distribution of the national income, and not by at- labor need not face the future in fear nor be lead 



tempting, through force, to maintain abnormal and 
purely temporary conditions. We must restore our 
worn-out industrial machinery; discard obsolescent 
equipment, rehabilitate our railroads, manufacture 
new tools and put new inventions and economies to 
work for the one hundred and ten millions who con- 
stitute "all-of-us," or else permanently lower all 
standards of living. This we must do irrespective of 
the state of business if, as formerly, we are by in- 
genuity to evade the diminishing return from natural 
causes. Neither by hook nor by crook can we get 
the government, 
through taxation, ap- 
propriation, confisca- 
tion, controlof capital 
or trusteeship of la- 
bor, or any slight-of- 
hand, to do the trick. 

American capital- 
ism is not reaction- 
ary, though a few 
capitalists may be. 
It is honestly seeking 
a way out, and that 
way is necessarily 
different from the 
course followed in 
other countries from 
which at present we 
derive more warning 
than inspiration. 

At the peak of its 
power and industrial 
efficiency, English la- 
bor, for instance, is 
deeply concentrated 
on politics. It is try- 
ing "to make work" 
rather than to in- 
crease goods and 
services. It is not 
the large volume and 
solidarity of union- 
ized labor in Eng- 
land which is for- 
midable; it is the bit- 
ter, hopeless spirit 
of some sections of it 
towards capital that 
is the menace. Yet 
alongside of prac- 
tices by the rank and 
file calculated to take 
the bread out of 
their own mouths, 



CAPITAL'S DUTY TO THE 
WAGE EARNER 

To recognize the mutual obligation of "service to society." 
To study the mind of labor; to inform and persuade. 

To recognize and remedy the vulnerable joints in capital's 
armor. 

To maintain the "common labor" base of industry by selec- 
tive, not indiscriminate, immigration. 

To ascertain and communicate the facts about national pro- 
duction and national income. 

To hire the minimum help selectively and keep down turn- 
over. 

To 'place" it intelligently and create interest in the task. 

To teach it to be efficient. 

To promote systematically on merit. 

To remove the nightmare of unemployment from the work- 
er's pillow. 

To carry the necessary surplus of labor at the industry's 
expense. 

To pay the highest possible wages, provide adequate incen- 
tives to diligence and give labor the facts of the business. 

To improve the economic machine to these ends. 

To lead not drive men through a working-day that leaves 
them resilient. 

To do it in a well-served plant that exceeds all statutory 
requirements, as to health, safety and labor laws. 

To do it under the guidance of trained and energised fore- 
men who command respect and esteem. 

To provide on a democratic basis for self-expression on all 
of the worker's interests and particularly at his job and in his 
plants for speedy adjustments. 

To keep the way open for his education, advancement and 
responsible participation. 

To encourage thrift and the acquisition of a stake ill the 
industry. 

To recognize and provide for the depreciation of the worker 
himself by reduced tasks and provision for pension. 

To recognize at all times that the worker reserves the right 
to make his own mistakes. 



astray by the gloom of its prophets. Nothing but 
good can come to our labor — union and non-union 
alike — by undiscriminating home-rule in each plant 
for all the people in the plant and for all their af- 
fairs, preserving at the same time the inherent rights 
of employer and employe to take any action they de- 
sire if agreement is not possible. Comparatively few 
employers realize yet the wonderful potency of "just 
telling their people" the truth about any situation. 
Wage-earners are square and they want to be fair. 
This is employes' representation at its best; and 

it ought to be a 
powerful instrument 
for industrial peace 
at the sources of 
trouble instead of a 
new bone of conten- 
tion, as unionism 
would like to make 
it, and as some em- 
ployers, by specifical- 
ly excluding organ- 
ized workers from 
their plants, are mak- 
ing it. Such cooper- 
ation at each plant in 
a unionized industry 
will be union cooper- 
ation if the leaders 
of organized labor 
are wise in their gen- 
eration. Will they 
rise to the occasion, 
or will they fail to 
produce statesman- 
ship capable of it 
and retain the old 
method of fighting 
over the spoils of 
power, and wielding 
the bis* stick over 
coerced but unfriend- 
ly employers? If 
they do the latter, 
the hierarchy which 
is in power in union- 
ism today will go 
down to deserved de- 
t cat, and labor itself 
will enter upon a 
new freedom which 
is based upon self- 
respecting relations 
with sympathetic em- 

(Continucd on page 174) 




Toilers of the City 



FIVE ETCHINGS by RALPH M.. PEARSON 



The Dump 

The Track Gang 

Structural Iron 

Firemen 
The Asphalters 




»tt- Ot*Jt*AA 



^TU.cj^ Wm nt* 4 . <$u '^kA. gi^j. 



^v^S^S^. 




^JXUctZ^.*Ji. Aa^v>, . 1— lSU*4 "1"** *H5i <3 "*' uu «-o r ' 




**»»•*- SrOw-* «ik**U. 



In Russia with Western Pioneers 



By CLARISSA S. WARE 




nPEACEAATE/lb B. U- H. H 

M. H. KRHMHWH. 



AOM H 



C/iy>Ke6Han aanneKa. 



OLT, crash, and a long-drawn shud- 
der. I was awake and sitting bolt 
upright. Another day had begun. 
Many nights of sleeping on the floor 
in the corner of a box car had 
inured me to the bumps of life, but 
the early morning shifting of the 
freight cars still startled me unpleasantly. Hur- 
riedly I pulled off one khaki outfit and pulled on 
another while the car started again its mad bucking 
and lurching. The day 
was July Fourth and there 
was much work to be 
done. We were ten Amer- 
icans, members of a trac- 
tor unit. Since the middle 
of May we had been on 
the roadways of the At- 
lantic, Latvia, and Russia. 
Only the day before had 
we reached the little sta- 
tion of Vereschagino 
where we were to unload 
our unit, set up the trac- 
tors and journey fifty 
miles through the foot- 
hills of the Urals to our 
final goal, Toikino Sov- 
hoz. 

As my car came to a 
standstill once more I 
could see that the boys 
were already up and at 
work. Soon they would 
be shouting for breakfast. 
The feeding of these nine 
huskies — they averaged 
six feet one and nearly 
200 pound s — was my 
problem. Our food car 
had been cut out of the 
freight train in Latvia, 
and it was a problem in- 
deed to keep the crew in 
fit condition on the famine 
ration allotted us. I 
washed up in a bucket of 
cold water in the kitchen 
end of the car, put a kettle 
for the inevitable tea on 
one little gasoline stove 
and one for rice on the 
other and swung out of 
the car in search of a 
peasant who might have 
eggs. Luck was against 



KPEMJIb. 



dH.i 192 - ..:. 



*p / ** l gf £4, 



From the 

Executive Committee, brought hack by 
Hibben, Executive Secretary of the American Com- 
mittee for Relief of Russian Children: 

There can be no doubt that the workers and the 
friendly people of America have, by their contributions 
to Russian famine relief, saved from death thousands 
upon thousands of children in the famine region. I am 
certain that this simple fact is all the reward that these 
great-hearted people desire for their generosity. 

M. Kalinin. 

The Kremlin, August 25, 1922. 



me, and the boys were soon sitting around the pack- 
ing box eating the usual breakfast of tea and rice. 
We were off the international sardine, which waves 
its triumphant tail in a tin can all the way round 
the world, and the black bread, made of a pinch of 
grain and a pound of grit, was beyond us. We had 
tried both and learned to leave them to the more 
courageous Russians. 

Soon the boys were back at work unloading the 
tractors and I washed up the ten tin plates, forks, 

spoons and cups, the en- 
tire outfit of the unit, 
swept out the car with a 
handbrush made of fresh 
birch branches and began 
to prepare a soup for 
dinner. 

One of Russia's many 
hungry children was at the 
open door of the box car. 
We had made a rule bind- 
ing upon all members of 
the unit that we would 
give away no food. This 
was absolutely necessary 
as we were on famine 
rations ourselves and, 
moreover, we had not 
come to give relief but to 
put the land back into 
cultivation so that relief 
would no longer be need- 
ed. I ignored the ragged 
little chap with his hag- 
gard face and protruding 
stomach till his pleading 
became unbearable. Then 
I turned on him and said 
one of my few Russian 
words, "nyit." It means 
a final no. He slunk away 
under the car and with an 
ache in my throat I 
turned back to scraping 
the last bit of meat off a 
bone left from the day be- 
fore. Almost at once a 
scrawny pup took the 
child's place and since 
there was no rule about 
feeding pups I threw the 
bone to him and stood in 
the bov-car door to watch 
him catch it. Almost as 
soon as the bone reached 
the ground, a stick came 



J/f4j&!-4ju UJLtt^-cA- C/ujJt^u /CA*(c/4& 
/^^■e -j-y*U*^s- y*^c*S<^ <^ (*^ _ 



6 



OCA* 



A MESSAGE OF THANKS 
president of All Russian 



Central 
Pax ton 



IN RUSSIA WITH WESTERN PIONEERS 



/ 



163 



hurtling from under the car and as the pup stopped 
in fear the child darted out and clutched the bone. 
He sat down on the opposite track between two 
freight cars and began to chew. As sure as ever 
a rule was made to be broken, I knew that I was 
going to feed that boy, and called to him. He came 
with a look of fear. 

The good and kindly folk of America cannot 
realize what is being done to the children of the 
world. I have seen that same look burnt deep into 
the eyes of the children of Latvia, Esthonia, Poland, 
and of Germany and France. In broken Russian 1 
asked the boy if he would work for a pyokc. In 
Russia today pyokc means first of all food, then per- 
haps clothing and living quarters. He answered by 
climbing into the car, putting his bone safely on a 
ledge by the door and beginning to sweep with the 
birch broom. From that moment Grischa, or Greg- 
ory Ivanovitch Bourdin, was our malchik. He pre- 
ferred to be called a robotnik. Malchik means only 
little boy, but rabotnik means worker. He changed 
wonderfully in the few weeks before I left. He 
learned to do many worthwhile things; but more 
important than all else he learned was what so 
many of those children have forgotten or never 
knew; he learned to laugh. 

A week later our missing car turned up and we 
were, as the western boys from North Dakota said, 
"sitting pretty." We had an American oil stove, 
real kettles and, best of all, American coffee and 
prunes. Meanwhile the tractors were being set up, 
and the boxes of farm machinery, the plows, har- 
rows and seeders as well as pup tents and other 
camp equipment were hauled to our camp site. Ten 
days after arriving at Veteschagino our twenty trac- 
tors and two small cars were ready and the peasants 
who had watched our every move with interest asked 
us to join with them in a demonstration before leav- 
ing. Gladly we accepted. 

Never have I seen more intense interest and 
enthusiasm than welcomed us as we drove two of 
the tractors to the market place. I demonstrated 
one to the peasant women who crowded about with 
their children. They were eager to try to run it. 
They asked how much it cost, how fast it could 
plow, whether I thought they could learn to use 
tractors. Since I had seen them working in the 
fields, loading hay and plowing with their difficult 
primitive horse plows, I had come to respect these 
splendid, sturdy women who do their share and 
more, singing as they work. 

Next day, with our crew made up of two Italians 
and nine Russians who had come to learn to operate 
tractors, we left Vereschagino and our box car 
homes and started over the seventy-five versts of 
Russian roads that lay between us and the work we 
had come to do. Our line of tractors stretched 
out for over half a mile. There were not men 
enough to drive all the tractors, and as I had been 
over the road before I had the joy of driving the 
first tractor. The blood of the early settlers in 
New England and the pioneers of our western 
front'er days raced in my veins as we started up the 
long hill from the railroad town. We were taking 



modern American machinery through a land where 
the people were still weaving linen out of their 
home-grown flax. We were driving tractors be- 
tween plots of flax misty with pale blue blossoms, 
through woods where men were cutting logs to build 
their cabins, through fields of grain which had been 
worked with home-made plows, sown by hand and 
would soon be harvested by peasants singing as they 
cut their rye with homely sickles. 

The Hospitality of the Hungry 

We came to the first of the villages. It was like 
many villages in this part of Russia that lie in the 
valleys surrounded by fir trees. The peasants were 
out and had opened the gate where the road enters 
the village. Log houses with windows full of flowers 
stood on either side of the stretch of thick green 
turf which bounded the road. Some of the houses 
were thatch-roofed, others roofed with hand-made 
and hand-carved shingles. The rafters were great 
trees taken from the forests with their curved and 
twisted roots still on them, and these roots, turning 
away from the trunk, made gargoyle-like supports 
for the cross pieces at the eaves. The villagers 
urged us to stop and offered us, with the character- 
istic friendliness of the Russian people, honey and 
cold milk. It was all they had. The famine had not 
been so severe here in the North, but the people had 
suffered, and many log cabins were empty. We 
passed out through the gate at the far end of the 
village and went on through the foot hills. At the 
next village scarcely two miles beyond, the peasants 
had wreaths of flowers for us and for the tractors. 
Russia is a land of flowers, and wherever we stopped 
the men as well as the women and children brought 
us great armloads of cornflowers and daisies. 

At Achor, a beautiful village running along the 
edge of a clear blue lake, the people from the entire 
district had gathered to welcome us. As we came 
noisily in low gear up a sharp hill, we could hear 
their voices singing the only national anthem which 
could be sung to welcome strangers, the Inter- 
national. The spirit of brotherhood, of man to 
man, was in their voices. I did not feel a stranger 
in a strange land but a tired wanderer at last come 
home. There were speeches. The presidents from 
thirty-six villages had come — so of course there 
were a great number of speeches; but to me it all 
seemed like a marvelous, impossible dream. I had 
stopped my engine. We all had. As I sat hot and 
sticky, with the dust of the roads thick and gritty 
in my mouth, nothing seemed to matter except these 
people and the new world they were trying to build. 
They asked me to speak, and I tried to tell them 
something of what it all meant to me, but I could 
not. The unrealitv and impossibility of it all over- 
came me. For so long I had read that these people 
were stupid, dirty, little more than beasts of burden, 
that terror reigned in their land, that they and their 
government were a menace to civilization. I was 
unable to believe my own eyes and my own experi- 
ences It was only after I had lived with them 
longer, shared with them their home life and their 
children, worked with them in the fields, that I 



164 



IN RUSSIA WITH WESTERN PIONEERS 



knew here was no menace, but the hope of a world 
torn by hatreds, by greed and by the awful de- 
structiveness of war. 

We left them and camped on the hills beyond for 
the night. At sunrise we were up on our tractors 
and started on the last leg of the trip. That night 
at midnight, with no lights but the stars, we pulled 
up onto the plateau lands and to the camp which 
was to be our home. 

For the next few days chaos reigned. The di- 
rector of the unit wanted everything done at once. 
The machine boss wanted the plows and harrows 
set up first. The boss of the commissary wanted 
some sort of a cook- and chow-tent put up first. The 
boys naturally wanted to get to work in the fields, 
and Grischa wanted to sleep in the automobile. 
Gradually order emerged and no casualties were re- 
ported. Out of the cases in which the tractors had 
been packed the boys ingeniously built wooden sides 
for a kitchen tent and even partitioned off a wind- 
proof corner for the oil stove and fireless cooker. 
Tables and benches emerged from the confusion. 
Tent floors were built. And all the while the line 
of tractors was being flanked by three gang plows, 
disc harrows, spike-tooth harrows and cultipackers. 
Grischa continued to sleep in the automobile till the 
novelty of it wore off. The little brown bear cub 
who had dropped off a train from Siberia and at- 
tached himself to us at Vereschagino learned that 
his name was Mischa and he lived by the big fir tree. 

On the thirty-first day of July we plowed our first 
furrow. The land of the high 
plateau was much like our Mon- 
tana table lands. The soil was 
rich and as the peasant plows 
had merely scooped up the sur- 
face, the tractors turned over 
virgin soil. The estate at 
Toikino had been given by the 
government to the coal mines in 
the Ural mountains to produce 
food for the miners and their 
families, but for eight years this 
land had not been worked. 
Added to the natural washes 
which appear on land left idle 
for so long was a line of Kol- 
chak trenches. It was in this 
region that Kolchak had made 
his final stand and from here 
that he had started his retreat 
into Siberia. I have stood in 
these trenches and a half hour 
later saw them leveled and 
ready to seed down to rye. The tractors worked 
splendidly in spite of the rough ground and the green 
labor. We were very strict about the oiling of all 
machinery. If anything gets hot, "oil it" was the 
slogan of the field gang. This led to some slight 
misunderstandings : when a great deal of heat seemed 
to be coming out of the clutch of one of the trac- 
tors, the inexperienced mechanic in charge walked 
nearly a mile, brought back a bucket of oil, poured 
it into the clutch and was on his way for an- 




other bucketful when the field boss stopped him. 

Peasants came from miles around to see the trac- 
tors at work. We arranged to have demonstrations 
every Sunday afternoon and to follow them with 
moving pictures of the inside workings of the trac- 
tors. These pictures were the greatest success. The 
villagers would sit till midnight watching the work- 
ings of a steering gear or crank shaft, and the water 
cooling system was a thing of delight to them. The 
portable victrola was another machine that never 
ceased to interest them. It was amusing to watch 
their faces when for the first time thev heard a Rus- 
sian record. That an American machine could talk 
Russian was to them beyond comprehension. 

Sunday afternoon also was our marketing day. 
As the peasants have no interest in money, I was at 
a loss to solve the financial problem of the exchange. 
We could not trade in flour, sugar and soap since 
we had brought with us only a minimum amount for 
the use of the unit. On the other hand it was im- 
portant that we have potatoes, milk and occasionally 
butter and eggs. Fortunately Grischa came to the 
rescue. In the mixed Russian-English sign language 
that had grown up between us, he explained that he 
would solve the problem. With his usual speed of 
action he scoured out some empty salmon cans, and 
a moment later I saw him bargaining vociferously 
with a peasant woman who had cucumbers. As 
they both seemed to enjoy it, I did not interfere, and 
shortly after., with a triumphant smile he brought the 
cucumbers into the cook tent. The problem was 




Crop inspection by representatives of the Agricultural Department of the 

Central Government 

solved. Every Sunday afternoon Grischa sits at a 
window cut in the wooden wall of the cook tent: 
behind him and beside him are empty, scoured cans; 
in front of him is a line of peasant women in their 
brilliant Sunday clothes with their products in 
baskets or tied in linen towels. There are regular 
prices now, and no time is wasted in bargaining. For 
empty tin cans or banque as they call them, he buys 
our fresh products for the coming week. 

Many individual peasants as well as villages came 



IN RUSSIA WITH WESTERN PIONEERS 



165 




Mrs. Ware in her car with M. F. 
Soldakoff, president of the Ohansk 
district in the Perm government, 
three village presidents and one of 
her American colleagues 



and asked us to plow for them. Unfortunately our 
time was short. Winter sets in early in our part of 
the Urals, and the work we had before us was more 
than we could hope to do. The following is typical 
of the requests sent us from the surrounding vil- 
lages : 

From the citizens of the village of Kokushkino, 
County of Toikino, numbering 90 homes. 
30.7. 1922. 
To the Director of the Tractor Unit. 

Declaration 
With this we beg will it not be possible to allow us a tractor 
for the plowing and cultivating of the soil for our winter 
crop because there are no longer horses in a sufficient num- 
ber ; and for this we beg our request be not neglected. We 
indicate the number of desatines to be 150. For which we 
sign. 

(And then followed a list of marks, initials and names, about 
ninety in all) 

The authenticity of this declaration is confirmed by the 
village Soviet of Kokushkino; 

President A. Tchunariv 
Secretary E. Tchunariv 

It was hard to refuse these requests. The years of 
war followed by the famine had left this entire 
district with few men and practically no horses. In 
some cases where the need was greatest we could not 
refuse. The plowing at Stara Charmia, one of the 
village communes, was for me the most interesting 
experience I had in Russia. The village of Stara 
Charmia lay below us in the valley. On the edge 
of the plateau to the west we could still see the 
trenches and earthworks where many of the peas- 
ants had died fighting Kolchak. To the east, 
through the fringe of fir trees a full, red moon swung 
slowly over the edge of the table lands. We had 
been working all day and were very tired. Early in 
the morning we had been awakened as we slept on 
our beds of boughs by the peasants, singing on their 



way to cut the rye in the field near us. And not to 
be outdone by them we had gone to work with the 
heavy dew of the cold mountain night still on us. 

With the day's work over, with the broad plateau 
land smelling sweet of earth fresh turned by the 
tractors, we were washing up in the cold spring 
water. From the valley village below came the sing- 
ing of the peasants. They were coming to sit around 
our camp fire and to exchange greetings with us, 
their friends from America. As we listened to their 
laughter and singing floating on ahead we knew it 
was well that we had not refused them help. Their 
old president and young secretary, still in the worn 
army uniform, had come to the tractor camp and 
asked us to put their land back into cultivation as 
there were but four men left in the commune. We 
could see them coming up the footpath, a small band 
of women and children. Today in the villages in the 
heart of great Russia it is the women and children 
who carry on proudly and valiantly. We rose to 
greet them, and the lameness from nights spent on 
hard ground and the tiredness from long, hot days 
of work disappeared in the atmosphere of rejoicing 
and friendliness they brought with them. It was 
not the fragrant new honey nor the fresh cold milk 
they had carried from their log cabins in the spruces 
below. It was the spirit of simple friendliness shin- 
ing in their eyes and reverberating in their voices 
as they gave us the greeting of friend to friend, 
Sdrastvuity Tovarisch. The moon was high now 
and, a full golden ball of radiance, hung above the 
field. Our friends looked out and murmured Ochen 
Karacho, "fine, very fine." 

To them the working of these seventeen desatines 

meant more than bread alone. Before them lay the 

work of the machines which their brothers had sent 

from strange lands and across far seas. It was to 

(Continued on page 174) 




EDITORIALS 



WHAT, after all, is the business of the Red Cross 
in the intervals between disasters? That ques- 
tion, over which so many words have been spilled 
in the last four years, was still the focus of in- 
terest at the annual convention in Washington in mid-Octo- 
ber. On the eve of its annual roll-call, the Red Cross has 
still been asking itself what it is all about. 

But the debate was not really postulated on uncertainty as 
to the facts, nor on any widespread disagreement within the 
organization. True, one or two members ot the Central Com- 
mittee urged a return to the concept of f he Red Cross which 
had been held before the war and which still seemed to 
them fundamentally sound. They would have the Red 
Cross simply a great reserve corps, springing into activity 
at every disaster, but confining itself at other times strictly 
to those functions which offered preparation for disaster 
relief. But the chapter delegates regarded the Red Cross 
as committed to a continuous local health and welfare ser- 
vice, and applauded enthusiastically when Livingston Far- 
rand, now president of Cornell University, declared that 
"the essence of vitality is activity," and claimed for the Red 
Cross a share in the prevention and remedy of those "con- 
tinuing disasters" which menace American health. 

Mabel T. Boardman, long the secretary of the commit- 
tee, threw forward a salient in the form of a warning that the 
chapters were exceeding their authority under the charter. 
On the other hand, there were chapter representatives who 
supported a movement to increase the share kept by the 
chapter when the membership dollar was divided, the better 
to finance their local programs. But between these ex- 
tremes there was substantial agreement among most of the 
delegates and the central committee members present. 
Judge John Barton Payne, chairman of the Central 
Committee, summed it up when he said that under 
the clause authorizing measures to prevent disaster the Red 
Cross charter gave ample authority for a common sense 
pioneering program. Avoiding duplication of effort, the 
chapters were to lead the way, he held, in initiating need- 
ed services, "including public health nursing and service for 
civilian families," being always ready to turn them over to 
public or private agencies when these were educated to the 
point of assuming the responsibility. But, he warned, the 
Red Cross must not lose itself in local obligations. 

APPEALS to the emotions based on the national pres- 
tige of the Red Cross, on the one hand, and local neigh- 
borliness on the uther, Bickered over the discussion. None 
the less the serious issues which have concerned thoughtful 
members of the national body throughout the period of peace- 
time adjustment were brought up. These were ventilated 
in The Survey for May 6, 1922, in Mr. Benjamin's 
article, The Red Cross at the Crossroads, and in a sym- 
posium' in the succeeding issue in which Red Cross leaders 
and outsiders representing various points of view took part. 
The most significant step taken at Washington was the 
adoption of a resolution suggesting to the Central Committee 
a modification of its own membership. There are now 
eighteen members: six appointed by the President of the 
United States, six elected by the survivors of the original 
body of incorporators, six elected by the chapter delegates 



at the annual meeting. While the resolution was dis- 
creetly worded and avoided a detailed recommendation, 
the plan talked of in the lobbies was to substitute chapter 
nominees for some or all of the committeemen now chosen 
by the incorporators. A desire for more democratic organ- 
ization is reported from regional conferences throughout the 
country. 

Last year's Red Cross convention at Columbus was built 
around a pageant. This at Washington was built around 
a "plenary session," at which delegates were free to talk 
their hearts out but had no other powers. If in succeeding 
years the convention is combined with the annual meeting, 
as contemplated by another resolution adopted at Wash- 
ington, the chapters may look forward to securing in time 
a materially greater share of responsibility. If the peace 
program has come to stay, it is difficult to see how they 
can avoid such responsibility, or how the machinery de- 
vised for an organization of more limited scope can pre- 
vent their assuming it. 




SMYRNA has called the Red Cross back to Europe. 
Joining hands with the Near East Relief, which retains 
responsibility for clearing up the mess left by Kemal 
Pasha in Asia Minor, the Red Cross has already begun to 
care for the four or five hundred thousand refugees who 
have fled over the Aegean. Dr. A. Rcss Hill, vice-chairman 
in charge of foreign operations, heads a commission to 
Greece, nurses have been ordered to Athens from their 
posts throughout Europe, and the Red Cross will add to 
its roll-call an appeal for funds to do the task thoroughly. 

This course of action, announced as it developed from 
day to day at the Red Cross convention, was receiv$ with 
enthusiasm that echoed faintly the electric days of 1917. 
Judge Payne used it from the platform as a striking evi- 
dence of the need of maintaining liberal reserves in the 
national treasury of the Red Cross. Without doubt the 
decision to spend some of those reserves for so crushing a 
disaster will make it easy to replenish them, and the fresh 
overseas activity will be a stimulus to the roll-call just as 
the emergency program of the Near East Relief will un- 
doubtedly strengthen the continuing campaign of that or- 
ganization for its normal work. 

But in both cases, splendid as is the response to the 
emergency, there remain other questions of overseas policy 
which for the moment may be less important but which will 
inevitably return, once the crisis is passed, into the field of 
discussion. 

WITH the Near East Relief, the question is one of 
future program. With budget practically unchanged 
from year to year, this agency, with its long record of 
humane achievement in a difficult field, seeks to impress 
on American givers the fact that upwards of sixty thou- 
sand orphans in institutions under American supervision 
look to us for maintenance until they can be re-ahsnrbed 
among their own people. That obligation Americans are 



[66 



EDITORIALS 



167 



glad to face as long as necessary. But the giving of asylum 
to thousands of children is at best a temporary and partial 
expedient for aiding in the rehabilitation of Armenia and 
her neighbors. Perhaps the time has come for the Near 
East Relief to formulate, for the guidance of its American 
supporters, some program for the gradual termination of 
this gigantic responsibility, or its transfer to other shoulders 
than those which have borne it so long. 

WITH the Red Cross the question of function, which 
seems to be approaching a solution in domestic affairs, 
is still to be worked out in foreign relations. In saving the 
refugees from Smyrna it is simply meeting its obligation to 
the victims of disaster. Does its responsibility for a share 
in preventing disaster end with the limits of American 
sovereignty ? 

The message brought to the Washington convention by 
Sir Claude H. Hill, K. C, director-general of the League of 
Red Cross Societies, was one of common effort among the 
national societies of Europe for the elimination of epidemic 
disease and the promotion of the public health. Athough 
at the recent international conference of the league at 
Geneva, Dr. A. Ross Hill, who has now returned to 
Europe, pledged the continuous aid of the American Red 
Cross, some of the European Red Cross societies have be- 
come a little alarmed at the gradual reduction of Ameri- 
can support and the withdrawal of American personnel from 
countries in which the task of social reconstruction and of 
building up a modern system of education in hygiene and 
disease prevention is far from completed. It was not, of 
course, to be expected that the American Red Cross would 
or could retain to the fullest extent the operations for 
which, under the leadership of the late Henry P. Davison, it 
had made itself responsible when the league was started in 
May, 1919. And a solid testimonial to the soundness of 
the American program and that of the league has been the 
steady development of Red Cross societies in some of the 
European countries, such as Jugo-Slavia, Czechoslovakia 
and Poland, where civilian Red Cross work either did not ex- 
ist before the war or existed only in rudimentary forms. 
Training schools for Red Cross workers have been estab- 
lished ; Junior Red Cross societies have been formed and 
gained in membership ; demonstration units have been sent 
out into remote districts where health education had hither- 
to been unknown. Concerted action has been taken in the 
combat of typhus and other epidemic diseases. Patriotic 
endeavor that had found outlets in war activities has been 
guided into cooperative action for social betterment. The 
various governments have been induced to vote substantial 
grants both for the sanitary and the educational work of 
their national Red Cross societies. 

And yet, as Judge Payne, and those associated with him 
well realize and frequently state, the sphere of usefulness 
for the participation of America in this great international 
effort is far from ended, and its responsibility far from hav- 
ing been completely met. For instance, the surveys of 
health conditions in Poland and Rumania made by the 
league in 1920 have revealed the need for an even larger 
joint program of action than was then under way. The 
Anti-Epidemic Commission set up by the League of Na- 
tions in 1 92 1, on which the League of Red Cross Societies 
is represented, and which was enabed to carry out its in- 
vestigations and activities largely through the financial sup- 
port that came from America, has not finished its work. 
The health and relief problems of the Far East, to be dis- 
cussed at the Siam conference, have hardly been faced as 
yet in their present magnitude. 

All this suggests the call for a revival of the enthusiasm 
and earnestness with which Americans threw themselves 
into this task during, and in the first three years after, the 



war. The League of Red Cross Societies represents an 
ideal carrier for the American message of goodwill to all 
mankind. But it requires a more forceful expression of 
public opinion, a more aggressive policy on the part or the 
American Red Cross, and a more active demonstration of 
the desire to help, to maintain the appropriations that have 
made possible the promising beginnings of this international 
enterprise. As the farmer said at a meeting during the war, 
when he had been listening to a long harangue about the 
sufferings of the Belgians: "We have been listening to a 
sad story about the misery of them Belgian refugees. I am 
sorry for five dollars; how much sorry are the rest of you?" 




READERS of Mr. Lynd's article will agree with Mr. 
Rockefeller in summing up the physical setting of 
Elk Basin. It is a "barren, isolated and difficult loca- 
tion." It smacks of the squalor of the pioneer settle- 
ment and the mining camp, but continues those condi- 
tions in a new epoch of industrial development which has 
aggravated them and added cleary preventable and un- 
tenable abuses of its own. The process is epitomized when 
the old song of the Montana homesteaders rings out today 
from the roustabouts in an Elk Basin bunk house: 

Hurrah for Montana, the land of the free, 
The home of the bedbug, the greyback and flea. 
Sing loud of its praises and tell of its fame 
While starving to death on a government claim. 
My house it is built of the natural soil. 
The walls are erected according to Hoyle. 
The roof has no pitch but is level and plain, 
And I always get wet when it happens to rain. 
My dishes are strewed all over my bed — 
Old sorghum molasses and old soured bread. 
Yet we have a good time and we live at our ease 
While starving to death on a government claim. 

At night when I lie down on my bed to rest, 

A rattlesnake rattles a tune at my head 

A gay little centipede devoid of all fear 

Crawls over my belly and into my ear. 

A big fat old bedbug with colors so bright 

He keeps me acursing two-thirds of the night. 

And a gay little flea with tacks in his toes 

Plays "Why don't you catch me?" all over my nose. 

Hurrah for Montana! Hurrah for the West! 

I'll travel back east to the girl I love best, 

I'll stop in Missouri and get me a wife 

And eat common corn dodger the rest of my life. 

NO one would accuse the Standard Oil interests or the 
independent producers of inventing bed bugs or grey- 
backs. Nor did the oil operators invent the twelve-hour 
day or the seven-day week. But they have extended the 
gruelling demands of the long shift at the expense of health 
and fair living and household integrity wherever in the 
west the hidden veins of one of the great natural resources 
of the new world and the new industrial age have been 
tapped. Oil has meant stupendous fortunes for some; it 
has meant light and heat and motive power for the count- 
less thousands. But when it comes to the producing regions 
themselves, in spite of welfare work in certain camps, it 
has not been a force for social progress. Not only elk 
basins but human lives have been left barren, isolated and 
difficult. 

Mr. Lynd is on altogether sound footing when he warns 
Mr. Rockefeller and the readers of Mr. Rockefeller's state- 



168 



EDITORIALS 



ment against any assumption that the working schedule 
which Mr. Rockefeller calls intolerable, unnecessary, un- 
economic and unjustifiable, is in any sense a condition con- 
fined to the small tract in Wyoming. With the excep- 
tions noted, it is common practise throughout the producing 
fields of the west. Nor have the refineries of the east, with 
their marked advances in labor administration in recent years 
wholly rid themselves of its bane. 

MOREOVER, the general economic setting of Elk 
Basin and the other producing oil fields should be kept 
clearly in mind. That setting is not barren, isolated or 
difficult. If the communities concerned were wringing 
a scant existence from a southern mountain side or a worn= 
out New England farm, we should have one picture before 
us. -But, quite the contrary, they are communities whose 
daily toil is an essential part of the richest production oper= 
ations in America. 

As this issue goes to press, Wall Street is witnessing 
another scramble for Standard Oil stocks, with various 
securities of the Standard Oil group touching new high 
levels. Within a fortnight six different companies have 
cut ponderous "melons" — the Standard of New Jersey de- 
claring a stock dividend of 400 per cent, the Vacuum Oil 
Company and Ohio Oil Company, both Standard and both 
300 per cent stock dividends, Standard of New York a 200 
per cent stock dividend, and the Standard of Califronia a 
100 per cent stock dividend, which, with the earlier Standard 
Oil Company of Kentucky stock dividend of 33 1/3 per 
cent — makes seven such transactions within a year. 

This makes 1922 the best "melon" year for the Stand- 
ard Oil group since 191 3, when nine such stock distri- 
butions were made; 191 6, 191 7 and 1920 each witnessed 
three Standard Oil stock dividends, while there were two 
each in 1915 and 1912 and one each in 1914 and 1921. 
Nor does the golden shower of the current year bid fair 
to end with action by the above four companies: Accord- 
ing to the New York Times, the Standard Oil Company of 
Kansas, which has paid cash dividends of 24 per cent from 
191 7 to 1 92 1 inclusive and had last year a profit and loss 
surplus of $6,768,408 (or more than three times its $2,- 
000,000 outstanding capital) is reported to be anticipating 
a stock dividend in the immediate future, a prediction which 
the advance of its stock to 660 would seem to confirm. 
Furthermore, according to the same authority, 

Wall Street expects many more such announcements before 
the close of the current year or in the early part of next 
year. The companies which are considered most likely to take 
such action include the Atlantic Refining Company, Ohio Oil 
Company, Prairie Oil and Gas Company, Solar Refining Com- 
pany, Standard of Indiana, Standard Oil of Kansas, Standard 
of New Jersey, Standard of Ohio. . . . The companies mentioned 
have surpluses on their books ranging from 134 to more than 
1,000 per cent in excess of the total amount of capital stock 
outstanding. 

It should not he overlooked, of course, that in addition 
to the above stock dividends, Standard Oil stockholders re- 
ceive the customary cash dividends — in the case of the 
Standard of New Jersey, for instance, one of twenty per 
cent. To quote again from the financial section of the New 
York Times: 

An illustration of how profitable the operations of the 
Standard Oil units have been since the old New Jersey com- 
pany was split up in 191 1 as a result of a Supreme Court de- 
cision is furnished by the fact that since 191 1 the various 
companies have distributed more than $1,000,000,000 in the 
form of cash dividends, while the stock dividends, exclusive 
of the three announced this year — [the most recent dividends 
had not been announced when this was written] — have a mar- 
ket value of an additional $1,000,000,000. 



THESE facts are not set down as a text for discussing 
profits or the question of public policy involved in the 
Federal Supreme Court decision which freed stock dividends 
from taxation as income. They have another significance 
which bears directly on the facts of life and labor revealed 
by Mr. Lynd. It is pertinent in the light of his experience 
to note the presence of both the Standard of Indiana and 
the Ohio Oil Company in the above listings. The first of 
these, the Standard of Indiana, holds the record for hav- 
ing declared the great-grandfather of all stock dividends, 
2900 per cent in 19,12, followed in 1920 by another modest 
150 per cent dividend. The recent activity of Ohio Oil 
in the market — its stock has reached 350 — throws into stark 
relief the letter from Mr. McFadyen of the Ohio Oil Com- 
pany cited by Mr. Lynd in which he withdrew on August 16 
of the current year his offer to contribute towards a com- 
munity house in Elk Basin because "the price of oil has gone 
off so that it is necessary for us to curtail expenses wherever 
we can." The Ohio Oil Company had been asked to con- 
tribute $500 ! The increase in the capital stock of the Ohio 
Oil Company, announced as this issue goes to press, is to be 
from $15,000,000 to $60,000,000. "The present disburse- 
ment," says the New York Times, "will mean a breaking 
up of part of one of the largest surpluses among the Standard 
Oil companies." Mr. Lynd has been repeatedly assured in 
the conferences with various representatives of the oil com- 
panies concerned which preceded the writing and publication 
of his article that the entire Standard Oil block of thirty-three 
companies control only approximately a quarter of the crude 
production, half of the refining and two-thirds of the pipe 
lines in a highly competitive industry and therefore were in 
no position to take the initiative in such matters as abol- 
ishing the twelve-hour day. In view of the well known fact 
that the independent companies follow in the main the re- 
tail prices standards set up by the Standard Oil companies in 
the various sections of the country, and in the light of the 
extravagant profits which the latter are deriving, and even 
admitting that they can not directly influence working con- 
ditions in competing fields, it would certainly appear that the 
powerful Standard Oil companies must stand naked at the 
bar of public opinion in the matter of the twelve-hour day 
and the seven-day week until they set their own house in 
order. 



HERE it is that the statement of John D. Rockefeller. 
Jr., has unprecedented significance. With the rapid 
rise of corporate industry in the last fifty years, we have 
only begun to develop an ethics of industrial responsibility 
capable of meeting the stress of nation-wide production. 
Responsibility is scattered from stockholders and corpora- 
tion headquarters through various stages of management 
and superintendence. Even the Sherman Act itself may 
be cited as a difficulty in placing responsibility completely 
enough on the ultimate owners of industry. In spite of 
his strategic position, his aroused sense of the stewardship 
of great wealth, his personal counsel on industrial and social 
as well as business matters, the case of Mr. Rockefeller, Jr., 
illustrates the common difficulty of finding a substitute for 
human contact. It took a year to get the facts of Elk Basin 
convincingly before him, up through the chambered nautilus 
of absentee capitalism. 

In this situation the pressure on the men making operat- 
ing decisions all along the line is for profits rather than for 
human values. In that we have, if one were needed, the 
justification of just such an arresting call upon public in- 
terest as Mr. Lynd makes from the field — a call fortified by 
his inescapable body of closely documented facts. The 
public cannot escape its share of responsibility, once the 
facts are known, any more than Col. Stewart and other oil 



EDITORIALS 



169 



company officials as well as all holders of Standard Oil securi- 
ties can escape theirs. Mr. Rockefeller, within the bounds of 
one man's sphere of responsibility, attempts no such evasion, 
as his vigorous and challenging expression of leadership in 
the elimination of the twelve-hour day and the seven-day 
week from the oil industry indicates. He may not turn the 
other cheek to criticism, but he does not dodge where it 
lands. He comes back not at his critic but at the abuses 
criticized. His left hand may have been lame in neglecting 
hoary and untenable evils; but with his right he gives them 
a blow straight from the shoulder. Concerted action, in 
line with his challenging statement, on the part of other 
holders of oil stocks, large and small, could lift the oil fields 
from the category that has made the continuance of the long 
shift in steel an industrial disgrace. 




THE members of the Federal Coal Commission face a 
situation of unusual difficulty. Fully to ascertain the 
facts and conditions of so gigantic an industry as coal, and 
to formulate a workable plan for its rehabilitation would, 
under the most favorable circumstances, tax the capacity of 
any seven men even if they were already familiar with the 
business, technical and political elements of their problem. 
The men chosen will bring an unusually rounded experi- 
ence to bear on that problem from the fields of engineering, 
law, public affairs and social work, labor investigation and 
adjudication. But of the seven whom President Harding 
has appointed, however distinguished in other respects, only 
two are distinguished as experts on coal. 

This is an initial handicap. But it may more easily be 
overcome than the legal and constitutional difficulties be- 
fore the commission. In the recent Maynard case the oper- 
ators suceeded in having the Federal Trade Commission 
permanently enjoined from obtaining and publishing facts 
identical with those which it is the primary business of the 
present commission to dig out and give to the public. Will 
the present commission find its hands similarly tied by ju- 
dicial opinion ? 

The possibilities are that it will, unless through the 
pressure of public opinion it can induce the operators to 
modify their attitude. It will be remembered that during 
the recent conference of the organized operators and min- 
ers in Cleveland, the operators refused to act on the govern- 
ment's request that they submit a panel of names for the 
guidance of President Harding. The official attitude of the 
operators has been that if they were relieved of the hamper- 
ing restraints of the Sherman law they could make the coal 
industry function to their own satisfaction and that of the 
public without further governmental assistance. 

The official attitude of the United Mine Workers of 
America is at best one of challenging skepticism. Their 
position in principle is not fundamentally different from that 
of the operators. At the Cleveland conference already re- 
ferred to they also considered the advisablity of non-co- 
operation. They had pressed for a clause in the strike- 
terminating agreement of August 15, providing for a fact- 
finding and house-cleaning agency created by the industry 
itself and under the industry's control. They were astute 
enough to realize that the creation of the coal commission 
had destroyed "the strategic value of this maneuver. They 
decided that to ignore the government's request for a panel 
of names would be bad policy. They undersood that Presi- 
dent Harding intended to appoint a non-partisan commis- 
sion, that is, a commission without direct representation of 
either the operators or the miners. They were on record 
as opposed to this non-partisan policy. They therefore sub- 



mitted the names of ten miners with the recommendation 
that the President select two. The President having ig- 
nored this recommendation, the miners are now in a posi- 
tion to repudiate the work of the commission on the ground 
that its members are not qualified by "practical experience" 
competently to deal with the problems in hand. If the 
Clayton Act could be so revised as to give the trade unions 
the freedom from the restraints of the Sherman Act which 
that act originally promised, miners' officials, like the oper- 
ators, would no doubt prefer to have the government keep 
hands off. 

AT the outset, therefore, the new coal commission 
confronts the latent antagonism of both of these of- 
ficial groups; and yet in view of the Maynard injunction its 
effectiveness both as a fact-finding agency and as sponsor 
for legislation would seem to depend upon its ability to 
command the cooperation of both operators and miners be- 
fore whom it now stands on trial. 

How will it be able to overcome this further handicap? 
Some of our readers will recall that in 1914 the operators 
of Illinois and Indiana urged upon President Wilson that 
in the appointment of the then newly authorized Federal 
Trade Commission special attention be given to the needs 
of the coal industry and invited "appropriate and definite 
government control" to the extent "at least of permitting 
all of their activities to be known to the public." The coal 
operators, they said, "would invite such publicity and super- 
vision." These operators later reversed their position; 
through their official representatives they turned against 
supervision, fact-finding and publicity. Nevertheless there 
must be many individual operators who still adhere to the 
position taken by the operators of Illinois and Indiana in 
1 91 4. If the commission can seek them out they may prove 
to be the yeast that leavens the loaf. 

Within the ranks of the miners, too, there is at least a 
powerful minority in sympathy with the general objectives 
of the commission. They are not scattered to the same ex- 
tent as the sympathetic operators are. They have been given 
official recognition by the United Mine Workers themselves. 
For years the miners' International Convention has been on 
record in favor of nationalization, but until 192 1 nationaliza- 
tion had represented a vague aspiration among the rank and 
file rather than a clearly defined official policy. Indeed, it 
is generally believed that the present International officials 
of the union are not devoted to the policy of nationalization. 
Nevertheless, the International Convention of 1921 created 
a Nationalization Research Committee to study the problem 
of the nationalization of the mines and to submit a plan of 
action. 

The first document prepared by this committee, which was 
released last spring at a hearing before the House Commit- 
tee on Labor and Education in Washington, is called Com- 
pulsory Information in Coal, a Fact-Finding Agency. This 
document is the most thoroughgoing analysis of the prob- 
lems before the coal commission anywhere extant. It re- 
views the difficulties which previous governmental bodies 
have encountered in attempting to uncover the facts of 
coal. It itemizes the public agencies that have dealt with 
special phases of the industry, defines their powers, care- 
fully lists the facts that are needed as a basis for any pro- 
gram designed to modernize the coal industry, and especially 
indicates the facts that are known and the much larger body 
of facts that lie in darkness. The Nationalization Re- 
search Committee advocated a congressional commission 
of inquiry to prepare the way for a permanent fact-finding 
agency to serve as the statistical division of the coal admin- 
istration under their proposed nationalization plan. Like 
their parent body, this committee strongly advocates the 
inclusion in the present commission of representative opera- 



170 



EDITORIALS 



tors, miners and engineering technicians as well as repre- 
sentatives of the consuming public. Their attitude toward 
President Harding's non-partisan commission will also un- 
doubtedly be one of challenging skepticism. Nevertheless, 
to the attainment of the main objectives of the commission 
as defined in the enabling act the members of the National- 
ization Research Committee are pledged. Upon their co- 
operation the commission can no doubt depend if it dedicates 
itself to a thoroughgoing fact-finding program and especial- 
ly if it approaches the miners' nationalization plan seriously 
and without prejudice. 

NOTWITHSTANDING these promising possibilities 
the fact remains that the Federal Coal Commission 
not only faces serious legal obstructions but stands on trial 
before the operators and the miners. To overcome the dif- 
ficulties of this situation it will have to establish itself in 
public confidence as a fact-finding agency in the fullest sense 
of the word. Its members, most of whom begin without 
special knowledge of the coal industry, will have to educate 
the public as they educate themselves. Any tactical error, 
especially in the early stages of the commission's work, may 
permanently alienate both operators and miners ; any dis- 
position to promulgate premature judgments with respect 
to public policy, — judgments insufficiently supported* by 
publicly established facts, — will destroy public confidene. 
The members of the commission have it in their power to 
destroy their own opportunity. They also have it in their 
power to render a unique service not only to the coal in- 
dustry but also to the future of America's economic 
life. ' 




IT was reasonable to assume that famine affecting some 
28,000,000 people could not be liquidated in one season, 
however good the crop in Russia this summer. The effects 
of so far reaching a catastrophe would certainly endure for 
several years, at least. For this reason, Litvinov's optimistic 
forecast of the Russian harvest, made at The Hague, and 
similar predictions of immediate prosperity by former Gov- 
ernor Goodrich, Dr. A. C. Ernst and other American Re- 
lief Administration workers were somewhat surprising. 
The optimistic conclusions of Mrs. Ware in her article in 
the present issue seem to be based on forecasts early in the 
season rather than recent reports. More facts on the Rus- 
sian harvest and more recent estimates are now coming to 
hand and, though none of them has or can have absolute 
authority behind it, they scarcely bear out these promises of 
plenty. 

Colonel Haskell cables that over a million children will 
have to be fed until next summer. Chicherin states that 
"without help from abroad it is not possible to support 
those who are still suffering from last year's famine." A 
cable to the Chicago Daily News from Samara reports that 
Pugachev County, "one of the worst centers of last year's 
Russian famine, is threatened with even a worse time dur- 
ing the coming winter." A Paris cable to The New York 
Times says that "in Moscow the fact is no longer concealed 
that the populations of the cities will have an even harder 
life this winter than last;" and Walter Duranty, the Times 
correspondent, wired from Moscow on October 14: "Five 
million persons will face death by starvation from Decem- 
ber until the next harvest and two or three million more 
from March. That is the aftermath of last year's crop 
failure, and in certain areas this year's failure also." Paxton 
Hibben, secretary of the American Committee for Re- 



lief of Russian Children, who has just returned from an 
extensive investigation of crop conditions in the famine 
area, declares that land which should have produced 40 to 
45 bushels to the acre has averaged only 3 bushels, while 
the acreage sown is only 10 per cent of the 1914 acreage 
and but 66 per cent of the 1921 acreage. He quotes field 
workers of the Quakers, the Nansen Committee and the 
Dutch and Swedish Red Cross societies as predicting that 
the approaching winter will be worse than last winter, 
especially for the children, of whom there are some 600,000 
famine orphans in Russia and 400,000 in the Ukraine. 

Meanwhile, Leo Kamenev, head of the All-Russian Cen- 
tral Famine Relief Committee, reports that floods in the 
northwest of Russia (Petrograd, Tver, Pskov, Novgorod, 
Smolensk, Olonetz and the Karelian Republic) have left 
965,000 souls without food while crop shortages in the 
Volga and Ural famine areas leave 4,137,000 who will have 
to be fed from elsewhere, a total of 5,102,000 requiring re- 
lief, exclusive of the famine orphans. He says: 

It should be borne in mind that the population of the above 
districts were in the clutches of famine in 1921 and were in 
starving condition in 1920, as well. As a result, they have now 
exhausted all their food and economic resources. The poultry 
and smaller live stock have been eaten by the population dur- 
ing the recent hunger years. A large proportion of the cattle, 
including both horses and milch cows, have also been 
slaughtered. 



NO report has come as yet from the investigating com- 
mission of the National Information Bureau which is 
making a thorough study of conditions both irt the regions 
reported to be suffering worst and in those reported earlier 
in the summer to have good crop prospects. One of the 
difficulties in arriving at anything like an accurate view of 
the situation is that no single department of the Russian 
government or outside agency has been able to collect facts 
for the whole immense area in question. Moreover some 
of the reports are apparently colored by political purpose or 
by the desire of the reporter to uphold the accuracy of prev- 
ious estimates ; while in other cases there has been a frank 
admission of a change of opinion. In all probability, Mr. 
Duranty's estimate of the food shortage, just quoted, is too 
high, and Litvinov's forecast at the Hague as well as the 
earlier reports of the American Relief Administration too 
low. 

In any case, the fact is clear that the suffering from 
famine in Russia this winter is bound to be acute. Even 
the most generous relief from the outside will not perma- 
nently relieve this need which has entered a far more difficult 
stage than, for instance, the recent famines in China where, 
at least, the greater part of the population had remained on 
the land and worked with all its power at getting the best 
results with such resources as were available, whereas in 
Russia some of the most fertile regions have become de- 
populated and a peasantry demoralized by years of war. 
ravage, suffering and unstable government has become help- 
less and imbued with pessimism. Nevertheless, the more 
dramatic events in the Near East with their appeal to 
American sympathy should not close our eyes to the fact 
that in the next few months American aid alone can save 
tens and hundreds of thousands of Russians from death by 
starvation. 

Permanent betterment can come only from measures of 
rehabilitation in which outside aid. necessarily, will play a 
part secondary to the efforts of the Russian people them- 
selves. 

But even in these measures the hope of success lies 
largely in a multiplication of the excellent beginnings made 
by a number of outside groups — including the experiment 
described in this issue bv Mrs. Ware. 



Neighbors 





'*5&25*£E 




^J^^X - 


'■ijy 


B- ■-.. »v ' *v^Lfc' 















ET us borrow the magic carpet today and 
look in on a few homes where, no doubt, 
we shall be stared at as queer birds but 
where, once the linguistic difficulty is 
overcome, we shall find ourselves among 
"neighbors" nevertheless. For, in each of 
them we shall find something of a human 
quality which our politicians and econo- 
mists are so apt to forget. No, it is not simply the much 
abused "milk of human kindness" that we are talking about, 
but that social outlook which converts the back-yard fence 
from a division line into one of multiplication of contacts. 
But see, here we are arrived at our first station. 

A SHOD took care of our survey office, writes Clarence 
Richard Johnson, director of the Pathfinder Survey 
of Constantinople, reviewed in these pages a month ago. 
Sometimes as he was looking with his American friends 
from the window of the office over the fascinating scenery 
of the Bosphorus with its cosmopolitan shipping and the 
hills of Asia, he would tell some of his experiences as an 
exile from his native home at Bardizac — a small town, six 
hours by rail and boat from Constantinople. His father, 
mother and six brothers and sisters were all dead. They 
had found too great the strain of living on leaves and twigs, 
grass and bones (made soft by burning). His own life he 
owed to his ability to swim across a river when pursued 
by the enemies of his race. On the side where he emerged, 
Arab scouts, as it happened, were looking for a shepherd 
boy whom they might take back to their chief, one Hassan. 
On their arrival at the camp, Hassan himself saw to it that 
Ashod was fed. It was the first real meal the boy had had 
in months, and he says he will never forget how good it 
tasted. After that the chief insisted that he do nothing for 
two weeks but rest and eat. Then he became the shepherd 
— and what he tells of the happy two years spent with these 
nomads of the desert, says Mr. Johnson, is like a tale out 
of the Arabian Nights. 

The Arabs were kind people. Hassan, the sheik, whose 
flocks he tended, loved Ashod as a son. Hassan's oldest 
son, Aber, was the second in command over some five hun- 
dred Arab chiefs in this part of the desert. Hassan him- 
self was seventy-five years old but powerful because of his 
wisdom and wealth. With his big bag of gold, his three 
hundred sheep and fifty camels, he was the rich man of his 
section. Merchants came from Aleppo, ten days away, 
and from Bagdad, four or five days away, to buy from him 
sheep and butter made from sheeps' milk. Hassan took de- 
light in training Ashod, and his constant advice was : Sir 
gasoor mithel-e-sebaa iva shatar rnitel el ivarvel — "be fear- 
less like a lion and smart like a jackal!" He incorporated 
both qualities in himself and, withal, krew the art of liv- 
ing, and every spring with his wife made a trip to the river 
Euphrates to see the green vegetation. 

Ashod told of many curious incidents in the desert — not 
least the peculiar medical practices of the Arabs who to 
him seemed "half wild," ignorant of civilization. They 
were surprised when he told them of life in Constantinople 
and the things he had learned at school. No one beside 
him in the camp could read or write. This Armenian 
orphan, after more than two years of life among the Arabs 
is now studying at Robert College which he is able to 
attend thanks to the contributions of American friends of 
Mr. Johnson. Though he had been out of school for 




An old Arab sheik 

seven years, he has done two years' college work in one and 
maintained an average of 85 per cent. 

The case of Ashod — who counts his two years as a 
shepherd boy of an Arab chief out in the desert among 
the happiest in his life — is interesting for two reasons: 
In the first place it shows that a Moslem of wealth and 
influence may without losing caste extend ordinary human 
kindness to a Christian boy even around Bagdad where 
religious and race feeling is reported to be so strong. It 
also demonstrates in an individual who suffered some years 
ago the fate of homelessness that now has befallen hun- 
dreds of thousands of children the opportunity of help that 
is open to America today. Give us the young! 

AGAIN we lift the plane of our magic carpet and sail 
east. One of the vivid impressions which Professor 
Caroline E. Furness of Vassar College has brought back 
from Japan was her experience in the slums of Kobe. With 
an introduction from T. Namae, director of the Bureau of 
Social Relief of the Japanese Home Department — whom 
some of us have had the pleasure of meeting when recently 
he visited the United States — she started out to find what 
social work was carried out by the Japanese themselves, 
independently of foreign missions. One gloomy afternoon, 
after a ride in a street car and a walk through muddy 
streets, she came to the settlement of Mr. Kagawa, a gradu- 
ate of one of the Christian colleges who has completed his 
education in Princeton and has written a Psychology of the 
Working Man. His wife shares in his social work, most 
of it among people who have drifted into the neighborhood 
from the country around, attracted by the relatively high 
wages paid in the industries of Kobe, but many of them 
unsuccessful in their effort to gain a foothold. After walk- 
ing for some time through narrow streets and passage 



171 



172 



NEIGHBORS 




In the slums of Kobe 

ways, noticing the low houses, built in rows, the primitive 
sanitary arrangements, the overcrowding, and the apparent 
poverty of the people, Professor Furness and her guide 
turned a corner by a row of houses slightly superior in ap- 
pearance. Mr. Kagavva pushed open a sliding screen and said : 
"This is a part of my house." Looking in, they saw a man 
lying on the floor with his leg bandaged, a woman sitting by 
him, evidently taking care of him, and a little girl. The 
man, Mr. Kagawa explained, was injured and had no place 
to go to. "So," he added, "I told him he could come here 
and stay for a while." Another room of the house also was 
occupied and was the most untidy 

room, Professor Furness says, she ■■■■■■■■■ 

had ever seen. A man was stand- 
ing there, doing nothing. "This 
man," said Mr. Kagawa, "is half 
crazy ; but as he has no place to go 
to, I told him he might stay here 
for a while. He tears everything 
to pieces and throws it on the 
floor." In another part of the 
house lived temporarily a man 
known as the king of the gamblers 
in that district. His story struck 
the American visitor as much like 
that of a Tammany chieftain in a 
New York ward. He was the 
boss of that section and when dif- 
ficulties occurred — too many quar- 
rels, too much disorder — the police 
conferred with him, and he called 
his subjects to order. He and his 
host were on the best of terms, 
however, and he is occupying one 
of the rooms while he is build- 
ing a new house for himself. 

That a settlement worker should keep in his house an in- 
valid, a madman and a ward boss may seem queer. But the 
reason is not difficult to understand when you hear Miss 
Furness tell more about the conditions of life in Kobe. After 
all, in Japan as in America, the neighborhood worker starts 
out by doing the job nearest at hand. If there were proper 
institutions to which he could turn over his cases of sickness 
and destitution, if he could with some chance of success fight 
the boss instead of trying to get into his favor, undoubtedly 
Mr. Kagawa would do it. And one is glad to know that 
Professor Namae and his staff are at work upon the larger 
social measures which will make the job of the settlement if 
not easier, at any rate more creative. 



Near the settlement was a small plot of ground which had 
been fitted up as a playground where the children were much 
at home. This had formerly belonged to a temple, and Mr. 
Kagawa had prevailed upon the priests to let him have it 
for the use of the children. At the edge of the slums, the 
party visited a large enclosure, the property of the rag 
pickers. Since it was Sunday, only few of them were at 
work. They are, it is said, a wealthy corporation. Here 
was also a little day nursery where the children of women 
workers are cared for. A good-looking Japanese nurse in a 
white dress showed the building. 

The people, says Professor Furness, appeared to be much 
less abject than the poor in our American cities who usually 
are immigrants. She suggests as an explanation that they 
are in their own country and conscious of having a birth- 
right share in all its glories. Many of them have always 
been poor ; but in a country which hitherto has not based its 
class distinctions upon outward show of wealth, poverty is 
not looked upon as a badge of inferiority. They have spirit 
and will not tamely submit to injustice which they resent 
very quickly. Mr. Kagawa's influence with these people, she 
says, is great because they look upon him as one of them and 
are sure of his charitable spirit. It is the same spirit as that 
of many teachers and moral leaders whom the Japanese have 
venerated in their centuries of life as a nation and whose 
names have become household words. 

THOUGH our magic airship need not take notice of the 
Panama Canal, we will just the same visit the Caribbean 
on our return trip and stop on one of the Virgin Islands to 
go visiting with Elizabeth Robinson, an American Red Cross 
nurse. One day, she tells us, she went to a little place called 




^'V'^Tf 




-a 'sua?- 



The posters which meant preservation of sight 



Jockey Market, a spot on one of the plantations where two 
families have their abode, to look up a child reported absent 
from school. As usual, she was directed wrong and found 
herself "in the right church but in the wrong pew" — in other 
words, in St. Peter's instead of Jockey Market. This proved 
a blessing, for here she found a mother with three little girls, 
seven, nine and eleven years of age, who were being treated 
regularly for trachoma in the school clinic. The mother had 
five more at home — one of them, five months old, with eyes 
discharging horribly, another one a year and a half old, 
twins three years old and a boy of five — all illegitimate (as 
so many are there) and all with sore, inflamed eyes. The 
nurse looked them all over and then asked the mother if she 



NEIGHBORS 



173 



had any idea how serious the matter was. "Oh yes," she 
replied, "they have 'chacoma'," Asked how she knew, the 
woman forthwith dispatched Johnnie into the house for some 
pamphlets which Idalia had brought from school and which 
proved to be nothing else than bulletins of our National 
Committee for the Prevention of Blindness. 

Well, says Miss Robinson, it was easy enough to go to these 
people and tell them what should be done; but how was this 
woman to get to the dispensary with no means of transpor- 
tation and five little pickaninnies to trail along? Moreover, 
what was the use of treating Idalia, Hosanna and Gustave in 
school with all this mess in the home? The school phy- 
sician solved the problem. With Miss Robinson and the 
welfare nurse who is in charge of the country work he went 
and examined everyone in the two homes — and soon all who 
needed treatment were receiving it three times a week. 

"Down here," writes Miss Robinson, "the natives paper 
their homes with anything that will stick on the walls." 
So she gave each of the women a poster which was duly 
pasted on and read by all the aunts and forty-second cousins, 
to say nothing of mere neighbors who sent their children 
for more pictures. 

The picture opposite was taken in one of the villages 
at a plantation named Jealousy, situated between Upper 
and Lower Love — this is not a joke, — though evidently 
someone had a sense of humor when it was named. It 
shows what happened the day Miss Robinson came visiting. 
"I can alight from Ophelia Bumps (the Ford) any hour of 
the day in one of these villages," she writes, "and on entering 
see nothing more interesting than a few skinny pigs wander- 
ing at large or a contented looking goat ; but I won't be in 
the place five minutes before I have an audience that pops out 
of all kinds of places to hear the Red Cross "nuss" discourse. 
They ask questions, all kinds of questions, and bring out 
Hezekiah and Salome with 'sick toes' for me to see and take 
me into their homes to see Nanna who has 'baad feelin's' 
and who sees black and has fever and headache." 

The salvation of the place, says Miss Robinson, lies in edu- 
cating the children ; and the medium for this is the public 
school. The Department of Education, she adds, has made 
a long, long stride in this direction in the few years it has 
been at work since the government of the islands was taken 
over by the United States from Denmark. 

BY the way, our friends the Virgin Islanders seem to be 
in more than their usual trouble just now, to judge 
from the latest issue of The Emancipator, a native paper, 
just come to hand. It seems that the Volstead law has been 
applied to St. Thomas so as to endanger one of its important 
industries, the manufacture of bay rum. The editor of the 
paper is all for prohibition ; but, says he, "the Virgin Islands 
are not under the Constitution, and it was not necessary to 
apply the law. . . . The authorities charged with administer- 
ing the laws may use their discretion in a much broader sense 
in St. Thomas than in Porto Rico or elsewhere under the 
flag." 

As for the article in question, he tells of some of its uses 
we had not known of before: 

Not only was bay rum a fine toilet article, so refreshing 
after a shave and so soothing when the head was tired or ached, 
but once the hands and face were bathed in this delightful 
preparation the mosquitoes would let one live in peace. It is 
possible that a few persons might be far enough down in the 
scale of intemperance and passion for a drink that they might 
drink bay rum for the purpose of absorbing the alcohol it con- 
tained, but the person so far gone was lost beyond the power 
of the prohibition law to save him. It was unjust, unreason- 
able, absurd and unnecessary to interfere with this business in 
St. Thomas. 

And yet the industrious Virgin Islander who operates the 



Survey elevator at night is longing for the day when he 
will have saved enough to take his family back to the sunny 
clime of his home land. 

AND here we are back again in God's Own Country, 
the country of jazz and normalcy and enterprise and 
food such as a Christian man or woman aches for when 
away in distant lands. But, alas, while it is fine for a time 
to be something of a hero to our neighbors because of our 
travels, it is not quite the home-coming we had expected. 
Has there been change while we have been away, or have we 
learned to look upon the familiar world of our neighborhood 
with new eyes? Somehow our Greek vegetable man and 
our Slovak washerwoman are no longer what they were — 
somewhat inferior Americans ; they have assumed a new 
dignity and significance. We are puzzled. And so we 
smile as Reginald Wright Kauffman puts our mixed feel- 
ings towards these people into verse for us in a poem which 
he calls 

AMERICANS 

Our town wuz like our nation when I wuz young; you see, 
Business an' eddication wuz mebbe poor, but, gee, 
Two er more generation Americuns wuz we! 

Then comes Hans Schmidt from Stettin (we calls him 

Smith), an' right 
Off starts a bak'ry, gettin' to work before 'twuz light. 
We'd say: "Jes watch him sweatin' — ain't he a funny 

sight?" 

Jan Jansen soon from Sweden, 'bout forty year' ago, 
'Rives, thinkin' this land Eden, an' what he didn't know 
'D take a lifetime's readin': that jay was sure some slow! 

Two Guineas named Trentoni next settled in our town ; 
They hired Smith's boniest pony an' druv' a cart aroun' 
With fruit an' macaroni : we 'lowed we'd keep them down ! 

An' then a Greek, an Andy Bakopoulos, as cool 
'S you please, starts sellin' candy right by our grammar- 
school : 
The kids, they found it handy — lue knowed he wuz a fool. 

All us pure-blood Caucasians, we sniffed an' jes' set down 
An' watched these here invasions, yaller an' white an' 

brown : 
We hed a League o' Nations right in our own home-town ! 

Smith (Schmidt) he manifested real genius fer finance; 
He's got the bank congested, owns half the inhabitants ; 
His daughter's sable-vested — his son wuz killed in France. 

John Johnson? Say, jes' state yer guess about him! He 

went 
Into the Legislature an' stays there perminent; 
His boy — it's clear 'g'in nature — 's a college-president. 

The Lemon Trust that Guinea we tried to keep so meek 
Forms; when we go, by Jinny, to spring his scheme aleak, 
What Judge rules fer the ninny? Bakopoulos, the Greek! 

What's happened ? 'Taint the setter as makes, fer long, the 

rules. 
Business is sure some better; we've twict as many schools; 
But the job, it goes to the sweater: them for'ners -wasn't 

fools ! 

We done the best we could as would avoid a fuss: 
It's somehow understood as we ain't autonimous — 
Why, they've growed 'most as good as Americuns as us ! 




The camp of the American farm unit 

IN RUSSIA WITH WESTERN PIONEERS 

{Continued from page 165) 
not been in vain. A child threw a branch of dry spruce 
on the smoldering fire, and the red flames shot up. In 
the warmth and glow of the camp fire these women and 
children sang for us the folk songs of old Russia and the 
songs of the new republic till far into the night. 

Coming back to camp next day I saw an American news- 
paper. It was several months old. The head line read : 
"The Soviet Government cannot hold out." From the 
border of Latvia to the edge of Siberia I have travelled 
by freight car and peasant wagon. I have lived with the 
railroad workers in a corner of their barracks at a Cebesh, 
a division point just inside the Russian border. I have seen 
Moscow with its trolley cars and shops, its restaurants and 
theatres. I have shared the life and grass bread in the 
villages in the heart of great Russia, and I am convinced 
that the Soviet Government cannot fall. It is the embodi- 
ment of a spirit which is invincible. In spite of war, 
blockkade, civil war, in spite of the hideous devastation of 
the famine, the Russian Government is strong, for the 
simple reason that it is entrenched in the very heart 
of its people. This does not mean that it must or will 
remain as it is today. Russia is changing daily. But 
this form of government will remain. The people under- 
stand it and feel that it is theirs in spite of everything. As 
they have said to us, "Yes, our government has made mis- 
takes, but it is young and every young thing has to make 
mistakes to learn ; but it is our government and we, the 
people, have never had a government before." 

It is typical of the new Russia that the old men no 
longer wish to be venerated for their age. As one said to 
us, "do not call me Dadushka (Grandfather). Everything 
is all right but do not call me Grandfather, I am still one 
of the young men. I am only sixty." 

I left camp on the twenty-second of August. Before I 
left the following note came from Stara Charmia. 

Greetings to the American Workers For Their Friendly Attitude 
Toward the Russian Workers and the Help Rendered. 

The First Agricultural Labor Artel at Stara Charmia sends its 
hearty greetings and thanks to the American workers for help- 
ing us in the cultivation of our land to the number of twenty- 
five desiatines (25), which the Collective could not have tilled 
for the winter crop because of the lack of agricultural 
machinery. 

The above mentioned Collective, numbering 35 (thirty-five) 
people, eighteen of whom are capable of labor, from the age 
of 13 to 65, and 17 not of age. 

The Collective has one hundred and twenty-four desiatines 
of land. 

With the help rendered us by tilling the land with up-to-date 
machinery, the Collective grows in strength and spirit, spring 
that with it we are getting out of the terrible plague of famine. 

Once more and once more a great many thanks to the Ameri- 
can Workers from the Collective. 

PRESIDENT OF THE COLLECTIVE: ZOTOW 

MEMBER OF THE MANAGEMENT: ANDREW HOODANIN 

August 12, 1922 



Besides the plowing we had done for Stara Charmia and 
the two other villages, we had plowed, harrowed and culti- 
packed 1,000 desatines or 2,700 acres in the twenty days 
we had been working. This land will be seeded to rye. 
The unit is remaining to seed and plow for the spring crops, 
a piece of reconstruction work worth doing. 

Coming out of Russia I traveled with a worker who 
had come up from the British Quaker Relief unit in the 
South, also a man who had been with the A. R. A., likewise 
in the south. Journeying comfortably along in a compart- 
ment which would put our American Pullmans to shame, 
and at luncheon in the diner, we compared experiences and 
viewpoints. They too had found the peasants energetic 
and eager to rebuild their famine-wasted land. They too 
reported good harvests and a feeling of hope and optimism. 
In the Perm government where I was, the harvest is the 
best in fifty years. Even with the decreased acreage which 
was planted this harvest will mean life to Russia. 

THE FAITH OF AN INDUSTRIAL 
ENGINEER 

{Continued from page 156) 
ployers, and not upon the doctrine of "the oppressors and the 
oppressed" which is in the forefront of the statement of 
"Principles" of the American Federation of Labor. 

The great bulk of human industrial effort must continue 
to be outside the immediate control of governments. Yet 
industry can only progress in a democracy with the consent 
of the governed, and it is the negative attitude about this on 
the part of a few large capitalists and financiers in particular 
that retards progress in industrial relations. The managers 
and industrial representatives of such interests are held in 
check by unduly conservative trustees of capitalism when they 
might lead the world by their example. The tact is that 
capitalism holds the field beyond any doubt. It is the only 
system which has made good, and there is no other in sight 
which can carry on. Yet it is no sacred ark which may not 
be touched under dire penalty. It may be made to function 
more satisfactorily for labor and for all of us than it has 
yet done. 

Though we live in a society admittedly acquisitive, one in 
which the economic motive is dominant, one of "legalized 
self-interest" as our pessimists love to term it, we do not 
claim that this motive is socially sufficient. Nor do we claim 
that human nature cannot be improved. It is being slowly 
improved right in our sight. The mind of man is still in 
the making, and so is the quality of his conscience. 

Yet no one who makes daily contact with the sane but 
strictly self-regarding attitude of the workmen can consider 
radical reconstruction as immediately necessary or as prac- 
ticable on the basis of the present meager fund of altruism. 
Personal selfishness can today no more be assumed as elimi- 
nated from the performance of any social function than phys- 
ical force from the practices of government. Of that we 
have had recently abundant proof here and abroad. The 
joy in personal achievement, which we would like to see great- 
ly increased — and which will be, is yet too limited to be a 
universal incentive. The "economic urge" must still be re- 
lied upon to motivate the great majority, and on the whole 
it has not proved a detrimental impulse in human develop- 
ment. 

Capitalism and unionism alike can only commend them- 
selves in the end to society by their good works. Indeed, every 
custom in our day must have pragmatic sanction. The last 
century was occupied with building institutions; the present 
is busy asking, "What are they for?" and "Do they work?" 
These are healthy challenges not confined to capital alone 
but applied to the whole social order. Thev can no longer 
be scornfully regarded by those occupying positions of 



174 



privilege on either side. They must be satisfactorily an- 
swered about capital and labor as well as about national 
governments. The ans.wers are producing many programs 
of what we might be if we were better than we are, but we 
are also learning much that is immediately useful as to what 
we can be even as we are. Shall we refuse to have faith and 
go into the wilderness like some of our distinguished pessi- 
mists with counsels of perfection and professions of despair? 
Surely not! 

The Spirit of Envy 

Behind and beneath all the questions that have to do 
with the better ordering of our social and political life lies 
the great human problem — The good man and how to 
produce him. 

We have instances among capital and labor alike of the 
spirit of exclusiveness, from which proceed selfish industrial 
and social policies and conduct. 

A major product of exclusiveness carried to an individual 
extreme is envy. Despite the adoption of all the forms of 
industrial betterment we must be prepared to defend our 
civilization against malicious covetousness, that evil spirit 
which brings nothing constructive along with its bitter de- 
nunciations of our social frailties. 

Envy so parched my blood, that had I seen 

A fellow-man nrade joyous, thou had'st marked 

A livid paleness overspread my cheek. 

Such fruit reap I of the seed I sowed: 

Sick of a strange disease — My neighbor's health! 

This vivid etching by Dante of the human spirit in its 
most malignant mood repenting amidst eternal fires less 
punishing than its own moral distress, has been reproduced 
in some of our social rebels whose contribution to the body 
politic under its influence has been unsocial action or anarchy, 
with ensuing death to all noble aspirations and generous 
conduct. 

Good industrial relations imply the broadest tolerance 
of opinion, spoken and printed, but every well-wisher 
of mankind will scotch the social snake, envy, when it shows 
itself and strikes through the poisoned pen, the disloyal act 
or the infringement of the personal liberties of others. 

Alike in the plant, in labor councils, in society and politics, 
envy is the stealthy assassinator of democracy and of indus- 
trial goodwill. 

The Spirit of Service 

In conclusion, let me emphasize the truth that "the way 
out" of the industrial problem is not to be found through 
perfecting the technique of industry. That is socially de- 
sirable and is under way through the increasing application 
of the scientific method by industrial engineers. Yet it can- 
not of itself bring in a new industrial day, as was once 
hoped and even predicted by able innovators in business 
system ; nor can it be expected greatly to reduce economic 
friction ; it may even under certain conditions help to in- 
crease it. 

The "hard-boiled" employer need be neither surprised nor 
indignant when confronted by "hard-boiled" labor. He 
should take no comfort from the obvious sins and short- 
comings of the latter and should be considerably exercised 
about his own. The great silent army of labor is not blind 
to these or to remedies proposed by some capitalists which 
are ludicrously inadequate to the situation. A "one hundred 
percent Americanism" will not help much, for, like other 
idealisms, patriotism has varied from a noble devotion to a 
moral lunacy. At its best it does not lend itself to com- 
mercialization. 

The "American Plan," involving an almost naive "in- 
dividual contract" which legally prohibits the wage-earner 



from changing his mind — or at least his conditions or his 
employer — for a lengthy period, will not inhibit his herd 
instincts and his natural desire to profit by the counsel of 
his fellows. 

Nor can industrial capital make employers' associations 
or reactionary officials the keepers of its conscience. The 
right course of capital and its managers towards the wage- 
earner is not in surrendering its freedom to massed capital 
in employers' associations or to militant organized labor 
or to compulsions from any source. It is prescribed in a 
Chinese proverb which expresses the spirit of this study: 
"If you want to keep the town clean, let every man sweep 
before his own door." 

It was on the eve of a tremendous national upheaval that 
a French farmer-general and haughty aristocrat inquired 
peevishly, "When everything goes so well, why change?" 
We have still our "Let-aloners" among ownership as well 
as our "Us-aloners" among labor. But these are blind to 
the social situation and the need for constructive leadership. 
Things do not right themselves as the lazy and unsocial 
would have us believe. To them we oppose the voice of one 
who was privileged to "look at life steadily and look at 
it whole" with keen, informed vision for more than eight 
decades and who saw people and nations because of a stupid 
fatalism or indifference miss connections with "opportunity" 
again and again to their great loss: 

There is no saying more false than that which declares that 
"the hour brings the man." The hour many and many a time 
has failed to bring the man. And never was that truth more 
seen than in the last seven years. 

These were almost the last words spoken in the United 
States by James Bryce. 

The truth is that the intangibles in industrial relations 
and in all social matters- -"what men work for" and "what 
men live by" — are truly sensed only by those who are 
touched to fine issues. Happily they are already a goodly 
company which is adding to its numbers. The last two 
decades of American industrial and social expansion have 
been marked by rising quality of the efforts of the managers 
of industry and their subordinates. It needs only sound 
convictions, courage and faith on the part of the capitalists 
concerned to make America the industrial garden of the 
world. 

Let me commend to capital and labor two major programs 
and motives which sum up my industrial and social exper- 
ience: education and service. They are embodied in words 
of wisdom from Pestalozzi : "Until we learn to make our 
educational principles work among the weaker members of 
society, democracy will remain a dream." 

And in an admonition of Dean Inge: "Don't get up 
from the feast of life without paving for your share of 
it." 

DONE IN OIL 

{Continued from page 146) 

more favorably situated fields. Its very isolation, however, 
with the inevitably increased hardship of its living and 
working conditions, ought to enlist in its behalf a first call 
in the allocation of company community halls and other 
welfare facilities. For improvement in hours of labor and 
the archaic seven-day week it will doubtless have to wait 
until public opinion forces a betterment of conditions 
throughout the entire oil industry. 

Meanwhile the merry-go-round of the seven-day shift 
goes on : 

"Brutal ain't it," remarked a workman to me the other 
day, "I'd as soon be dead." 



175 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 



AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR ORGANIZING FAMILY SOCIAL 
WORK — Mrs. John M. Glenn, chairman; Francis H. McLean, field 
director; David H. Holbrook, executive director, 130 E. 22d Street, 
New York. Advice in organization problems of family social work 
societies (Associated Charities) in the United States and Canada, 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL WORKERS (formerly Na- 
tional Social Workers' Exchange) — Graham Romeyn Taylor, di- 
rector, 130 East 22nd Street, New York City. An organization of 
professional social workers devoted to raising social work standards 
and requirements. Membership open to qualified social workers. 

AMERICAN CHILD HYGIENE ASSOCIATION— Richard A. Bolt, 
M. D., General Director, 532 17th Street, N. W., "Washington, D. C. 
"Helps to prevent the unnecessary loss of mothers' and children's 
lives and tries to secure for the mother and child a full measure 
of health and strength." 
Publishes monthly magazine, "Mother and Child." 

AMERICAN COUNTRY LIFE ASSOCIATION— K. L. Butterfield, 
president; A. R. Mann, vice president; E. C. Lindeman, executive 
secretary; Nat T. Frame, Morgantown, West Virginia, field secre- 
tary. Emphasizes the human aspect of country life. Membership 
$3.00. 

AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION— Miss Lenna F. 
Cooper, sec'y; Battle Creek Sanitarium, Battle Creek, Mich. Or- 
ganized for betterment of conditions in home, schools, institutions 
and community. Publishes Journal of Home Economics. 1211 
Cathedral St.. Baltimore. Md. 

AMERICAN PEACE SOC I ETY— Founded 1828, labors for an inter- 
national peace of justice. Its official organ is the Advocate of 
Peace, $2.00 a year. Arthur Deerin Call, secretary and editor, 
612-614 Colorado Building. Washington, D. C. 

AMERICAN PRISON ASSOCIATION— Annual Congress of Amer- 
ican penologists, criminologists, social workers in delinquency. 
Next Congress Detroit. Michigan, October, 1922. E. R. Cass, general 
secretary, 185 East 15th Street, New York City. 

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE CONTROL OF CANCER— Frank 
J. Osborne, exec, sec'y.; 370 Seventh Ave., New York. To disseminate 
knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and pre- 
vention. Publication free on request. Annual membership dues, $5. 

THE AMERICAN SOCIAL HYGIENE ASSOCI ATION— 370 Seventh 
Ave., New York. For the conservation of the family, the repression 
of prostitution, the reduction of venereal diseases, and the pro- 
motion of sound sex education. Information and catalogue of 
pamphlets upon request. Annual membership dues, $2. Member- 
ship includes quarterly magazine and monthly bulletin. WMlliam 
F. Snow. M.D.. gen. dir. 



HAMPTON INSTITUTE— J. E. Gregg, principal; G. P. Phenix. 
vice-prin.; F. H. Rogers, treas.; W. H. Scoville, sec'y.; Hampton, 
Va. Trains Indian and Negro youth. Neither a State nor * 
Government school. Free illustrated literature. 



THE INSTITUTE FOR CRIPPLED AND DISABLED MEN— John 
Culbert Faries, dir., 245 E. 23rd St., New York. Maintains free 
industrial training classes and employment bureau; makes artificial 
limbs and appliances; publishes literature on work for the handi- 
capped; gives advice on suitable means for rehabilitation of dis- 
abled persons and cooperates with other special agencies in plans 
to put the disabled man "back on the payroll." 

JOINT COMMITTEE ON METHODS OF PREVENTING DELIN- 
QUENCY (under the Commonwealth Fund Program for Preventing 
Delinquency) — Arthur W. Towne. executive director, 52 Vanderbilt 
Ave., New York Oity. Will begin publishing and distributing bul- 
letins and other literature in the fall of 1922. 

LEAGUE FOR INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACY (formerly Intercol- 
legiate Socialist Society) — Harry W. Laidler, secretary; Room 931. 70 
Fifth Avenue, New York City. Object — Education for a new social 
order, based on production for use and not for profit. Annual 
membership. $3.00. $5.00 and $25.00. Special rates for students. 

NATIONAL ALLIANCE OF LEGAL AID SOCI ETI ES— Officers: 

President, Albert F. Blgelow, 111 Devonshire Street, Boston; Sec- 
retary, John S. Bradway, 133 South 12th St.. Philadelphia; Chair- 
man of Central Committee, Leonard McGee. 239 Broadway, New 
York. This organization was formed in 1912 as a national asso- 
ciation of all legal aid societies and bureaus in the United States 
to develop and extend legal aid work. The record of proceedings 
at the 1922 convention contains the best material obtainable on 
practical legal aid work. Copies free on request. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF COL- 
ORED PEOPLE — Moot field Storey, pres. ; James Weldon Johnson, 
sec'y.; 70 Fifth Ave.. New York. To secure to colored Americans 
the common rights of American citizenship. Furnishes informa- 
tion regarding race problems, lynchings. etc. Membership 90,000. 
with 350 branches. Membership. $1 upward. 

NATIONAL BOARD OF THE YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN 
ASSOCIATIONS— 600 Lexington Ave.. New York. To advance phys- 
ical, social, intellectual, moral and spiritual interests of young wo- 
men. Maintains National Training School which offers through it» 
nine months' graduate course professional training to women wish- 
ing to fit themselves for executive positions within the movement. 
Recommendation to positions made through Personnel Division. 
Placement Section. 



CHILD HEALTH ORGANIZATION OF AMERICA— 370 Seventh 
Ave., New York. Dr. L. Emmett Holt, chairman; Sally Lucas 
Jean, director. To arouse public interest in the health of school 
children; to encourage the systematic teaching of health in the 
schools; to develop new methods of interesting children in the 
forming of health habits; to publish and distribute pamphlets for 
teachers and public health workers and health literature for 
children; to advise in organization of local child health programs. 

CHILD WELFARE LEAGUE OF AMERICA— A league of agencies 
to secure a better understanding of child welfare problems, to im- 
prove standards and methods in the different fields of work with 
children and to make available in any part of the field the assured 
results of successful effort. The League will be glad to consult 
w.ith any agency, with a view to assisting it in organizing or re- 
organizing its children's work. C. C. Carstens, director, 130 E. 
22nd St.. New York. 

COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN— 305 W. 98th St., New York. Miss 

Rose Brenner, pres.; Mrs. Harry Sternberger, ex. sec'y. Promotes 

civic cooperation, education, religion and social welfare in the 

United States, Canada. Cuba, Europe. 

Department of Immigrant Aid— 799 Broadway. Mrs. S. J. Rosen- 

sohn, chairman. For the protection and education of immigrant 

women and girls. 

COMMUNITY SERVICE (INCORPORATED)— 315 Fourth Avenue, 

New York City. Joseph Lee, president; H. S. Braucher, secretary. 
Citizenship through right use of leisure. A national civic organiza- 
tion which on request helps local communities to work out a 
leisure time program. 

EUGENICS REGISTRY— Battle Creek, Mich. Chancellor David 
Starr Jordan, pres.; Dr. J. H. Kellogg, sec'y.; Prof. O. C. Glaser, 
exec, sec'y. A public service for knowledge about human in- 
heritances, hereditary inventory and eugenic' possibilities. Litera- 
ture free. 



FEDERAL COUNCIL OF THE CHURCHES OF CHRIST IN 

AMERICA— Constituted by 30 Protestant denominations. Rev. 

Chas. S. Macfarland, Rev. S. M. Cavert, gen'l. sec'ys.; 105 E. 22 

St.. New York. 

Commission on the Church and Social Service— Rev. Worth M. 

Tippy, exec, sec'y.; Rev. F. Ernest Johnson, research sec'y.; 

Agnes H. Campbell, research ass't. ; Inez M. Cavert. librarian 

(In answering these advertisements please mention The Survey. It helps us, it identifies you.) 



NATIONAL CATHOLIC WELFARE COU NCI L— Official National 
Body of the Catholic Organizations of the country. 

National Executive Offices, 13.12 .Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.. 

Washington, D. C. 
General Secretary. Rev. John J. Burke, C.S.P. 
Department of Education — Rev. James H. Ryan, Exec. Sec'y. 
Bureau of Education — A. C. Monahan. Director. 
Department of Laws and Legislation — William J. Cochran. 
Department of Social Action — Directors, John A. Ryan and John 

A. Lapp. 
Department of Press and Publicity — Director, Justin McGrath; 

Ass't. Director. Michael Williams. 
National Council of Catholic Men — President. Rear-Admiral 

William S. Benson; Exec. Sec'y, Michael J. Slattery. 
National Council of Catholic Women — President. Mrs. Michael 

Gavin; Exec. Sec'y.. Miss Agnes G. Regan. 
National Catholic Service School for Women, Washington. D. C— 

Director, Charles P. Neill; Dean. Miss Maud R. Cavanaugh, 
Bureau of Immigration — National Director, Bruce M. Mohler. 

NATIONAL CHILD LABOR COMM ITTEE— Owen R. Lovejoy. 
sec'y.; 105 East 22nd St.. New York. Industrial, agricultural In- 
vestigations. Works for improved laws and administration; 
children's codes. Studies health, schools, recreation, dependency, 
delinquency, etc. Annual membership, $2, $5. $10, $25 and $W0: 
includes quarterly. "The American Child." 

NATIONAL CHILD WELFARE ASSOCIATION, INC.— Chas. T. 
Powiison, gen. sec'y.; 70 Fifth Ave., New York. Originates and 
publishes exhibit material which visualises the principles and con- 
ditions affecting the health, well being and education of children. 
Cooperates with educators, public health agencies, and all child 
welfare groups in community, city or state-wide service through 
exhibits, child welfare campaigns, etc. 

THE NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR MENTAL HYGIENE— Dr. 
Walter B. James, pres.; Dr. Thomas W. Salmon, med. dir.; As- 
sociate Medical Directors, Dr. Frankwood E. Williams and Dr. V. 
V Anderson; Clifford W. Beers, secy.; 370 Seventh Avenue, New 
York City. Pamphlets on mental hygiene, nervous and mental 
disorders, feeble-mindedness, epilepsy, inebriety, criminology, war 
neuroses and re-education, psychiatric social service, Ivukward 
children, surveys, state societies. "Mental Hygiene;" quarterly 
$2 a year. 



176 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY 



NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL WORK— Robert W. Kelso, 
pres., Boston; W. H. Parker, sec'y, 25 East Ninth Street, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. The Conference is an organization to discuss the 
principles of humanitarian effort and to increase the efficiency of 
social service agencies. Each year it holds an annual meeting, 
publishes in permanent form the Proceedings of this meeting, and 
issues a quarterly Bulletin. The fiftieth annual meeting of the 
Conference will be held in Washington, D. C, in May 1923. Pro- 
ceedings are sent free of charge to all members upon payment of a 
membership fee of five dollars. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE PREVENTION OF BLIND- 
NESS — Edward M. Van Cleve, managing director; Lewis H. Carrie, 
field sec'y; Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y; 130 E. 22-nd St., New 
York. Objects: To furnish information, exhibits, lantern slides, 
lectures, publish literature of movement — samples free, quantities 
at cost. Includes New York State Committee. 

NATIONAL CONSUMERS' LEAGUE— 44 E. 23rd St., New York. 
Mrs. Florence Kelley, gen'l sec'y. Promotes legislation for en- 
lightened standards for women and minors in industry and for 
honest products; minimum wage commissions, eight hour day, no 
night work, federal regulation food and packing industries; "honest 
cloth" legislation. Publications available. 

NATIONAL FEDERATION OF SETTLEMENTS— Robert A. 
Woods, sec'y; 20 Union Park, Boston. Develops broad forms of 
comparative study and concerted action in city, state and nation, 
for meeting the fundamental problems disclosed by settlement 
work, seek the higher and more democratic organization or 
neighborhood life. 

NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING— 
Member, National Health Council — Anne A. Stevens, R.N., Direc- 
tor, 370 Seventh Avenue, New York. For development and stand- 
ardization of public health nursing. Maintains library and edu- 
cational service. Official Magazine "Public Health Nurse." 

NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE — For social service among Negroes. 
L. Hollingsworth Wood, pres.; Eugene Kinckle Jones, exec, sec'y; 
12 E. 23rd St., New York. Establishes committees of white and 
colored people to work out oommunity problems. Trains Negi o 
social workers. 

NATIONAL WOMAN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION — 
Anna A. Gordon, president; Headquarters, 1730 Chicago Avenue, 
Evanston, Illinois. To secure effective enforcement of the 
Eighteenth Amendment, to advance the welfare of the American 
people through the departments of Child Welfare, Women in In- 
dustry, Social Morality, Scientific Temperance Instruction, Amer- 
icanization and other allied fields of endeavor. Official publication 
"The Union Signal," published at Headquarters. 

NATIONAL WOMEN'S TRADE UNION LEAGUE— Mrs. Raymond 
Robins, pres.; 311 South Ashland Blvd., Chicago, 111. Stands for 
self-government in the work shop through organization and also 
for the enactment of protective legislation. Information given. 

PLAYGROUND AND RECREATION ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA 
— 1 Madison Avenue, New York City. Joseph Lee, president; H. S. 
Braucher, secretary. Special attention given to organization of 
year-round municipal recreation systems. Information available on 
playground and community center activities and administration. 

PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION LEAGUE— To secure rep- 
resentation for all. C. G. Hoag, sec'y, 1417 Locust St., Philadel- 
phia. Membership, $2, entitles to quarterly P. R. Review. 

THE RACE BETTERMENT FOU NDATION— Battle Creek, Mich. 
For the study of the causes of race degeneracy and means of race 
improvements. Its chief activities are the Race Betterment Con- 
ference, the EAigenics Registry, and lecture courses and various 
allied activities. J. H. Kellogg, pres.; B. N. C'olver, sec'y. 

RUSSELL SAGE FOU N DATION— For the Improvement of Living 
Conditions— John M. Glenn, dir.; 130 E. 22nd St., New York. De- 
partments: Charity Organization, Child-Helping, Industrial Studies, 
Library, Recreation, Remedial Loans, Statistics, Surveys and 
Exhibits. The publications of the Russell Sage Foundation offer 
to the public in practical and inexpensive form some of the most 
important results of its work. Catalogue sent upon request. 

TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE— An institution for the training of Negro 
Youth; an experiment in race adjustment in the Black Belt of the 
South; furnishes information on all phases of the race problem and 
of the Tuskegee idea and methods; Robert R. Moton, prin.; War- 
ren Logan, treas.; A. L. Holsey, acting sec'y, Tuskegee, Ala. 



NEW SCHOOL FOR SOCIAL RESEARCH 

Lecturers for 1922-3: John Dewey, John B. Watson, Thor- 
stein Veblen, Leo Wolman, H. W. L. Dana, Joseph K. Hart, 
A. A. Goldenweiser and others 

All courses given in late afternoon or evening 

Write for catalogue to 

465-9 West 23d Street New York City 



WHAT LIES BEFORE THE NEW FEDERAL 
COAL COMMISSION 

(Continued from page 153) 
demands patient and accurate workmanship of a kind that 
is fairly standardized. Be it noted, however, that the in- 
vestigation must cover non-union as well as union mines, 
and that all study of the ability of the industry to pay must 
go into profits from affiliated business including land hold- 
ings, transportation and marketing, both wholesale and 
retail. 

The act clearly contemplates a special investigation into 
the anthracite combination. Rightly or wrongly, the public 
has become convinced that it is being exploited by a near 
monopoly in the anthracite region, and the commission will 
be derelict in its duty unless it goes to the bottom of the 
financial relations of the mining companies, railroads and 
sales agencies. On no other point is public opinion more 
insistent. 

The commission's opportunity for broadest thinking lies 
in the field of a permanent machinery for adjusting labor 
disputes. The type of investigation needed here is qualita- 
tive, not quantitative. We must have a scientific analysis by 
the foremost students of the labor movement of unionism 
in the coal industry viewed in comparison with unionism in 
other industries and other lands. We need, by the com- 
mission itself, a big-hearted sifting of the evidence, and if 
necessary new evidence, on mob violence, feudalism and ab- 
sentee landlords in West Virginia. 

One of the subjects on which the commission is required 
to make recommendation is "standardizing mines on the 
basis of their productive capacity, and closing down mines 
which fall below the standard." The commission will do 
well to construe this clause, which clearly refers to the 
wastes of over-development and broken working time, as an 
invitation to inquire into the whole subject of the efficiency 
of the process of production and distribution. In this field 
the commission will find that some essential points have been 
covered by earlier investigations, and that on others nothing 
has been done. 

There is little to be done on the mechanical technique of 
mining, except to emphasize the need of bringing the practice 
of the smaller, less efficient mines up to the best engineering 
standard. The related field of the organization of work 
underground, however, is untouched. Hugh Archbald has 
outlined it in his book The Four-Hour Day in Coal, and 
shown the need of production engineering studies. This 
subject will lead to another on which light is needed — the 
tendency of the union to hamper the management in im- 
proving technique. 

A kindred subject, also virtually unknown, is the market- 
ing of coal. In contrast to the extensive statistical literature 
on production, consumption and even the physical movement 
of coal by rail and water, there is practically no literature 
on the work of the middleman. Yet in this neglected field 
lie some of the largest possibilities of cutting costs to the 
consumer. "Stabilizing demand" is, after all, a matter of 
marketing. 

Before the commission has traveled far it will probably 
realize that the law of coal does not square with the eco- 
nomics of coal. 

This broad fact underlies the vague proposals for "na- 
tionalization" and "public control" on the one hand or for 
some modification of the anti-trust laws on the other. The 
law of property right in coal is the English common law, 
worked out by centuries of muddling through in what was 
then an agricultural community. It is essentially the law 
of private property in farm lands. To the owner of the 
(Continued or. page 182) 



177 



CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS 

RATES: Display advertisements, 25 cents per agate line, 14 lines to the inch. 
Want advertisements, 8 cents per word or initial, including the address or box 
number, for each insertion, minimum charge, $1.50. Discounts on three or more 
consecutive insertions. Cash with orders. 



Address Advertising 
Department 



THE SURVEY 



112 East 19th Street 
New York City 



WORKERS WANTED 

SOCIAL Workers, Secretaries, Dietitians, 
Housekeepers, address Miss Richards, Pro- 
vidence, R. I., Box 5, East Side. Boston 
Office, Trinity Court, 16 Jackson Hall, Fri- 
days n to 1. Address Providence. 

GRADUATE NURSES, dietitians, labor- 
atory technicians for excellent hospital posi- 
tions everywhere. Write for free book 
now. Aznoe's Central Registry for Nurses, 
30 N. Mich. Ave., Chicago, Illinois. 

WANTED: Man and wife experienced 
in child caring for superintendent and 
matron of a small Jewish Children's 
Home. Good salary. Apply in writing 
giving complete references to 4321 Survey. 

SOCIAL SERVICE LEAGUE wants 
trained worker for Executive Secretary and 
Case Workers. J. E. Lansing, Geneva, N.Y. 

WANTED: As Superintendent of a 
large well-appointed Orphan Asylum in 
Chicago, an educated executive young wo- 
man (over thirty) with experience and 
intelligent interest in the care of children. 
Reply giving full qualifications and cre- 
dentials to Mrs. R. Stevenson, 1212 North 
State Street, Chicago, Illinois. 

WANTED: Experienced cook of Jew- 
ish Faith to work in Institution situated 
in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Write Jew- 
ish Home for Babies and Children 2508 
Breckenridge Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

WANTED: Social Worker for Rural 
districts. Jewish, and with knowledge of 
Yiddish. Home Economics training desir- 
able. 4338 Survey. 

GIRLS' Club Worker, to assist in house- 
hold management, for resident in settle- 
ment near New York City. Jewish Sister- 
hood, 21 Seventeenth Ave., Newark, N.J. 



SITUATIONS WANTED 



(Continued) 



COOPERATIVE GENCY 

MISS ARNSON'S Agency desires posi- 
tions for recommended companions, gov- 
ernesses, infants' nurses and housekeepers. 
Phone Audubon 5788, 477 West 145th St., 
New York City. 

TEACHERS WANTED 

TEACHERS wanted for public and pri- 
vate schools, colleges and universities. 
Education Service, Southern Building, 
Washington. 

SITUATIONS WANTED 

A THOROUGHLY trained and expe- 
rienced lady wishes a position in Orphan- 
age Home or School, or would take entire 
charge of nervous or special child in a 
good family. Excellent references. Write 
Miss Helen K. L. Yelland, c/o Mrs. W. 
J. Watson, 105 Sande Ave., Essington, 
Penna. 



NOW available, social worker experi- 
enced in settlement, playground and girls' 
organization work. Expert in group re- 
creation. 4305 Survey. 

COMPANION-SECRETARY with lady 
traveling. Well educated young woman, 
secretarial experience in business and pri- 
vate school. Isabel Hughes, Williamstown, 

Mass. 

MAN with twenty years' experience 
directing work for older boys and super- 
intending Homes for Children will be 
available for superintendent of Institution 
November fifteenth. Sister would accom- 
pany as matron if desired. 4333 Survey. 

WANTED: Assistant superintendency, 
recreational or physical directorship in 
small private school, home for delinquents 
or orphans by young man, age 22. Pro- 
testant, qualified. 4332 Survey. 

YOUNG MAN, Jewish, now head of 
settlement, twelve years in social work, 
desires position with educational and re- 
creational organization or with Federa- 
tion. 4330 Survey. 

YOUNG MAN with wide experience in 
child caring, desires position as sub-exe- 
cutive or head of boys' department. Best 
of references. 4322 Survey. 

WANTED: Place by refined educated 
woman as housekeeper or companion. 
Free to travel. No encumbrances. Best 
of references. Box 44, Lexington, Ky. 

RELIGIOUS WORK EXPERT. Twenty 
years' experience in Sunday School ; Insti- 
tutional and Social Service Work; 
Trained public speaker and Pastor's As- 
sistant, is open for engagement. 4334 
Survey. 

COMPANION or attendant. Protestant 
young woman, trained in nursing, desires 
position with party planning to travel this 
winter. References exchanged. Miss 
Cory, Brewster, Mass. 

FEMALE settlement worker, ten years' 
experience organizing clubs and classes, 
employment placement, welfare work. 
Any opening where this experience will 
be an asset. 4336 Survey. 

WANTED: Position as superintendent 
of Day Nursery or small Institution by 
executive woman, thoroughly experienced. 
Highest credentials. 4337 Survey. 

PERIODICALS 

Fifty cents a line for four insertions, copy to 
remain unchanged. 

The American Journal of Nursing shows the 
part which trained nurses are taking in the bet 
terment of the world. Put it in vour library 
$3.00 a year. 19 W. Main St.. Rochester, N. Y. 

Mental Hygiene: quarterly: $2.00 a year: pub- 
lished by the National Committee for Mental 
Hygiene, 370 Seventh Avenue, New York. 



CURRENT PAMPHLETS 



Listings fifty cents a line for four insertions, 
copy to remain unchanged. 

Calcium Requirements of Children. By Henry 
C. Sherman and Edith Hawley. Reprint from 
Journal of Home Economics, 1211 Cathedral 
St., Baltimore, Md. Price 10 cents. 

The Motion Picture Problem. By Rev. Charles 
N. Lathrop. Commission on the Church and 
Social Service, Federal Council of Churches, 
105 E. 22 St., New York. Price, 15 cents. 

Mow the Budget Families Save and Have — 
the reserve system explained (5 cents); How 
John and Mary Live and Save on $35 a W eeK 
— a weekly budget plan (10 cents); Weekly 
Allowance Book (10 cents); Ten Cent Meals, 
by Florence Nesbitt, 44 pp. (10 cents). Am 
School Home Economics, 849 East 58 St.. 
Chicago. 

Credit Union. Complete free information or 
request to Roy F. Bergengren. 5 Park Square, 
Boston, Mass. 



STATEMENT OF THE OWNERSHIP, MAN- 
AGEMENT, CIRCULATION, ETC., RE- 
QUIRED BY THE ACT OF CONGRESS 
OF AUGUST 24, 1912, of Survey Graphic, 
published monthly at New York, N. Y., for 
October 1, 1922. 

State of New York, County of New York, 
ss. 

Before me, a Commissioner of Deeds, in and 
for the State and county aforesaid, personally 
appeared Arthur P. Kellogg, who, having been 
duly sworn according to law, deposes and says 
that he is the business manager of the Survey- 
Graphic, and that the following is, to the best 
of his knowledge and belief, a true statement 
of the ownership, management (and if a daily 
paper, the circulation), etc., of the aforesaid 
publication for the date shown in the above cap- 
tion, required by the Act of August 24, 1912, 
embodied in section 443, Postal Laws and Re- 
gulat : ons, printed on the reverse of this form, 
to wit : 

1. That the names and addresses of the pub- 
lisher, editor, managing editor, and business 
managers are: Publisher, Survey Associates, 
Inc., 112 East 19 Street, New York City; 
Editor, Paul U. Kellogg, 112 East i9 Street, 
New York City; Managing Editor, Bruno 
Lasker, 112 East 19 Street, New York City- 
Business Managers, Arthur P. Kellogg, John D. 
Kenderdine, 112 East 19 Street, New York 
City. 

2. That the oyvners are: (Give names and 
addresses of individual owners, or, if a corpora- 
tion, give its name and the names and addresses 
of stockholders owning or holding 1 per cent or 
more of the total amount of stock.) Survey 
Associates, Inc.. 112 East 19 Street, New York- 
City, a non-commercial corporation under the 
laws of the State of New York with over 1,600 

• members. It has no stocks or bonds. President, 
Robert W. de Forest, 30 Broad Street. Now 
York, N. Y.: Vice-Presidents, Henry R. Seager, 
Columbia University. Now York, N. Y.: V. 
Everit Macy ' - Chilmark," Scarborough-on-Hud- 
son, N. Y.; Secretary. Ann R. Brenner, 112 
East 19 Street, New York. N. Y.; Treasurer, 
Arthur P. Kellogg, 112 East 19 Street. New 
York, N. Y. 

3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, 
and other security holders owning or holding 1 
per cent or more of total amount of bonds. 
mortgages, or other securities are: (If there are 
none, so state.) None. 

4. That the two paragraphs next above, giv- 
ing the names of the owners, stockholders, and 
security holders, if any, contain not only the list 
of stockholders and security holders as they ap- 
pear upon the books of the company but also, in 
cases where the stockholder or security holder 
appears upon the books of the company as 
trustee or in any other fiduciary relation, the 
name of the person or corporation for whom 
such trustee is acting, is given; also that the 
said two paragraphs contain statements embrac- 
ing affiant's full knowledge and belief, as to the 
circumstances and conditions under which -took 
holders and security holders who do not appear 
upon the books of the company as trustees, hold 
stock and securities in a capacity other than that 
of a bona fide owner; and this affiant lias no 
reason to believe that any other person. :i" icia 
tion. or corporation has any interest direct or 
indirect in the sad stock, bonds or other securi- 
ties than as so stated bv him. 

[Signed] ARTHUR P. KELLOGG, 
Business Manager, 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 19th 
day of September, 1922. 

[Scall MARTHA HOHMANN, 
Commissioner of Deeds, City of New York, 
New York County Clerk's No. 150; New 
York County Rrirst. - V 22056. 
Commission Expires Maj ■). 1924, 



[In answering these advertisements please mention The Survey. It helps us, it identifies you.) 

178 



IMPORTED GOODS 



Distinctive — Exquisite — 
Reasonable 

Pendants, Brooches, Beads, Leather Goods, 
Beaded Bags, Ceramics, Lamps, Amber 
Goods, Enamel and Silver articles. 
Ideal Gifts from $2.00 up. 
Write for complete catalogue. 
Toth & Binion, 147 Fourth Ave., N. Y. C. 

GAMES 



SHAKESPEARE— How many questions 
could you answer on Shakespeare? Con- 
sult the game "A Study of Shakespeare." 
Endorsed by best authorities. Instructive 
and entertaining. Price 50 cents. The 
Shakespeare Club, Camden, Me. 



REAL ESTATE 



Boundless Ocean View 

from lots and choice cottages for sale by me. 
Country club, fishing, bathing. HELEN L. 
THURSTON, 20 Pleasant St. Tel. 80. 

ROCKPORT, MASS. 



STATIONERY 

THIRSTY blotters sent free on request, 
also samples of excellent stationery for per- 
sonal and professional use. Franklin Print- 
ery. Warner, New Hampshire. 

STATIONERY: 150 White Letter Sheets and 
100 Envelopes printed $1.00. Sent postpaid. 

BURNETT PRINT SHOP 
Box 145 Ashland, Ohio 

MISCELLANEOUS 
A SIDE LINE THAT PAYS 

Any lady who wishes to increase her in- 
come without leaving home cannot do 
better than communicate with Mrs. R. W. 
Wright, 3304 Fairview Ave., Baltimore, 

Md. 

"Home-Making as a Profession" 

Is a 100-pp. 111. handbook— It's FREE. Home study 
Domestic Science courses, fitting for man; well-paid 
positions or for home-malting efficiency. 
Am. School of Home Economics. 849 E. 58th St., Chicago 



FOR THE HOME 



Tea Room Management 

In our new home-study course, "COOK- 
ING FOR PROFIT." Booklet on request. 
Am. School ol Home Economics, 849 E. 58th St, Chicago 



MSS. WANTED 



EARN $25 WEEKLY, spare time, writ- 
ing for newspapers, magazines. Exp. un- 
nec, details Free. Press Syndicate, 964, St 
Louis, Mo. 



STORIES, POEMS, PLAYS, etc., are 
wanted for publication. Submit Mss or 
write Literary Bureau, 509 Hannibal, Mo. 




THE MARKETPLACE 

Where articles may be bought, sold or 

exchanged 

RATES: 8 cents a word 

$1.50 minimum for one insertion 

DISPLAY 25c an agate line, 

$3.50 an inch 
Discounts on 3 or more insertions 



Edeson Radio Phones 

Adustable Diaphragm Clearance 



elunded The ad,u 
1 par *.ih 



. it.... 
irid'si 



pUi 




1 plan el.mrnares dealer's p.ofits and 
Irom bad account!, heme (he low price. 
' phones cannor be made Immeduie 
r.es. Double J0O0 Ohm sera. %i 98; 1500 
Single set. S2.50. Circular tree. 



Edeson Phone Co,6BcadiSt.Dei.c65B os 



PY--U cjli F Unusual opportunity — long and 
rw 5ALt well-established fully equipped 
tea-room. Splendid opportunity for two friends. 
Address 4313 Survey. 



ESTABLISHED and paying Tea Room 
in University town. House of fifteen 
rooms on the Campus, also on State Road. 
Rental of all extra rooms pays all over- 
head including rent, light, heat, etc. Cheap 
maid service and student help for board. 
An excellent opportunity for one with sons 
to educate. 4335 Survey. 

FOR SALE: Sohmer Baby-Grand Piano. 
Excellent tone; excellent condition. 4329 
Survey. 

FOR SALE: Kelsey Printing Press with 
several fonts of type, complete, for post 
cards, labels, small circulars. 4308 Survey 
or phone 7490 Stuyvesant. 

INSTRUMENTS for sale: Viola, Clar- 
inet, Banjo. 4309 Survey or phone 7490 
Stuyvesant. 

PORTABLE GARAGE WANTED by 
resident of Redbank, N. J. Single or dou- 
ble ; must be 20 feet deep. 4288 Survey. 

RUG: Wanted, Oriental or other good 
rug, must be reasonable in price. 4287 
Survey. 



Printing 
SMultigraphing 
Typewriting 
flailing 


JL 



^iiMiiiiiiniiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiitiuiiiniiii[iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimi!iiiiiiiiiiiiiiii§ 

I Better, Cheaper, Quicker | 

We have complete equipment 
and an expert staff to do your 
Mimeographing 
Multigraphing g 

Addressing 
Mailing 
§ If you will investigate you will find that |§ 
= we can do it better, quicker and cheaper § 
= than you can in your own office. 

Let us estimate on your next job 

Webster Letter Addressing & § 

I Mailing Company 

34th Street at 8th Avenue 
Longacre 2447 g 

IBIIIIIIIIIIIIllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllNNIIIIIIIilllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllUlimili? 



KOENIG-MOAK 

I PRINTING COMPANY 
Producers of Fine Job Printing 
100 West 21st Street, New York City 

Telephone: Chelsea 8237 




Fifth Avenue Letter Shop, Inc. 

16 W. 23rd Street 
Multieraphingl GRA mercy 4501 . JJ Mail ! nf 

Typewriting Isssssssssssaasssssssssssssssssssssss^ssi— sn-ssssssssssssJ Addressing 

Ask The Survey about Us! 



LITERARY SERVICE 

TYPEWRITING 
FROM MANUSCRIPTS 

Work done at home Elite type 

E. HALLOWELL 

51 Mystic Street, West Medford 56, Mass. 

MANUSCRIPTS 
COPIED AND EDITED 

by experienced business woman. Refer- 
ences if desired. Address 

SENA R. LYON 

NEW LONDON WISCONSIN 



A yearly subscription to The Survey 
includes the twelve Graphic numbers and twelve Midmonthlies which follow up 
the whole broad field of social, civic, health, industrial welfare — 24 large issues 
for $ S . 

Or Survey Graphic by itself, 12 fully illustrated, handsomely printed monthly 
numbers full of important special articles, may be taken by themselves at $3. 

iburvey Associates, Publishers 

112 East 19tb Street, New York 
I enclose check (or money order) for which please enter me 
for a year's subscription to — 

□ The Survey, $5.00, or □ Survey Graphic, $3.00. 



Name 



Address 



(In answering these advertisements please mention The Survey. It helps us, it identifies you.) 

179 



Social Studies 




Conducted by 

Joseph K. Hart 



What Do You Do with Problems? 



ANYONE, any mind is at home in the presence of 
the usual. Home is such a homey place. Home 
habits are comfortable ; home customs, restful ; 
home traditions, intelligible. One's own folkways, 
one's home town or community, one's own country: how 
can these be improved upon ? 

It's the unusual that confounds us. The unusual comes 
to us as a problem. It is something we are not prepared 
for; that is, it's unusual. Of course, it appears in an in- 
finite variety of types and characters. It may be a physical 
matter: a new mole hill on our lawn- — an earthquake that 
destroys the city and buries ten thousand people. It may 
be a moral matter: Jennie Jones has bobbed her hair — the 
king of Berengaria has crossed the frontiers of Mexlapan 
with a million soldiers, burning and slaying as he goes. It 
may be in the region of economics, politics, education, re- 
ligion, art. Wherever the unusual appears, wherever we 
face a problem, we find ourselves more or less disturbed, 
confounded, flustered, flabbergasted. Animals can easily 
negotiate the usual: one test of the quality of the genus 
homo is his capacity to negotiate the unusual, to solve the 
problems that confront him. 

Animals occasionally come upon the unusual, too. How 
does an animal deal with a problem? If there is any way 
around, he finds that way and lets the problem more or less 
severely alone. If there is no way around, he is able, some- 
times, by a process called "trial and error," to find his way 
through. If he can do neither of these things, and if the 
problem is fundamental, there may be nothing for it but to 
give up and die. 

GENUS HOMO can do these three things, too. Rather 
neatly. He is a great hand at ignoring problems, get- 
ting round them, and going on about his business. He can, 
when he must, learn how to handle the unusual with a 
"trial and error" muddling that gets him through, usually, 
and at the same time leaves him so happy that he got 
through that he proceeds to sanctify his muddling and call 
it "the right way." 

Genus homo, sometimes called homo sapiens, is usually 
as uneasy in the presence of a problem as are his more lowly 
confreres. Man is said to be possessed of a faculty, that of 
intelligence, which was his special endowment for the pur- 
pose of solving the problems of life and the world. How- 
ever, he rather deprecates thinking about his problems. 
No one can tell in advance to what lengths thinking may 
lead him. There are two other outlets for those energies 
which accumulate in us as we stand, irritated and impa= 
tient, in the presence of a problem. Let me illustrate: 

An ancient poet said of his people in exile: "By the 
Rivers of Babylon, there we sat down, yea, we wept when 
we remembered Zion." That is always a recourse for an 
individual or a nation in the presence of a problem. Weep- 
ing works off the excess energy and eventually reconciles us 
to our fate. Meanwhile, if we weep loudly enough. Fate 
may take pity on us and reverse the hard decrees. Weep- 
ing is a favorite device of children in the presence of prob- 
lems. Children have no monopoly of it, however. States- 
men are all but driven to tears, at times. 



But it is not always easy to bring up the tears. Hence, 
nature must have provided some other way out of our per- 
plexities. She has done so. Some years ago, on an auto- 
mobile trip, I saw an example of this other way. The car 
was a big affair with endless contrivances of an adjustable 
character on the dash-board. The driver was a young fel- 
low of some eighteen years. He handled the car fairly 
well, but being anxious to make speed, he cut some rather 
close corners. Twice he came near to a serious accident. 
Each such experience seemed to key him up a good deal. 
But he resolutely refused to use any of his keyed-up energies 
in thinking about what he had just done. Instead, he 
worked off his excess energies by turning back and forth, on 
and off, up and down, all the contrivances on the dash- 
board. The number of sets and re-sets of these that he 
made was roughly proportional to the acuteness of the 
crisis he had just come through ; that is, to the amount of 
excess energy that had been released by his experience. 

Doing something with one's hands is one of the ways 
nature has provided for getting rid of the excitement pro- 
duced by a crisis. Doing something is a favorite way out : 
"For God's sake, let's do something." Weeping is another 
way of working off one's urge. Both of these are perfetly 
natural methods. Thinking is merely an alternative method, 
highly useful under some circumstances. In the presence of 
a crisis almost all people will either weep or they will get 
busy and do something. Few people feel that it is either 
advantageous or becoming to "spend good time theorizing 
about things." 

WE have before us, now as a nation, a good chance to 
see how these things work out. We have had a coal 
crisis. There was much emotion released in it. There 
was much counseling to "do something" — anything. With 
what great fearfulness did we finally succeed in getting a 
"fact-finding commission" authorized ! Why are we so 
afraid of facts? And shall we be able to get facts? And 
what shall we do with them when we get them? 

And what shall the commission do? Shall it weep over 
the wrongs of the miners